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Plane

Mirrors

The Ray Model of Light


Light sources radiate light in all directions.
The direction in which light travels is
represented by lines with arrows (rays) on
diagrams.

The basic property of light is that when it


travels within the same medium, it moves
in straight lines.
When light hits an object, depending on
the properties of the object, light may be:

Reflected
(bounced off the surface)
Ex. Mirror , metal plate

Absorbed
stuck in the object and turn into other
forms of energy, most often into heat).

If these either of these two properties are


observed.
It is an Opaque Object
No light passes through the object.

Transmitted
light rays go through the object in such a
way that the pattern of the light rays does
not change, or bend
Transparent

Transmitted pattern of the light rays


changes (light get scattered)

The way we see


Out of all the rays
coming out of the
object, a beam of
narrow diverging light
rays gets into the eye.
Brain extends these
rays backward and
estimates that there is
an object at their
intersection.

The way we see


The eye receives a set of
diverging light rays out of
each point of the object.
The brain "draws" the
object point-by-point,
estimating each point at
the intersection of
diverging light rays.
For simplicity, on this diagram only extreme points
are analyzed

The way we see in mirrors


When the eye detects the light rays reflected by the
mirror, the brain still assumes that what we see is at
the intersection of the extensions of the light rays
entering the eye.
Observer has a sensation that
the object is behind the mirror,
but there is nothing behind the
mirror.
What we see is the Image: a
pattern created by the light rays
giving us sensation of the object
reproduction.

Terminology of Reflection
The ray of light
approaching the
mirror is the
incident ray

The angle between


the incident ray and
the normal is the
angle of incidence

A line drawn perpendicular to


the surface of the mirror at the
point of incidence where the ray
strikes the mirror, is known a
normal line

The ray of light


which leaves the
mirror is the
reflected ray

The angle between the


reflected ray and the
normal is the angle of
reflection.

Incident ray, reflected ray, and normal are in the same plane

The Law of Reflection


When a ray of light
reflects off a surface,
the angle of
incidence is equal
to the angle of
reflection.

Smooth surface vs Rough surface

Same pattern of
Pattern of reflected rays is
reflected and incident different from the incident
rays
rays pattern

Clear image

Fuzzy picture or none

Which reflection is diffuse? specular?

Specular

Diffuse

Plane Mirror
A mirror is an object with
smooth surface producing
specular reflection of light
A plane mirror is a mirror
with a flat reflective surface

Image of a Point

Image of a point
Due to the similarity of the
triangles on the diagram, all
the reflected rays extend
backward to one point.
No matter where the observer
is, the image is always:
Behind the mirror
On the perpendicular line
drawn from the object, A.
At the same distance
from the mirror as object.

A
do

di

Image Formation in Plane Mirrors


by a Point Source of Light
Because all the reflected
light rays intersect at one
point anyway, there is no
need to construct many of
them, but only one: the
perpendicular to the surface
of the mirror.

1
do

di

To construct the image of a point,


-sketch a line perpendicular to the mirror through A
- measure do (from A to the mirror surface)
- construct image A' on the other side such as do= di

Image Formation in Plane Mirrors

To construct the image of an object, there is no need to


construct an image of each single point of it.
Construct an image of the extreme points (e.g. top and
the bottom), then connect these edge points

Properties of Images Formed by


Plane Mirrors
S ize
A ttitude
L ocation
Type

The image has the same size as the


object (no magnification)
The image is up-right but Laterally
Inverted (Left / Right)
Image is at the same distance from
mirror as the object
(see the next slide first)

Type of the images formed by


plane mirrors
Our eye catches diverging rays reflected from mirror.
Observer has a sensation that image is at the
intersection of the light rays extended behind the
mirror. There is nothing behind the mirror.
Light only appears to us to
come from this point.This
image is imaginary, or virtual
image because there is no
real light rays going to or
coming from behind the
mirror.

Properties of Images Formed by


Plane Mirrors
S ize
A ttitude

The image has the same size as the


object (no magnification)
The image is up-right but Laterally
Inverted (Left / Right)

L ocation

Image is at the same distance from


mirror as the object

Type

Plane mirrors form virtual images