Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 80

DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN SOUND

BY :

NUR IFFAH IZZATI BT YAZID TIARA HEREENA BT HAIRY ANUAR

Students

will probably have some

difficulty in

actually hearing the difference between one particular sound and another.

E.g.: two and too, hard and heart

If

students

have no

equivalent sound in

their

mother tongue, they may face some problems. E.g. : R sound in English (as in raw) does not exist in Cantonese, does students often tend to ‘hear’ the

In teaching and testing the ability to recognize the

different

sounds,

it

is

easier

to

start

by

pronouncing the words in isolation. However when we do this, we tend to emphasis

the difference between the two sounds when we pronounce them.

Therefore,

it

is

better to

pronounce the words

naturally in sentences. E.g.The policeman’s washing the car. The policeman’s watching the car. The final consonant sound in certain word and the

use of contraction can also cause problem.

It is usually preferable to test sound differences in a context. The following item provides an illustration of just one way in which this may be attempted. Stress and intonation are very important for inclusion in progress tests at the early levels. However a student may learn the correct stress

patterns

for certain

implement.

words

but

still unable

to

Item testing stress and intonation are often dull and artificial Hearing test should short and used primarily for a particular teaching purpose It is far better to concentrate on testing students’ understanding of short conversations and talks as natural way as possible Above all, it is important to realize that the ability to hear sound differences is not necessarily the same as the ability to understand the spoken messages.

TESTING LISTENING COMPREHENSION:

DICTATION

TESTING LISTENING COMPREHENSION: DICTATION NUR AZNIDA BT AZAHRI NADHIRA NAJWA BT MOHD ROZLI

NUR AZNIDA BT AZAHRI NADHIRA NAJWA BT MOHD ROZLI

TESTING LISTENING COMPREHENSION: DICTATION NUR AZNIDA BT AZAHRI NADHIRA NAJWA BT MOHD ROZLI

DICTATION

DICTATION  Dictation refers to a person reading some text aloud so that the listener(s) can

Dictation refers to a person reading some text aloud so that the listener(s) can write down what is being said.

Dictation is also a decoding-recoding activity.

DICTATION  Dictation refers to a person reading some text aloud so that the listener(s) can

DICTATION

DICTATION  Some teachers think of dictation chiefly as a test of spelling.  It is

Some teachers think of dictation chiefly as a test of spelling.

It is an integrative activity that involves all the skills. Listening: as the passage is dictated for students to transcribe.

Writing

: when students write down the dictated material.

Reading : as a follow-up students may read the passage first silently to check for mistakes, then loudly to practice pronunciation.

Speaking: when the passage is used as a starting point for a discussion activity.

 Dictation is include in this chapter because it has long been closely associated with listening
 Dictation is include in this chapter because it has long been closely
associated with listening comprehension.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE DICTATION

THE STRUCTURE OF THE DICTATION • Dictation passage is usually read out 3 times . First

Dictation passage is usually read out 3 times. First time

  • - Reading through the whole dictation passage at almost normal speed.

  • - Student are expected to listen and get the gist of the passage.

Second time

  • - A little slower, with pauses, breaking the passage into meaningful chunks.

  • - Dictate meaningful units of words (phrases and short clauses) by reading them aloud as clearly as possible.

Third time

- Students will be given opportunity to check the spelling of words, editing it for errors
- Students will be given opportunity to check the spelling of
words, editing it for errors and check their overall
understanding of the text.

DICTATION

DICTATION DO’S DON’TS  Teacher must choose a suitable text for dictation.  Clarity of voice,
DO’S DON’TS
DO’S
DON’TS

Teacher must choose a suitable text for dictation.

Clarity of voice, expression and pace or tempo.

The sentence in the passage should be an active voice.

Teacher should know the length of the pauses between bursts.

Reading out the text very slowly word by word.

It can be very harmful as it encourages students to concentrate on single words.

MARKING THE DICTATION TEST!

