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# The Islamic University of Gaza

Faculty of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics - ECIV 3322

Chapter 5

Water Pumps

Definition
Water pumps are devices designed to convert
mechanical energy to hydraulic energy.
They are used to move water from lower
points to higher points with a required
This chapter will deal with the basic hydraulic
concepts of water pumps

Pump Classification

## Turbo-hydraulic (kinetic) pumps

Propeller pumps (axial-flow pumps)
Jet pumps (mixed-flow pumps)

Positive-displacement pumps

Screw pumps
Reciprocating pumps

## This classification is based on the

way by which the water leaves the
rotating part of the pump.
In radial-flow pump the water leaves
while in the axial-flow pump the
water leaves the propeller in the
axial direction.
In the mixed-flow pump the water
leaves the impeller in an inclined
axial components

## Schematic diagram of basic

elements of centrifugal
pump

## Schematic diagram of axial-flow

pump arranged in vertical operation

Screw pumps.

## In the screw pump a revolving shaft fitted with

blades rotates in an inclined trough and pushes the
water up the trough.

Reciprocating pumps.

## In the reciprocating pump a piston sucks the

fluid into a cylinder then pushes it up causing
the water to rise.

Centrifugal Pumps
Demours centrifugal pump - 1730
Theory
conservation of angular momentum
conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy

Pump components
rotating element - impeller
encloses the rotating element and seals the pressurized
liquid inside casing or housing

Centrifugal Pumps
Higher heads can be achieved by increasing the
diameter or the rotational speed of the impeller
Flow Expansion
Discharge
Casing
Suction Eye

Impeller
Impeller
Vanes

Centrifugal Pump:
Centrifugal pumps (radial-flow pumps) are the most
used pumps for hydraulic purposes. For this reason,
their hydraulics will be studied in the following
sections.

1. Impeller:

## which is the rotating part of

the centrifugal pump.
It consists of a series of
backwards curved vanes
The impeller is driven by a
shaft which is connected to the
shaft of an electric motor.

## Main Parts of Centrifugal Pumps

2. Casing

Which is an air-tight
passage surrounding the
impeller
designed to direct the
liquid to the impeller
Volute casing. It is of
spiral type in which the
area of the flow

3. Suction Pipe.
4. Delivery Pipe.
5. The Shaft: which is the bar by which the
power is transmitted from the motor drive to
the impeller.
6. The driving motor: which is responsible for
rotating the shaft. It can be mounted directly
on the pump, above it, or adjacent to it.

## Note that a centrifugal pump can be

either submersible (wet) or dry.

## Hydraulic Analysis of Pumps and Piping

Systems
Pump can be placed in two possible position in
reference to the water levels in the reservoirs.
We begin our study by defining all the
different terms used to describe the pump
performance in the piping system.

H ms

Ht

hs

fs

hd

H stat

H md

hf d

Case 1

Datum pump
center line

hf s

H ms

hs

Ht

H stat

hd

H md

hf d

Case 2

Datum pump
center line

## hs (static suction head): it is the difference in

elevation between the suction liquid level and the
centerline of the pump impeller.
hd (static discharge head): it is the difference in
elevation between the discharge liquid level and
the centerline of the pump impeller.
Hstat (static head): it is the difference (or sum) in
elevation between the static discharge and the
static suction heads: H stat hd hs

## Hms (manometric suction head): it is the suction

gage reading (if a manometer is installed just at the
inlet of the pump, then Hms is the height to which
the water will rise in the manometer).
Hmd (manometric discharge head): it is the
discharge gage reading (if a manometer is installed
just at the outlet of the pump, then Hmd is the
height to which the water will rise in the
manometer).
Hm (manometric head): it is the increase of
pressure head generated by the pump:
H m H md H m s

delivered by the pump:
Ht Hm d
Ht Hm d

2
Vd

2g

( Hm s

2
Vs

2g

Vd2
Vs2

( Hm s
)
2g
2g

Case 1

Eq.(1)

Case 2

Eq.(2)

## Ht can be written in another form as follows:

H md hd h f d hmd
H m s hs h f s hm s

H m s hs h f s hm s
Substitute ino eq. (1)

H t hd h f d hmd
but

Vs2

2g
Vs2

2g

Case 1

Case 2

Vd2
Vs2 Vs2

hs h f s hm s

2 g
2 g 2 g

H stat hd hs

H t H stat h f d hm d h f

hm s

Vd2

2g

Eq.(3)
Case 1

## Equation (3) can be applied to Case 2 with the

H stat hd hs
exception that :
In the above equations; we define:
hfs : is the friction losses in the suction pipe.
hfd : is the friction losses in the discharge (delivery) pipe.
hms : is the minor losses in the suction pipe.
hmd: is the minor losses in the discharge (delivery) pipe.

