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The World Through Our Senses

SENSORY ORGANS

Sensory Organs
They all contribute to us something special.

And that is our senses.


Changes in the surrounding are called stimuli.
Each sensory organ has special structures that
are very sensitive to stimuli.
These structures are called receptors.
For example, our ears detect stimuli when we
hear something. The way the stimulus travels
through our body is described below.

Sensory Organs

Stimulus > Receptors > Nerves >


Brain
>
Nerves
>Effectors

Sense of Touch
The skin is the sensory organ for

touch
It is the largest organ in the body
The skin can detect changes in
temperatures,
pain,
touch
and
pressure.
The skin has special receptors to
detect each of these stimuli.

The Sense of Touch


1. Slight pressure is detected by the Touch
2.
3.
4.
5.

Receptor.
Pain Receptors detect the slightest pain as
they lie very close to the surface of the skin.
Heat Receptors are sensitive to heat.
The cold is detected by Cold Receptors.
Pressure Receptors are only sensitive to
heavy pressure as they lie deep within the
skin.

The Skin

The Nose

The Nose

Mucous in the nasal cavity lines warms and


moistens the air before it enters the lungs.
The roof of the nasal cavity has many
receptors and sensory cells to detect
smell.
Chemicals released by food, perfume and
flowers into the air are known as smells.

The Nose
The chemicals dissolve in the mucous

lining and stimulate the sensory cells


which in turn, send out nerve impulses to
the brain which interpret them as a smell.

The Tongue
Our tongue is the sensory organ

for taste.
It can detect four basic tastes :
Salty
Sweet
Sour
Bitter

The Tongue

The Tongue
The chemicals of the food dissolve

in our saliva as we chew. The


dissolved chemicals then stimulate
the taste receptors in our taste buds
to produce nerve impulses, which
are then sent to the brain where
they will be identified as tastes.

The Tongue
Our sense of smell improves our sense of

taste. As we chew, some chemicals from


the food dissolve in our saliva and
stimulate the taste buds. But there are also
some chemicals that move into our nasal
passages. These chemicals stimulate the
sensory
cells
in
our
nose.

Taste
The food is tasteless when you have a cold.

Why?
It's because the smell from the food cannot
reach the sensory cells in the nose.
This is because the passages in your nose
are blocked.
Since you cannot smell it, food seems
tasteless.

The Ear
The ear is the sensory organ of sound.
The sense of hearing is sensitive to
the sound stimuli.
The human ear can be divided into
three main parts. These are known
as the outer ear, the middle ear and
the inner ear.
Every structure of the ear has their own
functions and are very important.

The Ear
Outer Ear

Structure
Function/Explanation
Pinna
Made of cartilage and skin and shaped like a
funnel. It collects and directs sounds into the
ear canal.
Ear canal
A long tube lined with hairs. It directs sounds to
the eardrum.

The Ear
Middle Ear

Structure
Function/Explanation
Eardrum
A thin membrane that seperates the outer ear from the
middle ear. It vibrates and transmits sound waves to the
ossicles.
Ossicles
Made up of three small bones which is the hammer, the
anvil and the stirrup. It intensifies the vibrations of the
sound waves by 22 times before transmitting to the oval
window.
Eustachian tube
A narrow tube that joins the middle ear to the throat that
balances the air pressure at both sides of the eardrum.
Oval window
An oval-shaped, thin membrane between the middle ear
and the inner ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the
middle ear to the inner ear.

The Ear
Inner Ear

Structure
Function/Explanation
Cochlea
Filled with liquid and contains the ends of nerve
cells. The vibration of the oval window causes this
liquid to vibrate. The vibration is detected by the
nerve cells and are then changed into impulses.
Auditory nerve
It carries the impulses to the brain which then
interprets the impulses as sound.
Semicircular canals
For body balance

How Do We Hear
1. The

pinna collects sound waves and


directs them along the ear canal to the
ear drum.
2. When the sound waves hit the eardrum, it
vibrates.
3. The ossicles amplify the vibrations about
20 times before transferring them to the
oval window.

How DO We Hear?
4. Vibrations of the oval window set up

waves which travel through the fluid in


the cochlea.
5. Receptors in the cochlea are stimulated to
produce nerve impulses.
6. The auditory canal nerve carries the
impulses to the brain.
7. The brain interprets the impulses as
sounds.