MARKING THE DICTATION TEST! • • Straightforward marking. For each error will be deducted half a

Straightforward

MARKING THE DICTATION TEST! • • Straightforward marking. For each error will be deducted half a

marking.

For each error will be deducted half a

MARKING THE DICTATION TEST! • • Straightforward marking. For each error will be deducted half a

mark or one mark.

MARKING THE DICTATION TEST! • • Straightforward marking. For each error will be deducted half a
MARKING THE DICTATION TEST! • • Straightforward marking. For each error will be deducted half a

Spelling and punctuation errors are treated less seriously. Focused more on grammar errors.

MARKING THE DICTATION TEST! • • Straightforward marking. For each error will be deducted half a

•

CONT ..

CONT ..  However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.  Eg:

However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.

CONT ..  However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.  Eg:
CONT ..  However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.  Eg:

Eg: Out a total of twenty. Give short text for both listening comprehension and for dictation.

CONT ..  However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.  Eg:
CONT ..  However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.  Eg:
CONT ..  However, it is recommend to deduct one mark for each mistake.  Eg:

HOW TO DICTATE?

HOW TO DICTATE? 1) Read the text aloud in a natural way. 2) Ask a few

1) Read the text aloud in a natural way.

2) Ask a few questions before you read the text for a second time.

3) Read the text aloud for dictation. Eg: Give the second reading in short meaningful units.

4) Read the text for final time. It is for students to check their dictation.
4) Read the text for final time. It is for students to
check their dictation.

Characteristic of The Spoken Language

By Nurzaidah Azharuddin Azam Syahin Akid Muhammad Hakim Firdaus Muhammad Halip

What is Spoken Language ?

Language, message that we orally send by language that we use frequently.

Consider what is involved in understanding the spoken language.

The characteristic :

1. Repeating information -.Contains redundancy

-.Meaning is usually reinforced or repeated in several ways.

Eg: This is the paper that I will handing out, keep it secret! Some of you are labelled as A and some of you are B. Do not show it to your friends. You have to work in pair and describe it to your partner.

The characteristic : 1. Repeating information -. Contains redundancy -. Meaning is usually reinforced or repeated
The characteristic : 1. Repeating information -. Contains redundancy -. Meaning is usually reinforced or repeated
The characteristic : 1. Repeating information -. Contains redundancy -. Meaning is usually reinforced or repeated

The characteristic

2. Pausing

- Often hesitate and pause when we speak and filling in the gaps with sound.

Eg: err, uhh , emm

- Sometimes we start a sentence, change your mind and start it all over again.

The Characteristic

False starts and hesitation features are an important part of the spoken language, actually helping us to follow what is being said.

The characteristic:

3. Differences between speaking and writing

  • - Structure of the spoken language differs from that of the written language.

  • - We organize language in sentence when we write.

  • - When we speak, we generally organize language in clauses.

  • - Often connect these clauses with words like, and, but and so.

  • - Seldom use complete sentences in spontaneous speech.

The characteristic:

4. What do we remember?

- General meaning of a sentences rather than the actual words.

Eg: “The train slowly rounded the bend and came to the halt a few minute later.”

- We only remember that train stopped after it had slowly gone round the bend.

- The meaning but not the actual words which we normally remember.

The characteristic:

5. The importance of context.

Identifying the features of different kinds of speech is the first step in understanding spoken language.

The second is hearing how speech changes to fit different contexts.

Example “Linda talked a lot”

Criticism Compliment Favourable comment

The characteristic:

6. Using recorded material - The use of gestures are very important. - Helping the listener to understand well.

- That is why it is important always more difficult to understand when we talking on the phone.

IMPLICATIONS FOR LISTENING TESTS.