## Bernoullis equation can also be applied to find Ht

Ps V s2

Pd Vd2
Ht

Z d

Z s

2g
2g

Eq.(4)

Pump Efficiency
Power output Po Q Ht
p

Power input
Pi
Pi

or

Q Ht
Pi
p

## Which is the power input delivered from the motor to the

impeller of the pump.

Motor efficiency :
m
Pi
m
Pm

Pi
Pm
m

o p m

Po
o
Pm

## Cavitation of Pumps and

NPSH
In general, cavitation occurs when the
liquid pressure at a given location is
reduced to the vapor pressure of the
liquid.
For a piping system that includes a pump,
cavitation occurs when the absolute
pressure at the inlet falls below the vapor
pressure of the water.
This phenomenon may occur at the inlet
to a pump and on the impeller blades,
particularly if the pump is mounted above

## Under this condition, vapor bubbles form (water starts

to boil) at the impeller inlet and when these bubbles are
carried into a zone of higher pressure, they collapse
abruptly and hit the vanes of the impeller (near the tips
of the impeller vanes). causing:

## Damage to the pump (pump impeller)

Violet vibrations (and noise).
Reduce pump capacity.
Reduce pump efficiency

## How we avoid Cavitation ??

To avoid cavitation, the pressure head at
the inlet should not fall below a certain
minimum which is influenced by the
further reduction in pressure within the
P V
pump impeller.

2g
P
vapor
To accomplish this, we use the difference

between
the total head at the inlet
, and the water vapor pressure head
s

2
s

## Where we take the datum through the

centerline of the pump impeller inlet (eye).
This difference is called the Net Positive
2
Vs

Pvapor
Ps
NPSH

2g

## There are two values of NPSH of interest. The first is the

required NPSH, denoted (NPSH)R , that must be
maintained or exceeded so that cavitation will not occur
and usually determined experimentally and provided by
the manufacturer.
The second value for NPSH of concern is the available
NPSH, denoted (NPSH)A , which represents the head
that actually occurs for the particular piping system. This
value can be determined experimentally, or calculated if

## How we avoid Cavitation ??

For proper pump operation (no cavitation) :
(NPSH)A > (NPSH)R

Determination of
(NPSH)A

## applying the energy

equation between point
(1) and (2), datum at
pump center line

datum
hs

Patm
PS VS2
hS

hL
air
2g
PS VS2 Patm

hS hL
2 g air
PVapor
PS VS2 PVapor Patm

hS hL
2 g Vapor air
Vapor
PVapor
Patm
( NPSH ) A
hS hL
air
Vapor

( NPSH ) A hs h f s hm s

Pvapor
Patm

## Note that (+) is used if hs is above the pump centerline (datum).

at T 20

Patm 10.14 kN / m 2
PVapor 2.335 kN / m

## Thomas cavitation constant

The cavitation constant: is the ratio of (NPSH)R to
the total dynamic head (Ht) is known as the Thomas
cavitation constant ( )
( NPSH )R

Ht

## Note: If the cavitation constant is given, we can find the

maximum allowable elevation of the pump inlet (eye)
above the surface of the supply (suction) reservoir.

Selection of A Pump

## It has been seen that the efficiency of a pump depends on

the discharge, head, and power requirement of the
pump. The approximate ranges of application of each
type of pump are indicated in the following Figure.

Selection of A Pump
In selecting a particular pump for a given system:
The design conditions are specified and a pump is selected
for the range of applications.
A system characteristic curve (H-Q) is then prepared.
The H-Q curve is then matched to the pump characteristics
chart which is provided by the manufacturer.
The matching point (operating point) indicates the actual
working conditions.

