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NEBOSH

International General Certificate

NEBOSH
INTRODUCTION

What kind of people take the NEBOSH


International General Certificate?
People throughout the world take the NEBOSH
International General Certificate because it gives
them the skills and know-how to fulfil their health
and safety responsibilities in any
country and in any kind of organisation.

NEBOSH
INTRODUCTION
What will I gain from this qualification?
Knowledge Whether health and safety is your main
responsibility, or just a part of what you do, the NEBOSH
International General Certificate will give you vital
knowledge to help you perform better in your role at
work.
Enjoyment You'll enjoy taking the NEBOSH International
General Certificate. You'll discover skills and techniques
that are useful and practical, not just theoretical.

NEBOSH
INTRODUCTION

Recognition Holders of the NEBOSH International


General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety are
entitled to Associate
Membership (AIOSH) of the Institution of Occupational
Safety and
Health
(IOSH). The qualification also meets the academic
requirements for Technical Membership (Tech IOSH) of
IOSH.
Career development For some, the NEBOSH
International General Certificate is a first step towards a
life-long career in health and safety. For others, it forms
part of an important set of qualifications that brings them
success and advancement in whatever field they choose.
It also helps achievement of capability to gain a better job

NEBOSH
INTRODUCTION

NEBOSH stands for National Examination Board of


Occupational Safety and Health.
This course deals with occupational safety and
health, not the personal safety and health. The
issues are all work related. There are many
accidents that happens while working and also
there are many work related reasons for workers
sickness. This course deals about all these health
and safety issues by extending knowledge to
understand and to take control measures to
minimise it.

THE EXAM

PART A TWO WRITTEN PAPERS:


IGC-1: The Management of international

Health & Safety

GC-2: Control of International Workplace Risks

EACH IS TWO HOURS LONG AND MARKED BY NEBOSH.

THE PRACTICAL
ASSESSMENT
PART - B (PRACTICAL - GC3)
You will be required to carry out an Inspection of a
workplace and note down your Observations in the
Candidate Observation Template.
You will then write a Management Report in the
Candidate Report Template on your significant
findings, together with recommendations for further
action.

EXAM RESULTS
Referrals and Re-sits
If performance is unsatisfactory in both theory papers:
Part A (i.e. less than 45%) and
Part B (i.e. less than 60%), you will FAIL!
You can still register to re-sit at a later examination date.
If unsatisfactory in one part, then REFERRAL is given for
unsatisfactory part alone.
You can then re-sit the referred part. You must re-register within one
year of date of original result.
Only one re-sit is allowed the result is capped to a PASS grade.

EXAM RESULTS
NEBOSH issues graded results of your performance for each exam
paper.

Exam

Total
(max.)

Distinction Credit
(min.)
(min.)

Pass
(min.)

Refer

Fail

IGC1

100

65

55

45

<45

65

55

45

100

80

70

60

<45% in
IGC
1
and/or IGC
2
or<60% in
IGC 3

GC2

100

GC3
Total

300

210

180

150

<45
<60

THE SYLLABUS
IGC 1:
Element 1: Foundations in Health and Safety
Element 2: Health and Safety Management Systems Plan
Element 3: Health and Safety Management Systems Do
Element 4: Health and Safety Management Systems Check
Element 5: Health and Safety Management Systems 4 Act

THE SYLLABUS
GC 2:
Element 1: Workplace Hazards & Risk Control
Element 2: Transport Hazards & Risk Control
Element 3: Musculoskeletal Hazards & Risk Control
Element 4: Work Equipment Hazards & Risk Control
Element 5: Electrical Safety

THE SYLLABUS
GC 2:
Element 6: Fire Safety
Element 7: Chemical & Biological Health Hazards & Risk
Control
Element 8: Physical & Psychological Health Hazards &
Risk Control

COMMAND WORDS
Define
:
definition.

provide a generally recognised or accepted

State : a less demanding form of define, or where there is


no generally recognised

Explain : give a clear account of, or reasons for.


Describe : give a word picture.
Outline
Give

: give the most important features of.


: provide without explanation.

Identify : select and name.