IMPLICATIONS FOR LISTENING TESTS.  Farah Hani Siti Nor Syahirah

Farah Hani Siti Nor Syahirah

 Try to talk to the students 1. Talking- not reading  Avoid reading aloud long
 Try to talk to the students
1. Talking- not
reading
 Avoid reading aloud long written texts
 Jot down main points that you will mention in the written
questions
 Avoid rehearsing, and talk spontaneously
 Use pictures during listening comprehension
2. Reading texts aloud Make changes to the written text first by :  Rewrite the
2. Reading texts
aloud
Make changes to the written text first by :
 Rewrite the text in complex sentence and short
 Use coordinating conjunctions  instead of subordinate conjunctions
 Rewrite the talk and repeat the important points
 Pause slightly longer at the end of clauses or sentences
3. Using recordings The advantages of using cassette tape recordings :  Help to make listening
3. Using
recordings
The advantages of using cassette tape recordings :
 Help to make listening more reliable.
 Able to use the recorded voices of native-speaker of
English.
 Able to play recordings of conversations involving 2 or
more speakers.

Short statements and conversation

Nurul Jasimah binti Mohamed Iqbal Nurul Asyiqin Bt Junaidi Syaza Binti Juhari

Simple instructions

Basic and clear instruction for listening comprehension. Straightforward task and can be done anytime. example: situation in a school hall. teacher ask students to

1) please line up 2) hand’s up 3)hand’s down 4) do not push your friends 5) listen carefully 6) arrange your shoes according to size 7) wash your hand. Useful to test the elementary and intermediate levels. Difficult to test large group of students.

Statements, questions and short conversations.

This type of questions need students’ full attention and focus. Sometimes students will get confused.

They need to listen to the statements, questions and short conversations and choose the right answer.

STATEMENTS Example: students hear “ If dad knew I had an accident he would not scold me” Students read:

A) dad never scold him B) dad know that he had an accidents so dad scold him C) dad do not know about the accident and scold him D) dad always scold him There are many possible answer. The KEY is to understand the conversation. Also test an awareness of grammar and limited usage.

Questions

Usually used in a real speech situation but still it is considered artificial.

Useful for elementary and intermediate level Example:

Students hear:

Why were your absent yesterday?

Student’s read:

  • A. I’m fine, thank you

    • B. Because I was sick

    • C. Yes, I was

      • D. It’s sunny outside

Short conversations

Known as conversational changes.

Mostly useful for beginners and lower level students.

Example “ students hear”

Me

: Can I ask you something?

Uncle : Yes sure, what is it?

Me

: When is the clinic opening?

Uncle : Oh, it will open in the morning at nine o’clock but the doctor at ten o'clock.

Me

: Okay, thank you uncle.

will come

“Students will read” At what time he can consult with the doctor? A) 9.00 a.m.

B)

10 p.m.

C) 10 a.m.

D) 9.00 p.m.

Completing pictures.

Good for intermediate students.

Using classroom, pencil and paper tests. More preferable because they involved in drawing not writing.

Still give instruction but students carry the instructions quietly while sitting at their place.

For example: you ask them to complete the shape according the picture.

Examples of completing pictures Students need to follow the steps to complete the drawings.

Examples of completing pictures

Students need to follow the steps to complete the drawings.

Following directions

This kind of test needs students’ high involvement in reading and understanding the directions.

Little or no actual drawing will be used and students need to have pencils or colours and follow the instruction.

Examples of following the directions.

Examples of following the directions.

Longer Conversation and talks

Adham zahyn Nur izzatul nabila Nur syafika

Types of reports

Weather and traffic reports Reports on today’s event Sports reports and results News reports Advice programmes

TALKS AND LECTURES

• It should not become a test of memory • Make sure the student understand the important point in the talk • Make sure to repeat or restated the important point if you are read aloud a talk

TALKS AND LECTURES • It should not become a test of memory • Make sure the

• Do not hesitate to re-write the talk if there is not repetition of the important point

TALKS AND LECTURES

• Inform the student to concentrate and not overspending time to the audio even though they facing difficulty in completing a line of note

TALKS AND LECTURES • Inform the student to concentrate and not overspending time to the audio

• They will have second chance to listen the audio and complete any missing info in the note.

Longer Conversation

Buy or make recordings of fluent speakers having a conversation.

Easier to write true/false statements about a conversation.

