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Basics of PHOTOGRAPHY

The 6 Things To Know

Know your
camera

Hold the camera


still

The 2-second rule

Take a few more

Tell a story

Capture the

C .E. L. L.
C omposition
E xposure
L ens
L ight

What Makes a Good Photograph?

Good Composition
Sharp Focus
Good Lighting
Correct Exposure
The Right Lens
Thought Behind the Picture

Composit
ion

Principle 1

Un-clutter the picture.


Zoom in.

A good photograph is a subject, a context, and nothing else. Remove any


clutter that detracts from your message. Get closer -- zoom in -- and crop as
tightly as possible

Compositi
on

unless
its a
reflection

Principle 2

Put subject off-centre / Rule of


thirds

The center of the frame is the weakest place -- it's static, dull, and gives
no value to the context. The more you move the subject away from the center,
the more relevance you give to the context

Composition
Principle 3
Use of frames, lines &
diagonals

Create impact by using frames and real or inferred lines that


lead the viewer's eye into and around the picture

Compositi
on
Principle 4

Dramatic Perspective

Create impact by photographing your subjects from


unexpected angles. Imagine yourself as an electron spinning
around the subject, which is the nucleus of an atom

Exposure
Aperture
Shutter speed
ISO

Aperture: General Rules and tips


A larger lens opening (f1.8-3.5) offers the
following advantages:
Allows you to shoot more often with just
vnatural lighting helps to reduce harsh
shadows and red-eye caused by flash.
Allows more light to pass through, the camera
will be able to choose a slightly higher
shutter speed helps to reduce motion blur.
Helps to reduce "depth-of-field (for effect).

Apertu
Principle
re
Affect depth of field (range of distance in focus)

When shooting a landscape, as much of the photograph in sharp focus as


possible (f11 to f22). In a portrait, shallower dof (f2.8-8) will isolate your
subject from distracting backgrounds

Shutter speed: General Rules and tips


To capture blur-free "action" photographs
(e.g. Sports), you need to make sure the camera
is using a high shutter speed, e.g.1/125th of a
second or more.
Less light gets through to the imager as shutter
speed is increased, thus difficult to use higher
shutter speeds in lower light situations.
Alternatives: Allow more light to pass through the
lens (larger aperture setting), the other is to
increase the ISO

Principle

Shutter
Speed

Freezing motion (achieve the desired


effect)

Absolutely sharp images are not always the best. They can look static and
dull. At slow shutter speeds the camera blurs the image of moving objects, and can
create a more convincing image of movement.

RULES OF FRAMING
/COMPOSITION
Rule of Thirds
Different Angles Low Angle & Top
Angle
Close Up, Mid Shot, Wide/Landscape
Head Room

Composition/Framing -

Rule of Thirds

Composition/Framing -

Rule of Thirds

Follow the Gaze

Composition/Framing -

Rule of Thirds

Follow the Direction of the Movement

Which Direction is the Elephant Moving In?

Is this Picture Following the Rule of Thirds?

Composition/Framing

Low Angle
Top Angle

Different Angles

Composition/Framing

Low Angle

Different Angles

Composition/Framing

Top Angle

Different Angles

Composition/Framing

Different Frames

Close Up
Mid Shot/Frame
Wide Shot or Landscape

Composition/Framing

Close Up

Different Frames

Composition/Framing

Close Up

Different Frames

Composition/Framing

Extreme
Close
Up

Different Frames

Composition/Framing

Extreme
Close
Up

Different Frames

Composition/Framing

Different Frames

Mid Shot or Medium Shot

Composition/Framing

Different Frames

Mid Shot or Medium Shot

Composition/Framing

Wide Shot

Different Frames

Composition/Framing

Different Frames

Landscape Shot

Composition/Framing

Different Frames

Landscape Shot

Composition

Different Frames & Different Angles


The different angles or the frames you
choose, can make or break you
picture.
The power in a picture comes from the
different angles or frames you choose

Composition/Framing

Head Room

Space above the head should not too much

What Makes a Good Photograph?

Good Composition
Sharp Focus
Good Lighting
Correct Exposure
The Right Lens
Thought Behind the Picture

Sharp Focus Unless

A Good Picture is Mostly in


Intended to be Blurry

Sharp Focus Unless

Good Picture is Mostly in


Intended to be blurry

Sharp Focus Unless

Good Picture is Mostly in


Intended to be blurry

Good Picture

Good Lighting

Best Natural Lighting


Mornings Sunrise to 10 am
Evenings 3pm to Sunset
Natural Light Timings Change According to
Seasons
Avoid Taking Pictures When the Sun is Over
Head

Good Picture

Good Lighting
Make Sure

That the Light Source is Behind You


That the Light should be Falling On the
Subject

Good Picture

Good Lighting

If the Light Source is Behind the


Subject
And in Front of you/camera
You will get a ---

Silhouette

Good Picture

Silhouette

Good Lighting

Good Picture

Silhouette

Good Lighting

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Exposure Controlled by 3 Components


Aperture
Shutter Speed
ISO

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Aperture
Controls the Amount of Light Entering
the Camera Through the Aperture or
the Iris of the Camera Lens and Falling
on the Camera Sensor.

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Aperture
The aperture of the camera behaves
exactly in the same way the iris of our
eyes do.
When there is too much light the iris
becomes SMALL or closes up
When there is less light the iris enlarges or
OPENS UP

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Aperture
Very Sunny - Small iris Higher the
Number
Low Light iris opens up Lower the
Number

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Shutter Speed
The Speed at which the Shutter of the
Camera Opens and Closes.
It controls the amount of time the light
gets to fall on/read by the sensor.

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Shutter Speed
A High Shutter Speed is Used for
Fast Moving Subjects/Objects

Good Picture

High
Shutter
Speed
A High
Shutter
Speed is
Used for
Fast Moving
Subjects/Ob
jects

Correct Exposure

Good Picture

High
Shutter
Speed
A High
Shutter
Speed is
Used for
Fast Moving
Subjects/Ob
jects

Correct Exposure

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

Shutter Speed
A Slow Shutter Speed is Used
When the Light is LOW
Or
When a Blurry Effect is Desired

Good Picture

Shutter Speed
A Slow Shutter
Speed is Used
When the
Light is LOW
Or
When a Blurry
Effect is
Desired

Correct Exposure

Good Picture

Shutter Speed
A Slow Shutter
Speed is Used
When the
Light is LOW
Or
When a Blurry
Effect is
Desired

Correct Exposure

Good Picture

Correct Exposure

ISO
ISO helps the camera Sensor to be more
or less sensitive to light.
Usually a Higher ISO is used when the
Light is Low.
Note Higher the ISO, grainier the
picture.

Composition/Framing

Depth of Field

When the background is out of focus


For 2 reasons
The focus is on the object in the front
And the Aperture is fully open, ie the
light is low or the light entering the
camera is less because of the
settings you have chosen.

Composition/Framing

Depth of Field

Composition/Framing

Depth of Field

What Makes a Good Photograph?

Good Composition
Sharp Focus
Good Lighting
Correct Exposure
The Right Lens
Thought Behind the Picture

The Right Lens


Different Kinds of Lens
Normal Lens
Wide Angle Lens
Telephoto/Tele Lens
Zoom Lens
Fish Eye Lens
Macro

The Right Lens -

Macro

Useful for getting the details of insects,


flowers, etc.

What Makes a Good Photograph?

Good Composition
Sharp Focus
Good Lighting
Correct Exposure
The Right Lens
Thought Behind the Picture

The Thought Behind the


Picture