COMMAND WORDS
Question: Identify four kitchen appliances. (4)
Toaster
Electric Kettle
Microwave Oven
Dishwasher

COMMAND WORDS
Question: Outline four kitchen appliances. (4)
Ans:
Toaster:
Accommodates slices of bread, ejects the toast when ready.
Electric Kettle:
1 to 2 litre capacity, used to boils water.
Microwave Oven:
Heats food rapidly using short wave length radio waves.
Dishwasher:
Dirty table ware are placed in it. Mixture of high pressure water and
detergent automatically cleans

COMMAND WORDS
Question: Describe a microwave oven. (4)
Ans: Rectangular in shape, approximately 30 cm tall, 30 cm
deep and 60 cm long. There is a hinged door at the front,
typically see through. The door opens outwards and inside
there is space to place a plate. Outside on the front there is
the control to set power and heating time.

COMMAND WORDS
Question: Explain how a microwave oven works. (4)
Ans: The frequency of microwaves used in microwave oven
is sufficient enough to cause the water molecules in food to
vibrate. Vibrating molecules hit other water molecules and
put them into same

vibration and therefore this vibration of

molecules is converted into heat.

CLARIFICATION

IGC 1
ELEMENT - 1
FOUNDATIONS IN
HEALTH AND SAFETY

LEARNING OUTCOME
The intended learning outcome of this
element are that candidates will be able to:
Outline the scope and nature of occupational
Health and Safety
Explain the Moral, Social and Economic reasons
for maintaining and promoting good standards
of Health and Safety in the workplace
Explain the role of national governments and
International Bodies in formulating a framework
for the regulation of Health and Safety

1.1 THE SCOPE AND NATURE OF


OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
SAFETY

THE MULTY DISCIPLINARY


NATURE OF HEALTH AND
SAFETY

The barriers to good standards of health


and safety
Complexity
Competing
Conflicting demands
Behavioral issues

BARRIERS TO GOOD
STANDARDS OF HEALTH
Complexity :- Workplaces can be complicated areas, involving
AND SAFETY
the co-ordination of many people performing different activities.
Finding a solution to a specific health and safety problem can be
complex, requiring extensive knowledge and awareness of
possible consequences.

Competing :- In making decisions on health and safety


investments the company is balancing the costs and benefits of
occupational health and safety. It is quite clear that investments in
safety and health may compete with other investments in the
company.
Another conflict is the need to comply with different types of
laws, eg. Health and Safety law and Environment Protection law
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BARRIERS TO GOOD
STANDARDS OF HEALTH
AND SAFETY
Conflicting demands :- There are often competing and
conflicting demands placed upon people and
organizations, eg. Conflict of interest in between need of
supply or a service at an appropriate speed
Behavioral Issues :- Good health and safety practice often
relies on the perfect behavior of individuals

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MEANINGS AND DISTINCTION


BETWEEN
SAFETY AND WELFARE
WhatHEALTH,
is Health:
Protection of the bodies and minds of people
from illnesses resulting from the materials,
processes or procedures used in the
workplace.
(WHO)- "occupational health deals with all
aspects of health and safety in the workplace and
has a strong focus on primary prevention of
hazards.

What is Safety:
Protection of people from physical injury and

MEANINGS AND DISTINCTION


BETWEEN
HEALTH, SAFETY AND
WELFARE

Welfare:

Looking after peoples basic needs. For example:


provision of drinking water, washrooms and toilet
facilities, eating and resting areas.

Environment:
The surroundings in which an organisation
operates including land, air and water, natural
resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships.

WHY MANAGE HEALTH AND SAFETY?

Moral (Societal)

Social or legal

Economic or Financial.

WHY MANAGE HEALTH AND SAFETY?

Societal (Moral) Expectations:- Humanitarian


reasons
Social (Legal) Expectations:- To avoid legal
prosecutions and compensation claims. Save
reputation of the organisation.
Financial:- The cost of the accident and ill health.