Conversation sound more natural & interesting than talk.

Use variety of materials in a listening comprehension test

Testing Oral Production PRONUNCIATION By Siti Aishah Nurul Aida Afrina

Testing Oral Production

PRONUNCIATION

By Siti Aishah Nurul Aida Afrina

What is Pronunciation?

Pronunciation is the way a word or language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utter a word. The act or result of producing the sounds of speech, including articulation, stress and sound.

Pronouncing words in isolation

When we learn foreign language, we often hear sounds which are completely new and unfamiliar to us.

Although we may not distinguish between certain sounds in our own language, this differences in English may be crucial.

For example:

  • i) There is no difference in Spanish between the vowel sound of ship and sheep because in Spanish there is no word starting with ‘s’.

In the early stages of leaning English, it is useful to base our pronunciation tests on minimal pairs: that is, pairs of words which differ only in one sound

 

Minimal Pairs

 

Minimal Pairs

 

nip

 

boss

nib

bus

 

bud

 

ferry

bird

fairy

 

pill

 

knit

pail

lit

 

ball

 

fry

bowl

fly

 

sheet

 

support

seat

sport

In early stages of learning English, students can be shown pictures and asked to identify the object in each picture. Each picture is based on a possible source of confusion.

In early stages of learning English, students can be shown pictures and asked to identify the
In early stages of learning English, students can be shown pictures and asked to identify the
In early stages of learning English, students can be shown pictures and asked to identify the

Picture 1: Ship and Sheep Picture 2: Bird and Bud and Pan

Picture 3: Pen

Pronouncing words in sentences

You can asked students to read aloud sentences containing the problem sounds which you want to test.

They help to discourage students unnaturally exaggerating a certain sound when they pronounce it in an oral test.

They were several people standing in the hole. (hole/hall)

Are you going to sail your boat today? ( sail/sell)

Do you like this sport?

Reading aloud

Reading aloud can offer a useful way of testing pronunciation. Give a student a few minutes to look at the reading text first. When you choose suitable texts to read aloud, it is useful to imagine actual situations. Ask yourself what someone may actually want to read aloud in real life. Sometimes, for example, people read aloud letter or instruction.

The following examples consists of simple instruction on how to use a public telephone.

The student would be given a copy instruction only, but the examiners’ copy might appear as follows:

TEXT :

listen

First pickup the handset and

for a dialing tone. Then put in a fifty cent coin. Now dial the number you require and listen for a ringing tone. If you hear an engaged tone, replace the handset and try again later. Your coin will be returned automatically.

• The following examples consists of simple instruction on how to use a public telephone. •
• The following examples consists of simple instruction on how to use a public telephone. •

Retelling stories

A test which is more useful in certain ways than reading

aloud is

re-telling of a story or incident:

 Retelling stories • A test which is more useful in certain ways than reading aloud

- Give the student a story to read silently first.

- Then ask the student to tell the story he or she just read.

If the story has been carefully chosen, the student will use those elements of pronunciation which you wish to test.

Remember that the main purpose of such test is pronunciation and do not deduct marks for any incorrect re ortin

or inaccurate oral summaries

ILYA SYIQREEN BINTI ANUAR NUR AFIQAH BINTI AFRIZIL

USING PICTURES

MAPS

PICTURES

FOR

DESCRIPTI

ON

PICTURES

FOR

COMPARIS

ON

PICTURES

WITH

SPEECH

BUBBLES

SEQUENCE

OF

PICTURES

USING PICTURES

Pictures are useful for testing the speaking skills.

How?

Choose picture(s) very carefully as a picture often influence the language forms which the students use.

Make sure the students can see the pictures a few minutes before they have to describe them.

Remember that oral work based on pictures is often best assessed as part of a lesson rather than as part of a test.

PICTURES FOR DESCRIPTIONS

•When preparing a test, give students plenty of practice describing the pictures of objects, people and
•When preparing
a test, give
students plenty
of
practice
describing
the
pictures
of
objects, people and scenes.
•Required to
use
their
imagination
and
say
what
they think has just happened

or is about to happen.