System Characteristic
The total head, H , that the pump delivers
Curve
t

## incurred in the system. The friction loss and

other minor losses in the pipeline depend on the
velocity of the water in the pipe, and hence the
total head loss can be related to the discharge
rate
For a given pipeline system (including a pump
or a group of pumps), a unique system headcapacity (H-Q) curve can be plotted. This curve is
usually referred to as a system characteristic
curve or simply system curve. It is a graphic
representation of the system head and is
developed by plotting the total head, over a

H t H stat hL

## System with valve partially closed

12
0
10
0
80

em
t
s
sy

e
v
r
cu

60
40

20
0
0

0.
0.
0.
2Discharge
4 (m3/s) 6

0.
8

H p ( z 2 z1 ) fn(Q)

## System Characteristic Curve

H t H stat h L

Pump Characteristic
Curves
Pump manufacturers provide information on the performance
of their pumps in the form of curves, commonly called pump
characteristic curves (or simply pump curves).
In pump curves the following information may be given:
the discharge on the x-axis,
the head on the left y-axis,
the pump power input on the right y-axis,
the pump efficiency as a percentage,
the speed of the pump (rpm = revolutions/min).
the NPSH of the pump.

Pumps Group

## The pump characteristic curves are very important to help

select the required pump for the specified conditions.
If the system curve is plotted on the pump curves in we may
produce the following Figure:

## The point of intersection is called the operating point.

This matching point indicates the actual working conditions,
and therefore the proper pump that satisfy all required
performance characteristic is selected.

H t H stat h L

Selected Pump

Elevated Tank

Selected Pump

## System Curve & Pump

Curve cases
Pump Curve
System Curve
Pump Curve
System Curve

Pump Curve

System Curve

Example 1
A Pump has a cavitation constant = 0.12, this pump
was instructed on well using UPVC pipe of 10m
length and 200mm diameter, there are elbow (ke=1)
and valve (ke=4.5) in the system. the flow is 35m3
and The total Dynamic Head Ht = 25m (from pump
curve) f=0.0167

0.12
NPSH R H t 0.12 25 3

Patm PVapor
(NPSH)A hS h f S hmS

air Vapor
VS

Q
0.035

1.11 m/s
A 0.2 2
4

VS2 1.112
he

0.063
2g
2g

VS2
1.112
hV 4.5
4.5
0.283m
2g
2g

L V2
10 1.112
h fS f
0.0167

0.053m
D 2g
0.2 2 g
(NPSH)A hS h f S hmS

Patm PVapor

air Vapor

## 3 hS 0.053 0.283 0.063 9.69 0.2

hS 6.088m

Example 2
For the following pump, determine the required
pipes diameter to pump 60 L/s and also calculate
the needed power.
Minor losses 10 v2/2g
Pipe length 10 km
roughness = 0.15 mm
hs = 20 m
Q
L/s

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Ht

31

35

38

40.6

42.5

43.7

44.7

45

40

53

60

60

57

50

35

## To get 60 L/s from the pump hs + hL must be < 35 m

Assume the diameter =
300mm
Then:

A 0.070m 2 , V 0.85m / s

## Re 2.25 10 5 , K S / D 0.0005, f 0.019

0.019 10000 0.85
hf
23.32m
0.3 19.62
2

10 V 2 10 0.85
hm

0.37 m
2g
2g
2

hs h f hm 43.69m 35m

## Assume the diameter =

350mm
Then:
A 0.0962m 2 ,V 0.624m / s

## Re 1.93 10 5 , K S / D 0.00043, f 0.0185

h f 10.48m,
10 V 2 10 0.624
hm

0 .2 m
2g
2g
2

hs h f hm 30.68m 35m

60
35
QH t 1000 9.81 1000
Pi

38869.8W 38.87 kW
p
0.53

Example 3
A pump was designed to satisfy the following
system Q (m3/hr)
3
6
9
hf (m)

12

20

38

hd 13m

24 V 2
suction Part hL
2g

## 1- Draw the system curve and check the operatio

HSTAT h d h S 13 7 20m

## There are an operation point at:

Q = 9 m3/hr

H =58m

NPSHR =4.1
Then Check NPSHA

Q
9 / 3600
V
1.27m/s

2
A
0.05
4
2
24 1.27
hL
2.0m
2g
(NPSH) A h S h f S

Patm PVapor
h mS

air Vapor

## (NPSH) A 7 2 10.3 0.25

(NPSH) A 1.05 4.1

## pump is not suitable, the cavitation will occur

Multiple-Pump Operation
To install a pumping station that can be effectively
operated over a large range of fluctuations in both
to install several identical pumps at the station.

