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0.

1 Sets of Real Numbers


A set is a collection of objects.
An object in a set is called an
element of that set.
Different type of integers:
Set of positive integers 1, 2, 3, ...

Set of negative integers ..., 3, 2, 1

The real-number line is shown as

0.2 Some Properties of Real Numbers


Important properties of real
numbers
1. The Transitive
If a b and b Property
c, then a c. of
Equality
2. The
Closure
Properties
ofnumbers
For all real
numbers, there
are unique real
Addition
a b and ab. and Multiplication
3. The Commutative Properties of
a b b a and ab ba
Addition and Multiplication

4. The Commutative Properties of


Addition and Multiplication
a b c a b c and a bc ab c
5. The Identity Properties
0 a a and 1a a

6. The Inverse Properties


a a 0
a a 1 1
7. The Distributive Properties
a b c ab ac and b c a ba ca

Example 1 Applying Properties of Real Numbers

Solution:

a. x y 3z 2w y 3z 2w x

b. 3 4 5 4 5 3

Example 3 Applying Properties of Real Numbers


a.

ab
b
a for c 0.
c
c
ab
1
1

b
ab a b a
c
c
c

Show that

Solution:

b.

Show that
Solution:

ab a b
for c 0.
c
c c

ab
1
1
1
a b a b
c
c
c
c

1
1 a b
a b
c
c c c
ab a b

c
c c

0.3 Exponents and Radicals

base

exponent

Properties:

1. x n x x x x
n factors

2. x

1
1
n
for x 0
x
x x x x
n factors

1
3. n x n
x
4. x 0 1
6

Example 1 Exponents

1
a.

2
b. 3 -5

1 1 1 1
1

2 2 2 2
16
1
1
5
3
243

1
5
c.

3
243
-5
3
d. 20 1, 0 1, ( 5 )0 1
e. x 1 x

The symbol n x is called a radical.


n is the index, x is the radicand, and

is the radical sign.

Example 3 Rationalizing Denominators

Solution:
1
2

2
2
25
25
1 1

1
51
52
5 2 5 2
5

a.
b.

2
6

3x

2
6

3 6 x5

Example 5 Exponents
a.

2 5
5

2
23 x
1 5
3x
3 6x 6

x 1 y 1
1 1 yx
1
1
x y
x y
xy

Eliminate negative exponents in

Solution:

1
2

1
6

26 3 5 x

3x

and simplify.

b. Simplify
Solution:

x 3 / 2 x 1/ 2

by using the distributive law.

x 3 / 2 x 1/ 2 x 1/ 2 x 1
c.

Eliminate negative exponents in

Solution:

7 x 2 7 x

7 x 2 7 x .
2

7
1
7
1

x 2 7 x 2 x 2 49 x 2

d. Eliminate negative exponents in

1 2

Solution:

y 1

1 1

x y

xy


y x
e. Apply the distributive law to

1
2

2x

x
6

1
2

y x

xy

Solution:

x 2y 2

y x2
6

2x 5 .
1
2

y 2x

0.4 Operations with Algebraic Expressions

If symbols are combined by any or


all of the operations, the resulting
expression is called an algebraic
expression.
A polynomial in x is an algebraic
n
n 1
c
x

c
x
c1x c0
n the
n 1form:
expression of
where n = non-negative integer
cn = constants

a.

3x 3 5x 2
10 x

is an algebraic expression in the

variable x.
b.

5
10 3 y
7 y2

is an algebraic expression in the

variable y.

c.

x y 3 xy 2
y

variables x and y.

is an algebraic expression in the

A list of products may be obtained


from the distributive property:

Example 5 Special Products

a.

b.

By Rule 2,

By Rule 3,

x 2 x 5
x 2 2 5 x 2 5
x 2 3 x 10

3z 5 7 z 4
3 7 z 2 3 4 5 7 z 5 4
21z 2 47 z 20

Example 7 Dividing a Multinomial by a Monomial

x 3x
a.
x2 3
x
4z 3 8z 2 3z 6
3 3
2
b.
2z 4 z
2z
2 z
3

16

0.5 Factoring
If two or more expressions are
multiplied together, the expressions
are called the
factors of the product.

Example 1 Common Factors

a. Factor 3k 2 x 2 9k 3 x
completely.
2 2
3
2
3
k
x

9
k
x

3
k
x x 3k
Solution:
8a 5 x 2 y 3 6a 2b 3 yz 2a 4 b 4 xy 2 z 2

b. Factor
8a 5 x 2 y 3 6a 2b 3 yz 2a 4 b 4 xy 2 z 2
completely.
2a 2 y 4a 3 x 2 y 2 3b 3 z a 2b 4 xyz 2
Solution:

Example 3 Factoring

a. x 8 x 16 x 4
2

b. 9 x 2 9 x 2 3 x 1 3 x 2

c. 6 y 3 3 y 2 18 y 3 y 2 y 3 y 2
d. x 2 6 x 9 x 3

e. z1/ 4 z 5 / 4 z1/ 4 1 z

0.6 Fractions
Simplifying Fractions
Allows us to multiply/divide the
numerator and denominator by the
same nonzero quantity.
Multiplication and Division of
Fractions
a c ad
c
ac
a rule
The
and dividing
for multiplying
b d bc
bd
b d
is

Rationalizing the Denominator

For a denominator with square roots, it


may be rationalized by multiplying an
expression that makes the denominator a
difference of two squares.
Addition and Subtraction of Fractions
If we add two fractions having the same
denominator, we get a fraction whose
denominator
is
the
common
denominator.

