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The capital of each raja was a fort around which a township grew and developed. this pattern
can be seen in many South Asian cities such as Delhi, Agra, Rajasthan, Lahore, Pune,
Kolkata and Mumbai.
Two forts in India are World Heritage sites the Agra Fort and the Red Fort.
The fort was written about by the scribes of Alexander the Great, thus making it the oldest
fort in India.
These magnificent forts can not be described in words as they will look too small in front of
forts that makes India beautiful.
Delhi, the capital of India also consist of some great forts.
Some of the famous forts of Delhi are the Red fort,.
These grand forts are the glory of Indian majestic past.
There are many other forts of importance in India. Some of the most notable are the Red
fort, Agra and many more.

What is a Fort?

A protected
building, or
position that
stands strong in
defense against
an enemy (e.g.
Red Fort)
A permanent
army post (e.g.
Fort Collins)

Why were Forts built?

From very early history to modern times, walls

have been a necessity for many cities
Uruk, in ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia) was one of
the world's oldest known walled cities
The Ancient Egyptians also built fortresses on the
frontiers of the Nile Valley to protect against
invaders from its neighboring territories
Many of the forts of the ancient world were built
with mud brick

History of Forts in India

Forts are important architectural relics of the long history of


The capital of each Raja or King had a fort, around which a

township grew and developed

This pattern can be seen in many Indian cities such as Delhi,

Agra, Pune, Kolkata and Mumbai

Two forts in India are UNESCO world heritage sites

Agra Fort

Red Fort

10 Famous Forts of India

Qila Mubarak
Fort William
Amber Fort
Jaisalmer Fort

Chittorgarh Fort
Agra Fort
Golconda Fort
Lal Qila/Red Fort
Gwalior Fort

For every Fort lets

answer the following

Where is it?
When was it built and by whom?
Features of the fort

Qila Mubarak

Qila Mubarak
The oldest surviving fort in India is the Qila Mubarak
at Bathinda (Punjab)
Built in 90-110 AD, by Emperor Kanishka and Raja
Razia Sultan (the first woman to take charge of the
Delhi throne ) was imprisoned here in 1204
Visited by Guru Nanak Dev (1515), Guru Teg Bahadur
(1665), Guru Gobind Singh (1705)

Fort William

Fort William
It is situated in Kolkata, on the Eastern banks of the
River Hooghly
Built in 1781, during the early years of the Bengal
Presidency of British India
It was named after King William III of England
Fort is built of brick and mortar in the shape of an
irregular octagon
In front of the Fort is the Maidan, the largest urban
park in Kolkata

Amber Fort

Amber Fort
Located in Amber (near Jaipur)
Built in 1592, by Raja Man Singh

Name derived from Amba Mata (Mother Earth)

Perfect blend of Hindu and Muslim Architecture
Fort is built with white marble and red sandstone
Inside looks like a palace with a huge courtyard, Shila
Mata (Kali) temple, residence of the Maharaja, silver
doors, mosaics, marble columns, hand paintings


Mehrangarh Fort
One of the largest forts in Jodhpur
Built in 1459, by Rao Jodha (Rathore Ruler)
The hill was called Bhaurcheerja, the mountain of birds
Inside the Fort, there are majestic rooms called Moti
Mahal, Sheesh Mahal, Phool Mahal and Takhat Vilas

Jaisalmer Fort
(Sonar Kella)

Jaisalmer Fort
One of the largest forts in world, located in Jaisalmer
Built in 1156, by Rawal Jaisal (Rajput Ruler)
Stands on the golden stretches of Thar desert
Worlds only living Fort with quarter of Jaisalmers
population living inside
Sri Satyajit Ray created a famous detective film Sonar
Kella based on this Fort

Chittorgarh Fort

Chittorgarh Fort
Also called Water Fort, located in Chittaur
Built in 7th century AD, by Mauryans
Some believe Bhim (one of Pandava brothers) built this
Inside the Fort, Vijay Stambh (Tower of Victory), Kirti
Stambh (Tower of Fame), Gaumukh Reservoir, Rana
Kumbha and Padmini Palace, Meera Temple
Witnessed many Jauhars

Agra Fort

Agra Fort
Located in Agra near world famous Taj Mahal
Completed in 1573, under Akbar the Great
Inside the Fort, Diwan-i-Aam, Diwani-i-Khas, Jahangiri
Mahal, Khas Mahal, Anguri Bagh, Golden Pavilions,
Musamman Burj
When Aurangzeb imprisoned his father Shah Jahan, he
viewed the construction of Taj Mahal from Musamman
Burj (a tower with a marble balcony, which provides
best view of Taj Mahal)

Golconda Fort

Golconda Fort
Located in Golconda, near Hyderabad
Built in 13th century by the Kakatiya Kings
Situated on a 400 feet high granite hill
Has amazing acoustics, where sound of a clap from
near the front gate can be heard on top of the citadel
Many famous diamonds were excavated from mines at
Golconda (Hope Diamond at Smithsonian in
Washington DC, Darya-e-Noor)

Red Fort (Lal Qila)

Red Fort
Located in New Delhi
Built in 1648 by Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan moved the Mughal capital from Agra to
Delhi and created his palace in Red Fort
Served as capital of Mughals until 1857
Indian Independence celebrated with Flag hoisting at
Red Fort every year. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru first
hoisted the Indian Flag on Independence Day (August
15th, 1947)

Gwalior Fort

Gwalior Fort
Located in Gwalior (birthplace of Mia Tansen)
Built in 8th century by Tomar Rulers
Emperor Babur described it as The pearl in the
necklace of the forts of Hind
Inside the Fort, Gurjari Mahal and Man Mandir palace
First epigraphic evidence of 0 (Shunya in Sanskrit)
was found on a tablet near a 9th century Hindu temple

Thank You!