Pumps in Parallel

Pumps in Series

## (a) Parallel Operation

Pumping stations frequently contain several (two or
more) pumps in a parallel arrangement.
Manifold

Qtotal
Qtotal =Q1+Q2+Q3
Pump

Pump

Q1

Q2

Pump

Q3

## In this configuration any number of the pumps can be

operated simultaneously.
The objective being to deliver a range of discharges,
i.e.; the discharge is increased but the pressure head
remains the same as with a single pump.
This is a common feature of sewage pumping stations
where the inflow rate varies during the day.
By automatic switching according to the level in the
suction reservoir any number of the pumps can be
brought into operation.

## How to draw the pump curve for pumps in

parallel???
The manufacturer gives the pump curve for a single
pump operation only.
If two or pumps are in operation, the pumps curve
should be calculated and drawn using the single pump
curve.
For pumps in parallel, the curve of two pumps, for
example, is produced by adding the discharges of the
two pumps at the same head (assuming identical
pumps).

## Pumps in series &

Parallel
Pumps in Parallel: Q

j n

Q1 Q 2 Q 3 Q n Q
j1

H m H m1 H m2 H m3 H mn

## (b) Series Operation

The series configuration which is used whenever we
need to increase the pressure head and keep the
discharge approximately the same as that of a single
pump
This configuration is the basis of multistage pumps;
the discharge from the first pump (or stage) is
delivered to the inlet of the second pump, and so on.
The same discharge passes through each pump
receiving a pressure boost in doing so

Pump

Pump

Htotal =H1+H2+H3

Pump

## How to draw the pump curve for pumps in

series???
the manufacturer gives the pump curve for a single
pump operation only.
For pumps in series, the curve of two pumps, for
pumps at the same discharge.
Note that, of course, all pumps in a series system
must be operating simultaneously

3H1
H1
2H1
H1
H1

Three pumps
in series
Two pumps
in series
Single pump

H1
Q
Q1

## The speed of the pump is specified by the angular

speed of the impeller which is measured in
revolution per minutes (rpm).
Based on this speed, N , pumps can be divided into
two types:
Constant-speed pumps
Variable-speed pumps

Constant-speed pumps
For this type, the angular speed , N , is constant.
There is only one pump curve which represents the
performance of the pump

Variable-speed pumps
For this type, the angular
speed , N , is variable, i.e.;
pump can operate at
different speeds.
The pump performance is
presented by several pump
curves, one for each speed
Each curve is used to suit
certain operating
requirements of the system.

Similarity Laws:
Affinity laws
The actual performance characteristics curves of
pumps have to be determined by experimental testing.
Furthermore, pumps belonging to the same family,
i.e.; being of the same design but manufactured in
different sizes and, thus, constituting a series of
geometrically similar machines, may also run at
different speeds within practical limits.
Each size and speed combination will produce a
unique characteristics curve, so that for one family of
pumps the number of characteristics curves needed to
be determined is impossibly large.

## The problem is solved by the application of

dimensional analysis and by replacing the variables
by dimensionless groups so obtained. These
dimensionless groups provide the similarity
(affinity) laws governing the relationships between
the variables within one family of geometrically
similar pumps.
Thus, the similarity laws enable us to obtain a set of
characteristic curves for a pump from the known test
data of a geometrically similar pump.

## (a) Change in pump speed

(constant size)
If a pump delivers a discharge Q1 at a head H1
when running at speed N1, the corresponding
values when the same pump is running at speed N2
are given by the similarity (affinity) laws:
Q2 N 2

Q1
N1

H2 N 2

H1 N1

## where Q = discharge (m3/s, or l/s).

N = pump rotational speed (rpm).
Pi = power input (HP, or kw).

Pi 2 N 2

Pi1 N1

## Therefore, if the pump

curve for speed N1 is
given, we can construct
the pump curve for the
speed N2 using previous
relationships.

