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Moalijat Kulliyah

Respiratory System
By:
Dr. M.S.M. Shiffa
BUMS (Hons)
Lung + bronchi (diagram)
Cardinal Symptoms of
Respiratory Disease
 Cough
 Sputum
 Breathlessness
 Chest pain
 Respiratory sounds &added sounds
Lecture topics
1. Cough 1. Inspection
2. Sputum & 2. Palpation &
Heamoptysis Percussion
3. Dyspnoea 3. Auscultation
4. Chest pain 4. Investigation
5. Cyanosis & Clubbing 5. Tutorials
Cough
 Harakat produced by thabeeyat to expel ghair
thabayee mada from the lungs.
 Coughing is a defensive mechanism designed to
protect the airways from the harmful effects of
inhaled noxious substances and clear them of
retained secretions.
Types

Sual Shirki- Sual Marzi / Sual Asli-


Spasm of adjacent organs Cause is in the lung itself
Mechanism
 Voluntary – but more commonly the result of reflex
response to stimulation of the irritant receptors in
the nose, oropharynx, larynx, trachea or bronchus.
 The cough reflex begins with a deep inspiration,
closure of the glottis, relaxation of the diaphragm
and tensing of the respiratory muscles. The intra
thoracic pressure builds up. When the glottis is
suddenly opens again a forced expiration expels the
compressed air carrying with it any solid or liquid
contents.
Cough
 Duration
 Length
 Time – day / night
 Dry cough / productive cough
 Aggravating conditions
Differential diagnosis of cough
 Morning cough with little sputum
Smokers
 Night cough with sputum
Asthma
 After mild exertion / forced expiration
Asthma
 Worsening cough
Bronchial carcinoma
 Long standing cough
Chronic bronchitis
 Cough with stridor
Whooping cough
laryngeal or tracheal obstruction
 Stimulation of sensory nerves in the respiratory
epithelium
secretions, foreign body, cigarette
smoke & tumors
 Cough sensitivity is increased
air temperature, aerosol spray, perfumes,
cigarette smoke, viral infection,
oesophageal reflex, post nasal drip,
ACE inh, cough variant asthma,
idiopathic cough
 Acute non productive cough associated with sore
throat or nasal discharge
URTI
 Dry cough later purulent sputum
pneumonia
 Chronic non productive cough
diffuse pulmonary fibrosis
 Dry cough with hoarseness of voice in a middle age
adult-
chronic laryngitis – excessive smoking
over use of voice
laryngeal carcinoma
bronchial neoplasm irritating rec.lar.nerve
 Chronic productive cough
chronic bronchitis – cigarette smokers,
dusty occupation
bronchiectasis - morning ; large
volume sputum
pulmonary tuberculosis weight
neoplasms of the bronchus loss
Causes
 Nazla vo Zukam  Zathurriya
 Nazla Har  Kalikansi
 Nazla Barid  Sil e pepda
 Nazla Muzmin  Muzmin varm e
 Imtila e Riya kasberiya
 Varm e Kanzara  Dubaila ul pepda
 Varm e Khasberiya  Zathul janb
 Zeequn nafs
Causes
 Pneumonia  Silicosis
 Bronchial Carcinoma  Sarcoidosis
 Bronchial Asthma  Pharyngitis
 Pleurisy  Laryngitis
 Pleural Effusion  Lung Abscess
 Left Heart Failure  Tuberculosis
 Heamothorax  Good pasture’s Syndrome
 Pneumothorax  Emphysema
 Pyothorax  Bronchiectasis
 Chronic Bronchitis  Fibrosing alveolitis
 Asbestosis  Idiopathic pulmonary
 Acute bronchitis heamosidorosis
 Tracheal carcinoma  Pneumoconiosis
 Extrinsic allergic alveolitis  Cystic fibrosis
 Pulmonary vasculitis  Acute bronchiolitis
Thank you