HOW DO We HEAR
The pinna collects sound waves and directs

them along the ear canal to the ear drum.


When the sound waves hit the eardrum, it
vibrates
The ossicles amplify the vibrations about 20
times before transferring them to the oval
window.
Vibrations of the oval window set up waves
which travel through the fluid in the cochlea
Receptors in the cochlea are stimulated to
produce nerve impulses.

HoW Do We HEAr
Vibrations of the oval window set up waves

which travel through the fluid in the


cochlea
Receptors in the cochlea are stimulated to
produce nerve impulses
The auditory nerve carries the impulses to
the brain
The brain interprets the impulses as
sounds.

Facts about Sight


Most people blink every 2-10 seconds.
Each time you blink, you shut your eyes

for 0.3 seconds, which means your eyes


are closed at least 30 minutes a day just
from blinking.

If you only had one eye, everything

would appear two-dimensional. (This


does not work just by closing one eye.)

Facts about Sight


Owls can see a mouse moving over 150

feet away with light no brighter than a


candle.

The reason cat's and dog's eyes glow at

night is because of silver mirrors in the


back of their eyes called the tapetum. This
makes it easier for them to see at night.

An ostrich has eyes that are two inches

across. Each eye weighs more than the


brain.

Sense of Sight
Sclera
Protect and maintains the shape of the eyeball.
Choroid
Absorbs light and prevents internal reflection of
light. Supplies the eye with nutrients and oxygen.
Retina Detects light and produces nerve impulses. Cones
Detect colours in bright light. Rods detect shades of grey in
Dim light

Sense of Sight
Lens
Focuses light onto the retina
Vitreous humour
Helps in reflecting light, maintains the shape
of the eyeball.
Suspensory ligaments
Hold the lens in its position

Sense of Sight
Ciliary body
Contracts and relaxes to change the thickness
of the
lens.
Conjunctiva
Protects the cornea
Aqueous humour
Helps in refracting light, maintains the shape of
the
eyeball.

Sense of Sight
Cornea
Refracts light onto the retina
Pupil
Controls the amount of light thats
enters the eyes.
Iris
Controls the size of the pupil

Sense of Sight
Yellow spot
Detects light or any images that fall on it.
Blind spot
It is the spot where the optic nerve leaves
the eyeball
Optic nerve
Carries nerve impulses from the retina to the
brain

HOW DO WE SEE

HOW DO WE SEE

HOW DO WE SEE
1. LIGHT RAYS TRAVEL FROM THE

OBJECT TO THE EYE.


2. AS

THE LIGHT PASS THROUGH


THE EYE, THEY ARE REFRACTED
(BENT)
BY
THE
CORNEA,
AQUEOUS HUMOUR, LENS AND
THE VITREOUS HUMOUR.

HOW DO WE SEE
3. AN UPSIDE DOWN IMAGE (PICTURE) IS

FORMED ON THE RETINA.

4. THE PHOTORECEPTORS ON THE RETINA

SEND NERVE IMPULSES ALONG THE


OPTIC NERVE TO THE BRAIN.

5. THE BRAIN INTERPRETS THE IMPULSES

AND ALLOWS US TO SEE THE OBJECT


THE RIGHT WAY UP.

Short- sightedness

SHORT SIGHTEDNESS
A person can see near objects clearly

but cannot focus on distance objects.


Light from distance object is focused
in front of the retina, so the image
become blur.
This is because the lens is too thick
or eyeball too long
Short sightedness can be corrected
using concave lens.

Normal focus
Short sightedness (Myopia)
Distance vision blurry, near usually OK.
Shortsighted focus

Short-sighted
correction

Long-sightedness

LONG SIGHTEDNESS
A long sighted person can see distant

objects clearly but cannot focus on near


objects.
Light from a near object converges to a
point behind the retina, so the image is
blur.
This is either because the lens is too
thin or the eyeball is too short.
Long sightedness can be corrected using
convex lens.

Long-sightedness
(Hyperopia)
Difficulty seeing clearly and
comfortably up close.
Long-sighted
focus

Long-sighted
correction

ASTIGMATISM

Astigmatism
Irregular curvature of the eye
(shaped more like a football than a
basketball)
Light in different planes focuses at
different points
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