N1

N2

## Effect of speed change on pump

characteristic curves.

## (b) Change in pump size

(constant speed)
A change in pump size and therefore, impeller
diameter (D), results in a new set of characteristic
curves using the following similarity (affinity) laws:
Q2 D2

Q1 D1

H2 D2

H1 D1

Pi 2 D2

Pi1 D1

## Note : D indicated the size of the pump

Example 4

Solution

Specific Speed
Pump types may be more explicitly defined by the
parameter called specific speed (Ns) expressed by:
Ns

Where:

N
H

Q
3

## Q = discharge (m3/s, or l/s).

H = pump total head (m).
N = rotational speed (rpm).

## This expression is derived from dynamical similarity

considerations and may be interpreted as the speed in
rev/min at which a geometrically scaled model would have
to operate to deliver unit discharge (1 l/s) when generating
The given table shows the range of Ns values for the turbohydraulic pumps:
Pump type

## Ns range (Q - l/s, H-m)

centrifugal

up to 2600

mixed flow

2600 to 5000

axial flow

5000 to 10 000

Example 5
A centrifugal pump running at 1000 rpm gave the following
Discharge (m3/min)

1.
2.

4.5

9.0

## The pump is connected to a 300 mm suction and delivery pipe

the total length of which is 69 m and the discharge to
atmosphere is 15 m above sump level. The entrance loss is
equivalent to an additional 6m of pipe and f is assumed as
0.024.
Calculate the discharge in m3 per minute.
If it is required to adjust the flow by regulating the pump
speed, estimate the speed to reduce the flow to one-half

1) System curve:
The head required from pump =
static + friction + velocity head
H t H stat h f

hm d h f

hm s

Vd2

2g

Hstat = 15 m
Friction losses (including equivalent entrance losses) =
8 f LQ 2
h fs hms h fd hmd 2 g D 5
8 0.024 (69 6) 2

Q
2
5
g (0.3)

61.21Q 2

where Q in m3/s

V d2
1 Q

Velocity head in delivery pipe =
2g 2g A

10.2Q 2

where Q in m3/s

Thus:
H t 15 71.41Q 2
where Q in m3/s
or
3
2
H

15

19
.
83

10
Q
t

where Q in m3/min
From this equation and the figures given in the problem the
following table is compiled:
Discharge (m3/min)

4.5

9.0

## From the previous Figure, The operating point is:

QA = 14 m3/min
HA = 19 m
At reduced speed: For half flow (Q = 7 m3/min) there
will be a new operating point B at which:
QB = 7 m3/min
HB = 16 m
HomeWork
How to estimate the new speed ?????

A
B

Q2 N 2

Q1
N1

H Q

H B QB

H2 N 2

H1 N1

16 2
H 2 Q 0.327Q 2
7
This curve intersects the original curve for N1 = 1000 rpm
at C where Qc= 8.2 m3/ hr and Hc= 21.9 m, then

QB N 2

QC N1

7 N2

8.2 1000

N2 = 855rpm

C
B

Example 6
Abbreviations:
G.V = Gate Valve
C.V = Check Valve
A.V = Air release Valve
E.R = Eccentric Reducer
C.I = Concentric increase
I.N = Inlet Nozzle
O.N = Outlet Nozzle
S.P = Suction Pipe
D.P = Delivery Pipe
W.W = Wet Well
D.W = Dry Well

Data:
1.

## Flow rates and dimensions:

Qmax = 0.05 m3/s Qmin = 0.025 m3/s
LS.P = 5.0 m
LD.P = 513.5 m
DS.P = 250mm
DD.P = 200mm
Hstat = 5.3 m,
hS = 3.0 m
I . N O. N 150 mm

2.

## Minor Losses Coefficients (k):

G.V = 0.1 C.V = 2.5 A.V = 0.05,
E.R = 0.1 C.I = 0.05 Elbow = 0.2
Bends in D.P = 0.05,
Entrance of S.P = 0.3 (bell mouth)

3.

Coefficient of friction:
f = 0.02 (assumed constant).

4.

