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PETROCHEMICAL

TECHNOLOGY
CHE 464
Professor Yahia Abobakr Alhamed

Chairman
Chemical and materials Engineering Department
King Abdulaziz University
Office: building 45 _Room 201
E-mail: yhamed@kau.edu.sa

Course Outline
TEXT BOOK

Sami Matar and Lewis F. Hatch,


Chemistry of Petrochemical
Processes, Second Edition, Gulf
Professional Publishing, 2001

Course Outline (Cont)


Grade Distribution

Major Exam I = 20
Major Exam II = 20
Term Paper = 20
Final Exam = 40

Course Outline (Cont)


Week

Topics Covered

Introduction and overview of petrochemical industries in Saudi Arabia.


Major producers of petrochemicals in Saudi Arabia
Major petrochemicals produced
Economical importance of petrochemical industries in Saudi Arabia
Review of chemical engineering processes in petrochemical Industries
Petrochemicals from methane
Synthesis gas
- Chemicals from synthesis gas
- ammonia
- Urea
- Nitric acid
- Methanol

2-3

Methanol
- Formaldehyde
- Acetic acid
- Methylamines
- Methanol future

Course Outline (Cont)


4-5

Production of olefins
Olefins feedstocks
- gas feedstocks
- liquid feedstocks
- Other processes
Hydropyrolysis
Millisecond pyrolysis
Coproduct treatment

6-7

Petrochemicals from ethylene


Ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol
Vinyl chloride
Ethylbenzene
Ethanol
Acetaldehyde
Vinyl acetate
Acrylic acid

(Major exam I)

Course Outline (Cont)


8-9

Petrochemicals from propylene and higher olefins


Acrylonitrile
Propylene oxide
Isopropanol
Acrolein
Disproportionation reactions
Cumene
Acetic acid
Maleic anhydride
MTBE

Course Outline (Cont)

Course Outline (Cont)


11-12

13-14

Thermoplastics, thermosetting and engineering resins


polyethylene
PVC
Poypropylene
Polystyrene
Thermosets'
Engineering resins

(Major exam II)

Term paper presentations


Each student is asked to prepare a term paper about a selected petrochemical.
Each student should make a 15 minute class presentation followed by 7 minutes
question period. The performance of the student is evaluated by the instructor
based on the quality of the term paper, presentation and question answering.

Something VERY Important about


Term Paper

Petroleum and Natural Gas (NG)


Major source of energy
Source of almost all raw materials used
in petrochemical industries.
Petroleum and Natrural gas respurces are
not resources are limited and not
renrewable.
With time it becomes more expensive to
produce petroleum and NG.

Petroleum

Petroleum (Cont.)

Petroleum (Cont)

Petroleum (Cont)

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


The crude oil mixture is composed of the
following groups:
1. Hydrocarbon compounds (compounds
made of carbon and hydrogen).
2. Non-hydrocarbon compounds.
3. Organometallic compounds and inorganic
salts (metallic com- pounds).

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Hydrocarbon Compounds (Cont.)
All hydrocarbon classes are present in the crude
mixture, except alkenes and alkynes.

Alkanes (Paraffins)
CnH2n+2.
C1 to C3 alkanes are usually found associated
with crude oils in a dissolved state.
Normal alkanes (n-alkanes, n-paraffins)
Isoparaffins

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Examples of some Alkanes

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Hydrocarbon Compounds (Cont.)
Cycloparaffins (Naphthenes)
Saturated cyclic hydrocarbons, normally known as
naphthenes

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Hydrocarbon Compounds (Cont.)

Aromatic Compounds
Lower members of aromatic compounds are
present in small amounts (e.g. Benzene, toluene,
and xylenes (BTX) ) in crude oils and light
petroleum fractions.
Binuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are found in
fractions heavier than naphtha.
Trinuclear and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons,
in com bination with heterocyclic compounds, are
major constituents of heavy crudes and crude
residues.

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Examples of Aromatic Compounds

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Sulfur Compounds
H2S is the only important inorganic sulfur
compound found in crude oil and it is very
corrosive.
Organosulfur compounds classification: Acidic sulfur compounds are the thiols
(mercaptans).
Non-acidic sulfur compounds are thiophene,
sulfides, and disulfides.

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)


Examples of some sulfur compounds

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)

Nitrogen Compounds
The nitrogen content 0.1 wt% to 0.9 wt%
Nitrogen compounds are concentrated in
heavier petroleum fractions and residues.
Basic nitrogen compounds are mainly those
having apyridine ring.
Non-basic compounds have a pyrrole
structure.
Both pyridine and pyrrole are stable
compounds due to their aromatic nature.

COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OILS (Cont.)

Petroleum Refining products and Processes

Petroleum Refining products and Processes (Cont.)

Vacuum Distillation
- Feed is Residue: >C20
-Avoiding high temperatures
-Tarry residue results
-Vaccum gas oil (Top product)
-Fuel oils in power stations and ships,
'base' oil in lubricating oils,
bitumen/asphalt

Natural Gas (NG) and Associated Gas (AG)


Natural Gas (NG):
A mixture of C1 to C3 hydrocarbons (mainly CH4) +
small amounts of N2, CO2 and H2S . Found in gas
reservoirs with no oil present (non-associated gas)
Associated Gas (AG):
Present in contact with and/or dissolved in crude oil
and is coproduced with it.
NG and AG are used mainly as an energy source
and basic raw material for petrochemical industry.

Natural Gas (NG) and Associated Gas (AG) (cont.)

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)


- produced as a by-product of natural gas
processing, associated gas or during refining
and processing operations of petroleum.
- Mainly contains propane and butane
- Used mainly as domestic fuel and basic raw
material for petrochemical industry.

Natural Gas (NG) and Associated Gas (AG) (cont.)

Dry natural Gas:


It is a gas that does not contain an
appreciable amount of condensable
hydrocarbons.
Wet natural Gas
Contains more than 0.3 gallons of
condensable per 1000 cu. ft.

Natural Gas (NG) and Associated Gas (AG) (cont.)

Sour Natural Gas:


- Contains appreciable amounts of hydrogen
sulfide and carbon dioxide.
- Needs to remove the acid gases mainly by
absorption in amines or caustic solutions

Annual consumption of NG and other oil fractions for different sectors for
Saudi Arabia in 2004 (Source IEA)

More information about Petrochemicals


http://csis.org/program/energy-and-national-secu
rity
http://www.icis.com/v2/chemicals/9076567/vinyl-chl
oride/pricing.html

Types of Chemical Reactors


Ideal Reactor:
- Plug flow Reactor
- Mixed flow reactor
- Batch Reactor

Most Common Units Encountered in


Petrochemical Plants

Reactors of different types


Distillation Columns
Strippers
Absorption and Adsorption Columns
Packed bed
Scuppers
Settlers
Compressors
Gas-solid and liquid solid separators (e.g. filters,
cyclones etc.)
Heat exchangers
, and others

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)


Batch Reactor

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)


Mixed Flow reactor

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)


Mixed Flow reactor

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)


Fluidized Bed Reactor

Types of Chemical Reactors (Cont.)

Gas-Liquid Contactors
Absorption Columns: Used for taking up a soluble
gas in a solvent liquid and producing a solution plus a
lean exit gas e.g. used in H2S removal from hydrocarbons

Gas-Liquid Contactors (Absorption Columns) Cont.

Gas-Liquid Contactors
Stripping: Used fior removing a soluble gas from
solution by counter current contact with a inert gas
to recover solute gas and regenerate solvent for reuse

Gas-Liquid Contactors (Absorption Columns) Cont.

Liquid-Liquid Contactors (Extraction)

Liquid-Liquid Contactors (Extraction) Cont.

Gas Solid Separation

Gas Solid Separation (Cont.)


Cyclone Separator: Used to separate solid particles or liquid
droplets from gases to permit product recovery or to cut down
product loss and air pollution

Gas Solid Separation (Cont.)


Electrostatic Precipetator: Used to remove fine dusts or mists
suspended in gases; features high collection efficiency at
wide variety of operating conditions

Gas Solid Separation (Cont.)


Wet Scrubber
Effective means of removing suspended particles
from gas stream by contact with liquid shower

Liquid Solid Separation


Spray Dryer
Suitable for large capacity operation on liquid feed to
give powdered, spherical, freeeflowing product; used in
production of pigments, detergents, synthetic resins, and
inorganic salts

Liquid Solid Separation (Cont.)


Rotary Drier
Suitable for drying free-flowing granular solids
which do not dust or stick; high-temp. versions are
kilns for calcining cement, lime, etc.

Fired Heater
Used to heat petroleum fractions to distillation or
cracking temperatures in direct-fired tubes

Fired Heater

Continuous fractionator (distillation |Column)


Used for high volume continuous separation of complex
mixtures such as petroleum fractions