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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology

ETU 07123
Introduction to Communication System
Ally, J

Angle Modulation


Angle modulation overview

In the last subtopic, we investigated the effect of slowly varying the

amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier wave in accordance with the
baseband signal.
There is another way of modulating a sinusoidal carrier wave,
namely, Angle Modulation in which the angle of the carrier wave is
varied according to the baseband signal.
In this method of modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave is
maintained constant
An important feature of angle modulation is that it can provide better
discrimination against noise and interference than amplitude
However, this improvement in performance is achieved at the
expense of increased transmission bandwidth; that is, angle
modulation provides us with a practical means of exchanging channel
bandwidth for improved noise performance. Such a tradeoff
is not possible with amplitude modulation, regardless of its form.


Basic definitions

denote the angle of a modulated sinusoidal carrier, assumed to
be a function of the message signal. We express the resulting anglemodulated wave as

There are an infinite number of ways in which the angle

may be
varied in some manner with the message (baseband) signal. However,
we shall consider only two commonly used methods, phase modulation
and frequency modulation, defined as follows:
1) Phase modulation (PM) is that form of angle modulation in which the
is varied linearly with the message signal m(t), as shown as
The term
represents the angle of the unmodulated carrier; and the
constant represents the phase sensitivity of the modulator, expressed
in radians per volt on the assumption that m(t) is a voltage waveform.

Basic definitions(2)
The phase-modulated signal s(t) in the time domain is given by
2) Frequency modulation (FM) is that form of angle modulation in which
the instantaneous frequency
is varied linearly with the message
signal m(t), as shown by
The term fc represents the frequency of the unmodulated carrier, and
the constant kf represents the frequency sensitivity of the modulator,
Integrating above equation with respect to time and multiplying the
result by 2, we get
where, for convenience, we have assumed that the angle of the
unmodulated carrier wave is zero at t = 0. The frequency-modulated
signal in the time domain is given by


Frequency Modulation

The FM signal s(t) is a nonlinear function of the modulating signal m(t),

which makes frequency modulation a nonlinear modulation process.
Consider then a sinusoidal modulating signal defined by

The instantaneous frequency of the resulting FM signal equals


The quantity
is called the frequency deviation, representing the
maximum departure of the instantaneous frequency of the FM signal
from the carrier frequency
A fundamental characteristic of an FM signal is that the frequency
is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal
and is independent of the modulation frequency.

Frequency Modulation(2)

The angle

The ratio of the frequency deviation

to the modulation frequency
is commonly called the modulation index of the FM signal. We
denote it by
and so write

of the FM signal is obtained as

The FM signal itself is given by

Depending on the value of the modulation index
, we may distinguish
two cases of frequency modulation:

Narrowband FM, for which

is small compared to one radian.

Wideband FM, for which

is large compared to one radian.


FM Bandwidth and Carsons Rule

Frequency Deviation: f=kf max|m(t)|

Maximum deviation of fi from fc: fi=fc+kfm(t)

an approximate rule for the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal

generated by a single-tone modulating signal of frequency f m, as

The ralation is know as Carsons Rule:

B depends on maximum deviation from f c AND how fast fi changes

Narrowband FM: f<<fmB2fm

Wideband FM: f>>fm B2f


Example 1

In North America, the maximum value of frequency deviation

fixed at 75 kHz for commercial FM broadcasting by radio. If we take
the modulation frequency W = 15 kHz,which is typically the
"maximum" audio frequency of interest in FM transmission, we find
that the corresponding value of the deviation ratio is

using carlson rule by replacing by D, and replacing fm by W, the

approximate value of the transmission bandwidth of the FM wave is


Example 2
Determine the percent modulation of an FM signal which is
being broadcast in the 88-108 MHz band having a carrier
swing of 125kHz.


Narrowband FM

Expanding the relation FM signal resulting from the use of a sinusoidal

modulating signal, we get

Assuming that the modulation index is small compared to one

radian, we may use the following approximations:

Above equation defines the approximate form of a narrowband FM

signal produced by a sinusoidal modulating signal

Narrowband FM(2)

The equation for narrowband FM signal can be expanded as

This expression is somewhat similar to the corresponding

one defining an AM signal, which is as follows:

is the modulation factor of the AM signal.
We see that in the case of sinusoidal modulation, the basic
difference between an AM signal and a narrowband FM
signal is that the algebraic sign of the lower side frequency in
the narrowband FM is reversed.
Thus, a narrowband FM signal requires essentially the same
transmission bandwidth (i.e., 2fm) as the AM signal.

Generation of narrowband FM signal

This modulator involves splitting the carrier wave

into two paths.
One path is direct; the other path contains a -90 degree phase-shifting network
and a product modulator, the combination of which generates a DSB-SC
modulated signal.
The difference between these two signals produces a narrowband FM signal,
but with some distortion.


Generation of wideband FM signal

There are two basic methods of generating frequency-modulated

signals by using Direct method and Indirect method

In the direct method the carrier frequency is directly varied in

accordance with the input baseband signal, which is readily
accomplished using a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO).

In the indirect method, the modulating signal is first used to produce a

narrowband FM signal, and frequency multiplication is next used to
increase the frequency deviation to the desired level.

The indirect method is the preferred choice for frequency modulation

when the stability of carrier frequency is of major concern as in
commercial radio broadcasting.


Generation of wideband FM signal by

Indirect method

After band-pass filtering of the nonlinear device's output v(t), we have a new FM

signal defined by

whose instantaneous frequency is


FM Detection

In theory just need differentiator and envelope detection for FM.

Many techniques used in practice (mostly VCO).

Differentiator and Envelope Detector

s(t ) Ac [2f c 2k f m (t )] sin[ 2f c t 2k f m ( )d ]

Zero Crossing Detector

Uses rate of zero crossings to estimate fi

Phase Lock Loop (PLL)

Uses Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) and feedback to extract



FM Demodulation by VCO



Loop Amplifier and

Low Pass Filter




Noise in Analogue
To undertake suchModulation
a study we follow the customary practice by
formulating two models:

Channel model, which assumes a communication channel that is

distortionless but perturbed by additive white Gaussian noise
Receiver model, which assumes a receiver consisting of an ideal
band-pass filter followed by an ideal demodulator appropriate for the
application at hand; the band-pass filter is used to minimize the
effect of channel noise.

Figure which shows the noisy receiver model that combines the
above two assumptions.


AM Signal Noise Analysis

The channel signal-to-noise ratio for AM

The output SNR of an AM receiver using an envelope detector is

The figure of merit for AM is

Consider modulating wave

The corresponding AM wave is
where =kaAm is the modulation factor. For a load resistor of 1,

when =1 (i.e. 100% modulation), we get the figure of merit equal to 1/3.

FM Signal Noise Analysis

Channel signal-to-noise ratio

Output signal-to-noise ratio

Figure of merit for FM

The modulated FM signal is

For a load resistor of 1,

The output signal-to-noise ratio is

where =f/W is the modulation index, the figure of merit for FM is

FM offers the possibility of improved noise

performance over AM when
that is,


Technology changes but communication lasts.