## Pump characteristic curves:

Required??
The given Figure shows a pump station.
Use the pump characteristic curves and the data given above to:
a) Choose a suitable pump which satisfies the requirements of
the piping system shown,
b) Find the power and efficiency of the pump,
c) Find the overall efficiency (motor and pump) if the motor
efficiency is given to be 90%, also find the required power
input to the motor.
d) Check the pump for cavitation at T = 25oC

Solution
A. Pump Selection:

curve:

## To draw the system curve we need to calculate the values of

Ht that correspond to several values of Q, using :

H t H stat h L or
H t H stat h f

hm s h f d hm d

Vd2

2g

## We start with Qmax = 0.05 m3/s as the first value of Q in the

system and find the corresponding Ht

Vs

Qmax
0.05 * 4

102
. m/s
2
As
(0.25)

Friction losses:

Minor losses:

Ls Vs2
5.0 (1.02) 2
h fs f
0.02 *
*
0.021m
Ds 2 g
0.25 2 * 9.81

Vs2
(102
. )2
(0.3 01
. 01
. ) 0.5 *
0.027 m
hms
2g
2 * 9.81

## Head losses in the delivery pipe:

For Qmax = 0.05 m3/s.

Vd

Friction losses:
h fd

Qmax
0.05 * 4

1.6 m / s
2
(0.20)

Ld Vd2
5135
.
(16
. )2
f
0.02 *
*
6.7 m
Dd 2 g
0.2 2 * 9.81

Minor losses:
Vd2
(16
. )2
(0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 2.5 01
. 2 * 0.05) 3.2 *
0.42 m
hmd
2g
2 * 9.81

Therefore
H t H stat h f s hm s h f d hm d

Vd2

2g

(16
. )2
Ht 5.3 0.027 0.021 0.42 6.7
5.3 7.3 12.6 mwc
2 * 9.81

## therefore, we found the first point on the system curve:

(Q, H) = (0.05, 12.6)
which is the operating point of the system at Qmax.

## If we repeat previous step for several Q values it will possible

to draw the (Q, H) or system curve.
However, it will be very cumbersome and long procedure.
So, another procedure will be adopted:
H t H stat h L
hL h f s hm s h f d hm d

Vs2
f Ls
Vd2
f Ld

( ks
)
( kd
)
2g
Ds
2g
Dd

Q2

f Ls
f Ld
Q2
(
k

(
k

)
hL

s
d
2
2
D
D
2 As g
s
d
2
2
2
h L Q ( K ) Q ( K ) Q ( K K )

2
hL Q K

## where K is constant and it is a unique property of the given

system.

Therefore
Q2
Q2
hL 2 (4 0.5) 2 (51.35 4.2)
2 As g
2
2
hL (4 0.5)21.15Q (51.35 4.2)51.64Q

2
h

2963
.
88
Q
L

Thus:

H t 5.3 2963.88Q 2

2
hLi Qi K

2
hL max Qmax K

Therefore

Or

Qi2
hLi
2
hL max Qmax

Qi

Qmax

h Li

* h L max

## From previous calculations we obtained hL max 7.3 mwc for Qmax

= 0.05 m3/s. Therefore, we can use the above equation along with the
above values to find h Li for several values of Qi . In order to
calculate Hti.

System curve

System curve
Operating
point

12.6

It is clear from the above figure that the required pump is the
35-cm impeller pump

## Pump Power Input and Efficiency

From the pump curve we can read Pi = 7.5 kw
7.5 *10 3
Pi 7.5 kw
10 HP
745

and hence
p

.

0.824 82%
Pi
Pi
7.5 * 1000
7.6

## Overall Efficiency and Motor Power Input

Overall efficiency
o p m 0.9 * 0.82 0.738 73.8 %
Po 618
.
o

0.738
Pm
Pm

and hence
Pm 8.27 kw 11.2 HP

(NPSH)A
(NPSH)R

## From pump curve figure we can read:

(NPSH)R = 3 m at Qmax = 0.05 m3/s.
For water at T=25oC, Patm= 101 kN/m2, and Pvapor = 3.17 kN/m2.
Using the equation
we can write
no cavitation.

( NPSH ) A

( NPSH ) A

Pvapor
Patm

hs h f s hm s

101 * 1000
317
. * 1000
3 0.021 0.027
1000 * 9.81
1000 * 9.81

( NPSH ) A 12.924 m 3 m

Home Work