MORAL REASONS FOR


GOOD H&S PRACTICE
Injuries cause suffering and pain to
people
Employers have a moral obligation
based on the duty of care towards
employees to protect them from
injuries and ill health
Workers should not be exposed to
harm.
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MORAL REASONS FOR


GOOD H&S PRACTICE
The ILO estimates that : There are 270 million occupational accidents and 160 million
occupational diseases recorded each year
Around 2 million people die every year from occupational accidents
and occupational diseases
4% of the world gross domestic product is lost each year through
the cost of injury, death absence, etc.
There are around 35,55,000 work related fatal accidents each year
Half of these occur in agriculture

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MORAL REASONS FOR


GOOD H&S PRACTICE
Region

Economically
active
population

Total
employment

Estimated
Non fatal accidents, at
number
of
least 3 days absence
Fatalities

Established Market
40,91,41,496
Economies (EME)

38,08,33,643

16,170

1,23,40,216

Formerly Socialist
18,47,17,127
Economies (FSE)

16,21,20,341

21,425

1,63,50,868

41,95,60,000
69,97,71,000

48,176
73,615

3,67,65,877
5,61,79,742

32,86,73,800

83,048

6,33,78,830

1,05,40,604

54,705

4,17,48,723

1,14,60,496

29,594

2,25,84,726

4,86,35,240

19,986

1,44,89,130

INDIA
45,87,20,000
CHINA
70,82,18,102
Other
Asia
and
40,44,87,050
Islands
Sub Saharan Africa
26,07,25,947
(SSA)
Latin
America
19,34,26,602
(LAC)
Middle
East
11,29,06,300
Crescent (MEC)
273,23,42,624

216,47,39,590 3,54,719

26,38,38,111
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LEGAL REASONS
To avoid fines, penalties, prosecution and
compensation claims.
It is a demand of civil and criminal law
to carry out active risk management.
Risk management is the corner stone of
modern Health and safety.

SOCIAL REASONS
An accident affects name and fame of
the organization in the society
Employers reputation can be affected
due to accidents

FINANCIAL REASONS
Accidents at work place cost a great deal
of money, interrupt production and
business disruption. These costs may be
insured, uninsured, direct and indirect.
e.g. compensation claims, medical costs,
loss of expertise, time lost in
investigating the accident.

1.2 THE MORAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC


REASONS FOR MAINTAINING AND
PROMOTING GOOD STANDARDS OF
HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE WORKPLACE

REASONS FOR MAINTAINING


AND PROMOTING GOOD
STANDARDS OF H & S

The size of the health and safety problem in


terms of the numbers of work related fatalities
and injuries and incidents of ill-health
Bigger the risk and chances of accidents larger
the provisions of safety need to be incorporated
to control it. Larger the amount people which
may be affected by the risk larger the provision
of safety needed.

REASONS FOR MAINTAINING


AND PROMOTING GOOD
STANDARDS OF H & S
Societal expectations of good
standards of health and safety
On humanitarian grounds, all employer must take
care of their work force and must not put their life
to danger to get work done.

EMPLOYERS NEED TO
PROVIDE
Safe place of work,
Safe plant and equipment
Safe systems of work
Training and supervision
Competent workers

THE BUSINESS CASE FOR


HEALTH AND SAFETY

Cost of insured and uninsured accidents


and ill-health
Employers liability insurance

COSTS OF
ACCIDENTS
Direct
Costs of
Accidents

Insured
Costs

Indirect
Costs
(Hidden
Costs) of
Accidents

Uninsured
Costs = 8
to 36
times
greater
than
insured
loss

COST OF ACCIDENT
When an accident occurs there are two types of
losses:Direct Costs:- The measurable costs arising directly
from the accident.
Indirect Costs:- Those which arise indirectly as a
consequence of the event. It is often difficult to quantify
precisely and may be hard to identify.

COSTS OF ACCIDENTS
DIRECT COSTS
Damage to property, buildings, plant and equipment
Repairs or replacement of damaged equipment and buildings
Medical costs
Fines in Criminal courts
Compensation payable to victim
Salaries to unproductive workers on sick leave.
Increases in insurance premiums

INDIRECT COSTS
Loss of staffs working hours due to incident investigation
Loss of staff morale
Cost of remedial action following an investigation, ie. introduction of further
control measures
Compliance with any enforcement notice served
Replacement of labour
Lost production time while dealing with injury
Over time payments to make up for lost time
Costs associated with the rehabilitation of the injured workers and their return
to work

INDIRECT COSTS

Cost of recruiting and retraining new staff


Loss of goodwill of customers following delays in production and

fulfilling orders
Penalty clauses for failing to meet delivery dates
Damage to public image and business reputation
Damage to industrial relations leading to industrial action

(strikes).
Loss of business due to accidents.