PICTURES FOR COMPARISON

Description of two fairly similar pictures.

PICTURES FOR COMPARISON  Description of two fairly similar pictures.  Purpose: to find out in

Purpose: to find out in what ways the two pictures are different – without either student actually seeing both pictures.

Genuine conversation is thus encouraged in addition to the more formal descriptions of the pictures.

Students can ask each other questions, contradict, agree to achieve a particular task.

A sequence of pictures telling story can also be used to test speaking ability . Sequence
A sequence of pictures telling story can also be used to test speaking ability . Sequence
A sequence of pictures telling story can also be used to test speaking ability . Sequence

A sequence of pictures telling story can also be used to test speaking ability.

Sequence of pictures

A sequence of pictures telling story can also be used to test speaking ability . Sequence
A sequence of pictures telling story can also be used to test speaking ability . Sequence

Students should be instructed to tell a story rather than simply describe what is happening in each pictures.

Students need to guess what the people in the pictures are saying ..

Example : comic picture stories and cartoons that contain speech bubbles.

Simply delete the words in the speech bubbles and ask the students to guess what the character are

Pictures with speech bubbles
Pictures
with speech
bubbles

However, remember that we are not interested primarily in whether students guess correctly or not.

Students need to guess what the people in the pictures are saying .. Example : comic

Our sole concern is the language they use for this purpose.

MA

Maps P can be

used for testing students ability to give direction.

MA Maps P can be used for testing students ability to give direction.
Oral Interviews Nurina Fadhilah Binti Mohamad Amri Nur Atiqah Binti Osman
Oral Interviews
Oral Interviews
Oral Interviews Nurina Fadhilah Binti Mohamad Amri Nur Atiqah Binti Osman
Oral Interviews Nurina Fadhilah Binti Mohamad Amri Nur Atiqah Binti Osman

Nurina Fadhilah Binti Mohamad Amri Nur Atiqah Binti Osman

An excellent way of testing speaking as it can be assesses in a natural situation.

An excellent way of testing speaking as it can be assesses in a natural situation. Oral
Oral Interview
Oral Interview
An excellent way of testing speaking as it can be assesses in a natural situation. Oral
An excellent way of testing speaking as it can be assesses in a natural situation. Oral
An excellent way of testing speaking as it can be assesses in a natural situation. Oral

This part is designed partly to obtain important information from the students being interviewed and partly put them at ease.

When the speaking tests forms part of an achievement or proficiency test, it is useful to start asking the students personal details

Example:

Their names, addressed, hobbies and etc

An excellent way of testing speaking as it can be assesses in a natural situation. Oral
Asking questions Types of Oral Interview Marking Testing students in pairs.
Asking questions
Asking
questions
Types of Oral Interview
Types of Oral Interview
Asking questions Types of Oral Interview Marking Testing students in pairs.
Marking
Marking
Asking questions Types of Oral Interview Marking Testing students in pairs.
Testing students in pairs.
Testing
students in
pairs.
Asking questions Types of Oral Interview Marking Testing students in pairs.

1. Asking question

Need to be careful not to turn the interview into interrogation. Resembling interrogation:

“When do you get up every morning?” “What do you have for breakfast?”

Important to draw up a list of suitable questions which can be ask to the students and choose the appropriate question.

Try to ask question which may lead to interesting answers, but always be ready to respond to any answer with your own comments and observations.

Talk naturally as you can in English: a real speaking test is concerned with communication or soften some of the questions.

Instead of asking straight forward questions in quick succession, make statements and ask questions more subtly:

I’ve often wondered where Plum Tree Road is …… ..

1. Asking question  Need to be careful not to turn the interview into interrogation. 

2. Marking

Never mark in front of a student

Nothing is more discouraging for a student than to enter into conversation with someone who is constantly breaking off to enter marks and comments.

The students should be constantly reassured that what he or she says being heard and understood.