Example 1 Simplifying Fractions

a. Simplify

x2 x 6
.
2
Solution:x 7 x 12

x2 x 6
x 3 x 2 x 2

2
x 7 x 12 x 3 x 4 x 4
2x 2 6 x 8
.
b. Simplify
2
8 4x 4x
2 x 2 6 x 8 2 x 1 x 4
x4

2
Solution:
8 4x 4x
41 x 2 x
2 x 2

Example 3 Dividing Fractions

x
x 3
x
x 5
x x 5
a.

x 2 x 5 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 3
x 5
x 5 1
x 5
x

3
b.

2x
x 3 2x 2x x 3
4x
2
4x
x 1
2
x

1
c.
2
2

2
2 x 8 x x 1 2 x 8 x x 1 x 4
x 1

Example 5 Adding and Subtracting Fractions

p2 5 3p 2
a.

p2
p2

5 3 p 2
p2

p2 3p 3

p2

x 2 5x 4
x 2 2x
b. 2
2
x 2x 3 x 5 x 6

x 1 x 4
x x 2

x 1 x 3 x 2 x 3
4

x 3

24

Example 7 Subtracting Fractions

x 2 2 x 3 x 2 x 3
x 2
x2

2
x 2 6x 9 2 x 2 9
2 x 3 x 3

2 x 2 10 x 12 x 2 5 x 6

2
2 x 3 x 3
x 2 15 x 6

2
2 x 3 x 3

0.7 Equations, in Particular Linear Equations

Equations
An equation is a statement that
two expressions are equal.
The two expressions that make up
an equation are called its sides.
They are separated by the equality
sign, =.

Example 1 Examples of Equations

a. x 2 3
b. x 2 3 x 2 0
y
c.
6
y 4
d. w 7 z

A variable (e.g. x, y) is a symbol that can be replaced by any one of a set


of different numbers.

Equivalent Equations

Two equations are said to be equivalent if they


have exactly the same solutions.
There are three operations that guarantee
equivalence:
1. Adding/subtracting the same polynomial
to/from both sides of an equation.
2. Multiplying/dividing both sides of an equation
by the same nonzero constant.
3. Replacing either side of an equation by an
equal expression.

Operations That May Not Produce Equivalent


Equations
4. Multiplying both sides of an equation by an
expression involving the variable.
5. Dividing both sides of an equation by an
expression involving the variable.
6. Raising both sides of an equation to equal powers.

Linear Equations
A linear equation in the variable x
a0
can be written in
ax the
b form
0
where a and b are constants and

A linear equation is also called a firstdegree equation or an equation of


degree one.

Example 3 Solving a Linear Equation

Solve
Solution:

5 x 6 3 x.

5x 6 3x
5x 6 3x 3x 3x
2x 6 0
2x 6 6 0 6
2x 6
2x 6

2
2
x 3

Example 5 Solving a Linear Equations

Solve
Solution:

7x 3 9x 8

6.
2
4
7x 3 9x 8
4

4 6
2
4

2 7 x 3 9 x 8 24
5 x 14 24
5 x 10
x2

Literal Equations
Equations where constants are not
specified, but are represented as a,
b, c, d, etc. are called literal
equations.
The letters are called literal
constants.

Example 7 Solving a Literal Equation

Solve
Solution:

a c x x 2 x a 2

for x.

a c x x 2 x a 2
ax cx x 2 x 2 2ax a 2
x c a a2
a2
x
c a

Fractional Equations
A fractional equation is an equation in
which an unknown is in a denominator

Example 9 Solving a Fractional Equation

Solve 5
6

.
x 4 x 3
Solution:
5
6
x 4 x 3
x 4 x 3

x 4
x 3
5 x 3 6 x 4
9x

Radical Equations

A radical equation is one in which an unknown occurs in a radicand.


Example 13 Solving a Radical Equation
Solve

y 3 y 3.

Solution:

y 3 y 3
y 3 y 6 y 9
6 y 12
y 2
y 4

0.8 Quadratic Equations

A quadratic equation in the


variable x is an equation that can be
written in the
a 0.
ax 2 form
bx c 0
where a, b, and c are constants and

A quadratic equation is also called a


second-degree equation or an
equation of degree two.

Example 1 Solving a Quadratic Equation by Factoring

2
x
a. Solve x 12 0.

x 3 x 4 0

Solution:

Factor the left side factor:


Whenever the product of two or more quantities
x 3 0 or x 4 0
is zero, at least one of the quantities must be
x 3
x 4
zero.

Example 3 Solving a Higher-Degree Equation by Factoring

a. Solve

4 x 4 x 3 0.
Solution:

4x 4x 3 0

4x 1 x 2 0
4 x 1 x 1 x 0
x 0

or

x 1 or

x 1

Quadratic Formula
ax 2 bx c 0

The roots of the quadratic equation


can be given as
b b 2 4ac
x
2a

Example 7 A Quadratic Equation with One Real Root

26
Solve

2y 9 y 2 0

by the quadratic formula.

Solution:
Here a = 9, b = 62, and c = 2. The roots are

6 2 0
y
2 9
6 2 0
2
6 2 0
2
y

or y

18
3
18
3

Quadratic-Form Equation
When a non-quadratic equation can
be transformed into a quadratic
equation
by
an
appropriate
substitution, the given equation is
said to have quadratic-form.

Example 9 Solving a Quadratic-Form Equation

1
9

8 0.
3
Solve x 6
x
Solution:

This equation can be written as3


x
3

Substituting w =1/x , we have

1
9
8 0
3
x

w 2 9w 8 0

w 8 w 1 0
w 8 or w 1
1
1

8
or
1
3
Thus, the roots are x 3
x
1
x
or x 1
2