COSTS OF
ACCIDENTS
Indirect costs related to Accidents:

Production loss

Time involved in investigating an accident

Loss of expertise

Hiring and training of new staff

Loss of goodwill and reputation of company

Poor morale of the workers

Overtime paid to other workers.

45

COSTS OF
ACCIDENTS
Insured costs related to Accidents:
Damage to plant and building
Tools and equipment damage
Third Party cost/ public liability
Medical cost
Compensation Claims

46

INSURED AND UNINSURED


COSTS: In most countries it is compulsory to take out
employers liability insurance so that a worker is
killed or injured at work there is insurance
coverage to him or his dependent and to meet
employers civil costs.
However it is not possible to insure against all
losses, eg. one can not take insurance policy to
pay money should he be prosecuted and fined in
the criminal law courts.

INSURED AND UNINSURED


COSTS:Another example organizations can not insure
themselves against loss of revenue if their business
reputation is damaged through a major workplace
accident. Many of the direct and indirect costs
associated with work place accidents are uninsured for
these reasons.

COSTS OF
ACCIDENTS
Insured costs
Damage to plant buildings and
equipment
Compensation paid to workers

Uninsured costs
Production delays or down time

Medical costs

Loss of raw material due to


accidents
Accident investigation time

Legal costs (Civil Claims)

Criminal fines and legal costs


Sick pay for injured workers
Overtime to make up for lost
production
Hiring and training new
employees
Loss of business reputation
49

EMPLOYERS LIABILITY
INSURANCE
The purpose of Liability insurance is
to protect and compensate workers
who have suffered personal loss due to
the fault of the employer.

50

EMPLOYERS LIABILITY INSURANCE

It is important that an organization maintains


employers liability insurance because:
It may be a legal requirement or clients/
contract requirement
To improve the morale of the workers by
giving them the feeling of financial security
that they may be awarded in case of any
personal loss while at work.
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1.3 THE ROLE OF NATIONAL


GOVERNEMENTS AND INTERNATIONAL
BODIES IN FORMULATING A FRAMEWORK
FOR THE REGULATION OF HEALTH AND
SAFETY

ROLE OF NATIONAL
GOVERNMENTS AND
INTERNATIONAL
BODIES
Governments
duties
Governments are responsible for drawing up occupational safety and
health policies and making sure that they are implemented. Policies
will be reflected in legislation, and legislation must be enforced. But
legislation cannot cover all workplace risks, and it may also be
advisable to address occupational safety and health issues by means
of collective agreements reached between the social partners.
Policies are more likely to be supported and implemented if
employers and workers, through their respective organizations, have
had a hand in drawing them up. This is regardless of whether they
are in the form of laws, regulations, codes or collective agreements.
The competent authority should issue and periodically review
regulations or codes of practice; instigate research to identify hazards
and to find ways of overcoming them; provide information and advice
to employers and workers;
and take specific measures to avoid catastrophes where potential

ROLE OF NATIONAL
GOVERNMENTS AND
INTERNATIONAL
BODIES
Role and obligations of the competent authority
The formulation of a national OSH policy should reflect the
respective
functions and responsibilities of public authorities,
employers, workers and others, and should recognize the
complementary character of those responsibilities.
Having said that, is the responsibility of the national
designated
competent authority to identify the major problems and
draw up a realistic policy, taking into account the
resources and means available. In doing so, the
competent authority must set priorities on the basis of the
urgency and importance of the problems to be overcome

ROLE OF NATIONAL
GOVERNMENTS AND
INTERNATIONAL
BODIES
Legal standards governing workplace health and safety,
most countries have their own laws, developed over the
years to tackle their issues and concerns
In 1981, the ILO adopted the Occupational Safety
and Health Convention (C155).This describes a basic
policy for health and safety at both the national level
and the level of the individual undertaking.
The occupational Safety Health recommendation
1981(R 164) supplements C155 and provides more
detailed guidance on how to comply with policies of
C155.
55

ROLE OF NATIONAL
GOVERNMENTS AND
INTERNATIONAL BODIES

National laws, labour codes and regulations:


Appropriate legislation and regulations, together
with adequate means of enforcement, are key
policy instruments for the protection of workers.
They form a basis for efforts to improve working
conditions and the working environment. The
inspection mechanism should make use, among
other things, of a workers health surveillance
system, which may be run by the government,
the community or the enterprise.