If possible, wait until the student has left the room before you enter your marks and comment.

2. Marking  Never mark in front of a student  Nothing is more discouraging for

3. Testing students in pairs

One way of making interview less tenses is to test two students at the same time Enable you to hear the students talking to someone in their own peer group equal to equal rather than inferior to superior. If teacher give them a task to perform, they will able to demonstrate their ability to use language naturally for real purpose.

3. Testing students in pairs  One way of making interview less tenses is to test

Grading Oral Interview

A major difficulty in testing speaking is the actual method used of awarding marks. Whatever system is adopted, the marking itself is very subjective

Avoid students personality to influence the grade we awarded the main concerned is :

the language ability achievement in progress or placement test.

Grading Oral Interview  A major difficulty in testing speaking is the actual method used of
1.Grammatical accuracy Example 1 Examiner: You’re very late for the interview Students: yes, I’m being sorry
1.Grammatical accuracy
Example 1
Examiner: You’re very late for
the interview
Students: yes, I’m being sorry
for
my
late
arriving to
interview. My mother is being
very ill
in
the
hospital with
the rheumatism
How would you mark a
student who has
succeeded in
communicating what he
or she wants to express
but who has made a lot
of grammatical errors?
1.Grammatical accuracy Example 1 Examiner: You’re very late for the interview Students: yes, I’m being sorry

We can understand the student without much difficulty at all and thus we may ignore the mistakes.

REMEMBER !!!

However there may be times when you wish to avoid giving the impression to students that anything they say is perfectly acceptable.

1.Grammatical accuracy Example 1 Examiner: You’re very late for the interview Students: yes, I’m being sorry

Grading oral ability

When a student makes a grammatical error in the spoken language, first ask yourself if the error causes a breakdown in communication.

Do you have difficulty in understanding what the students is staying? If so, you should penalise the student when you award the mark.

If the mistake does not really interfere with what is being communicated, then it is advisable to ignore it.

Grading oral ability  When a student makes a grammatical error in the spoken language, first

2. Using a rating scale

A rating scale containing short descriptions of each grade in the scale.

To grade students. Teacher will simply read through the scale and choose the most appropriate description for the particular student.

2. Using a rating scale  A rating scale containing short descriptions of each grade in

Grading oral ability

Scale

  • 6 Pronunciation good

    • 5 Pronunciation slightly influenced by L1

  • 4 Pronunciation influenced a little by L1

    • 3 Pronunciation influenced by L1

  • 2 Several serious pronunciation error

    • 1 A lot of serious pronunciation errors

Grading oral ability Scale 6 Pronunciation good 5 Pronunciation slightly influenced by L1 4 Pronunciation influenced

Using A Language Laboratory

HUWAIDA BINTI ARIF NASRIN FATINI BINTI ROSLIHUDDIN AFIFA SYAHIRAH BINTI BAHARUDIN

Language laboratory?

1) Questions about likes and dislikes

students are ask using tape and their answer will be

recorded on the same tape. as example: what is your favourite fruits ?

answer: (pause) ___________ relate to real life situation, however it is little real use.

the test usually is much difficult.

2) Question and statement in social situation

Express agreement, disagreement, complaint and apologies many more. example :

question: do you mind if I close the window? answer: (pause) _____________

3) Mini situation

in this test students are given real-life situation

the question can be in recorded on tape or printed form

respond appropriately to each situation

example :

question : someone asks you for dates but you don’t like him/her. What do you say ?

4) Conversation (1)

No script & students can only respond to what they hear on the tape.

Question is based on daily situations. Students can reply to the questions & even ask questions. Dialogue of the deaf.

5) Conversation (2)

Overcomes the weakness because prompts are whispered indicating how students should respond. Work better as a stimulus for controlled conversation.

6) Conversation (3)

Take part in a short conversation.

Need to read a diary extract containing a week’s appointments.

Testing speaking with other skills

Contain a written text for students to discuss Group discussion and debating

Student may be required to read an article or a report so that they can discuss it with their friends.