EMPLOYERS RESPONSIBILITIES
Article 16 of C155 identifies some basic obligations placed
on employers.

To ensure that the workplace, machinery, equipment and


process under their control are safe and without risk to
health.
To ensure that the chemical, physical and biological
substances and agents under their control are without risk
to health.

To provide adequate protective clothing and protective


equipment to prevent risk and accidents or of adverse
effects on health.
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EMPLOYERS
RESPONSIBILITIES

Article 10 of R 164 states the following obligations


on employers : Provide work places and work equipments, and use
work methods, which are safe and no risk to health.
Provide appropriate instructions and training.
Provide necessary supervision.
To put in place health and safety arrangements adapted
to suit the size and nature of undertaking.
Provide any necessary protective clothing and
equipment free of cost.

58

EMPLOYERS
RESPONSIBILITIES
Article 10 of R 164 states the following obligations
on employers : Ensure that the hours work do not adversely affect
employees safety and health
To remove any extreme physical and mental fatigue
To stay up-to-date with knowledge in order to comply
with the above.

59

EMPLOYERS
RESPONSIBILITIES TO
PROVIDE
Safe plant and equipment

Safe place of work, access & egress


Safe system of work
Competent workers
Safe materials and substances
Protective clothing and PPEs
Provide safety policy
Risk Assessment
Emergency procedures

EMPLOYERS
RESPONSIBILITIES TO
Health Surveillance PROVIDE

Consult employees regarding H&S


Adequate information, training, instructions and supervision
(ITIS)
Safe environment & welfare facilities
Competent H&S assistance
Effective H&S management arrangements

WORKERS/EMPLOYEES
RESPONSIBILITIES AND RIGHTS

Must protect themselves and those around


them
Follow H&S rules and regulations
Report dangerous situations
Receive adequate ITIS
Do not damage H&S controls
Must co-operate with the Employer
Protect companies assets
To use the provided PPEs adequately.
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THE ROLE OF ENFORCEMENT


AUTHORITIES
To protect the health, safety and welfare of people at
work, and to safeguard others, mainly members of the
public, who may be exposed to risks from the way work
is carried out.
Ensure that duty holders take action to deal immediately
with serious risks;
Promote and achieve sustained compliance with the
law;

THE ROLE OF ENFORCEMENT


AUTHORITIES
Enforcing health and safety law

Enforcing fire safety legislation and/or advising


employers.

Fostering co-operation between the parties involved.


Setting targets for future improvement.

64

THE ROLE OF ENFORCEMENT


AUTHORITIES

Prosecution of the organization in the criminal courts.

Prosecution of individuals such as directors, managers and


workers.

Formal Enforcement action.

65

THE ROLE OF ENFORCEMENT


AUTHORITIES
The health and safety inspector may serve: An improvement notice :- When there is a breach of health
and safety law and this breach is likely to continue or be
repeated, eg. A damaged floor is to be repaired with in 21 days
A prohibition notice :-When there is a breach of health and
safety law and the occurrence of imminent risk of serious
personal injury is likely, eg. Unguarded machine use to be
stopped immediately

66

THE ROLE OF
ENFORCEMENT
AUTHORITIES

The powers of health and safety inspector under


Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) 1974

To enter any work premises


To ask questions and start investigations
To take samples from suspected materials
To seize and render anything that they believe might be the cause
of
imminent danger
To take photographs
To issue improvement/prohibition notices
To initiate prosecution

THE CONSEQUENCES OF
NON-COMPLIANCE OF
ENFORCEMENT
AUTHORITIES
Ensure that duty holders who breach health and
safety requirements, and directors or managers
who fail in their responsibilities, may be held to
account, which may include bringing alleged
offenders before the courts

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND CONVENTIONS ( ISO,
ILO etc.)

The ILO was established by the Versailles Peace


Treaty in 1919, its primary task to draft
Conventions on labour standards and oversee
the development of international labour law.
As defined by theWorld Health Organization
(WHO) "occupational health deals with all
aspects of health and safety in the workplace
and has a strong focus on primary prevention of
hazards.

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND CONVENTIONS ( ISO,
ILO etc.)
ISO, the International Organization for
Standardization, is an independent, nongovernmental organization, with 164 member
countries. It is the world's largest developer of
voluntary international standards and facilitates
world trade by providing common standards
between nations. Nearly 20,000 standards
have been set covering everything from
manufactured products and technology to food
safety, agriculture and healthcare.

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND CONVENTIONS ( ISO,
ILO etc.)
The purpose of International Labour Organization is
to Promote human and labour rights, freedom &
equity for men and women. It is based on decent
treatment of people.

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND CONVENTIONS ( ISO,
ILO etc.)
OHSAS 18001,Occupational Health and
Safety Management Systems
Requirements is an internationally
appliedBritish Standardfor occupational
health and safetymanagement systems
in line with ISO standards.

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND CONVENTIONS ( ISO,
ILO etc.)
Guidelines on occupational safety and health
management systems ILO-OSH 2001
As defined by theWorld Health Organization
(WHO) "occupational health deals with all
aspects of health and safety in the workplace and
has a strong focus on primary prevention of
hazards.

PURPOSE OF LAW:
Control anti-social behaviour
Regulate the behaviour of our
society
Set standards of acceptable
behaviour
Resolve conflicts between
parties

LEGAL SYSTEMS
In any Legal system there are two distinct
branches of the Law:
1. Civil Law
2. Criminal Law

CIVIL LAW
The aim of Civil Law is to compensate an
injured party for losses that have been suffered:
Two types of Civil Liability:
1. Fault Liability
2. No Fault Liability

CIVIL LAW
Civil Law with Fault liability :
For the employee to be successful in a Civil claim, they must
prove that:
1. There was a duty of care owed
2. Duty of care owed was breached - negligent
3. The breach resulted in the loss or injury or ill health or death
of the victim.

Civil Law with No-Fault liability :


4. It is assumed that the employer is liable to pay the
victim and so compensation is awarded accordingly
5. The claimant is not required to prove the employer is
negligent

CRIMINAL LAW
The aim of Criminal Law is to punish and deter
individuals and organisations from behaving in
a way that is unacceptable to society.
Punishment for organisations usually involves
a fine or restriction of activities.
Punishment for individuals could be
imprisonment, fines, restriction of offices held
or a combination.

SOURCES OF
INFORMATION ON
NATIONAL LAW
Government Decree
Health and safety authority
HAAD/HSE
CP
CoP
General and Technical Guidance documents

EXTERNAL INFORMATION
SOURCESagencies,
International HSE Organisations,
conventions
Government HSE organizations
National safety organizations
Suppliers & manufacturer
International standards
Consultants & specialists
Internet
Insurance companies

80

INTERNAL INFORMATION

SOURCES

Accident reports.
Medical reports.
Maintenance reports.
Risk assessments.
Inspections with safety representatives.
Audits, surveys, sampling and tours.
Safety committee meeting minutes.

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SOURCES OF INFORMATION IN
GENERAL

Accident, ill-health
Method statement on manual handling.
Risk assessments.
Consulting the work force
ILO & WHO
International HSE Organizations IOSH, OSHA
Trade unions and employers organization
Benchmarking with organization in similar
business
Reference book on physiology
Internet
Library

Outline reasons why it is important that an


organization maintains employers liability
insurance. (2)

An organization has had an increase in the number


of
manual Handling accidents and associated ill
health.
Identify sources of information that may be
available
to help reduce the risks to the workers. (8)

Outline reasons for promoting and


maintaining good standards of health and
safety in the workplace. (6)
. A serious accident has occurred to
a worker and there will be costs to
the organization as a result.
Identify FOUR costs which are likely to
be insured and uninsured. (8)

Outline the main health and safety


responsibilities of an employer. (8)
Outline the health and safety
responsibilities of workers.
Identify actions an enforcement authority
might take if it finds that an employer is
not fulfilling its responsibilities. (2)

Outline how workers may influence


each other with regard to an
organizations health and safety
culture.
Identify ways in which findings from
monitoring can be communicated to
managers and workers. (4)

CLARIFICATION
THE END

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