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Chapter 12

Riveted, Bolted &


Welded Connections

Riveted, bolted and welded connections

Ordinary bolt (or rivet)

Bearing type connections

Friction type connections

High strength bolt

Lab joints (
)

Butt joints (
)

main plate
cover plate

Repeating
group

Boiler joints (pressure joints)

in calculation: Dbolt ; Dhole

Structural joints

Repeating
group
outer
cover
plate

Inner
cover
plate

in calculation:
Dhole Dbolt

(or 1.5 mm)


16

Multiple rows

long pitch
intermediate
pitch

back pitch

short
pitch

diagonal
pitch

Efficiency:
compares the strength of the joint with that of solids plates

P0

P0

P1


P0

P1

P1

:
%
Efficiency
= P1/P

0
( )
7

(1) Shearing (at

connector)

(2) Tearing (of plate)

(3) Bearing (of


plate)

(4) Unlikely to occur


if the distance from the edge
of the plate to the connector is
large enough (1.75-2 times
the diameter of the connector)

3.25

in calculation: Drivet ; Dhole 11/16 in.


(1) Rivet capacity (shearing of rivet and bearing failure)
Shearing:

d2
Ps As 2(
)
4

2 (11/16) 2 8800
4
6533.5 lb.

10

(1) Rivet capacity (shearing of rivet and bearing failure) (cont)


bearing:

b = 19 ksi

Pb Ab b 2(td ) t
7 11
2( ) 19000
16 16
11429.7 lb.

t = 11 ksi

(2) Tearing capacity (tension failure of plate)

Pt

tearing:

Pt At t

3.25

11 7
) 11000
16 16
12332 lb.
(3.25

3.25

Hence the strength of


the repeating section is
6533.5 lb per 3.25 in.

11

6533.5

0.418 41.8 %
3.25 (7 /16) 11000

Internal pressure

Ps 6533.5 lb. per 3.25

D2
F
p
4

D2
6533.56 lb
p D
4
3.25
(15 12) 2
6533.56
p (15 12)
4
3.25
p 134 psi.
12

(1) Preliminary calculation:


load that can transmitted by one rivet (shear or bearing)
(2) Possible method of failure

13

14

d = 20.5 mm

300
60 MPa
5
650
b
130 MPa
5
400
t
80 MPa
5

15

Row 1 (has 1-rivet)


single shear

P-19.8 kN

main plate
cover plate

19.8 kN
19.8 kN
16

Row 1 (has 1-rivet)

main plate

crash in the main plate

37.3 kN

cover plate

P-37.3 kN

37.3 kN
37.3 kN
main plate

crash in the cover plate

26.7 kN

P-26.7 kN

26.7 kN
26.7 kN

cover plate

Hence strength of
row-1 is 19.8 kN
17

Row 2 (has 2rivets)


double shear

39.6 kN
Shear strength
at row-2 is

2 x 19.8
kN
2 x 19.8
kN
19.8 kN
19.8 kN

2 39.6 79.2 kN

P-99 kN

2 x 19.8
kN
2 x 19.8
kN
59.4 kN
18

Row 2 (has 2rivets)


crushing at main
plate

37.3 kN
37.3 kN

2 x 37.3
kN
19.8 kN

P-94.4 kN

One possible
bearing
strength at
row-2
2 37.3is 74.6 kN

37.3 kN
57.1 kN

crushing at cover
plate

2 x 26.7 kN

4 x 26.7
kN
19.8 kN

2 x 26.7
kN

53.4 kN

P-126.6 kN

73.2 kN

One possible
bearing
strength at
4row-2
26.7is 106.8 kN

Hence
strength of
row 2 is
74.6 kN

19

Row 3 (has 2rivets)

double shear
2 x 19.8
kN
2 x 19.8
kN

crushing at main
plate

crushing at cover
plate

37.3 kN

2 x 26.7 kN

2 x 37.3
kN

4 x 26.7
kN

37.3 kN

2 x 26.7 kN

Hence
strength of
row 3 is also
74.6 kN

20

Total rivet capacity

19.8 kN

74.6 kN 74.6 kN

21

Tearing at row
1 of main plate

Tearing at row
2 of main plate

22

Tearing capacity of main


plate
Row 1

main plate

P2

main plate

t 80 MPa
t 14 mm
p 180 mm
d 20.5 mm

Row 3

74.6 kN 74.6 kN

19.8 kN

P1

Row 2

p 180 mm

P1 ( p d )t t
(180 20.5) 14 80
178.6 kN
P2 ( p 2d )t t 19.8 kN

t 80 MPa

175.5 kN
19.8 kN

P3

main plate
19.8 kN

37.3 kN
37.3 kN

t 80 MPa

P3 ( p 2d )t t 19.8 74.6 kN

250.1 kN
23

Tearing capacity of cover


plate

Row 1

19.8 kN

Row 2

Row 3

24

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

19.8 kN

outer cover plate

9.9 kN

19.8 kN
19.8 kN

79.2 kN

19.8 kN
9.9 kN

Pc 79.2 111.2
190.4 kN

inner cover plate

p 180 mm

t 80 MPa

P t t ( p 2d )

t 10 mm
d 20.5 mm

80 10 (180 2 20.5)
111.2 kN
25

Rivets failure:

169.0 kN

Tearing of main plate:

175.5 kN

Tearing of cover plate: 190.4 kN

26

12-5 STRESSES IN BEARING-TYPE CONNECTIONS

Assume each rivet carries a load proportional to its resisting shear area

Totally 9 shear areas:


1/2

1
2

2
1/2

the average load


transmitted by 1 shear
area is P 36 / 9 4 kips
s

27

the average shearing stress is

Row1

Ps
4

=5.80 ksi
2

15
d / 4
( )2
4 16

Row2 Row3

15
in
16

3 / 8 in
1/ 2 in

4 kips

4 kips

1/ 2 in
3 / 8 in

4 kips
3 / 8 in

the maximum average bearing stress is


P
8
b b
=17.07 ksi
td 1 (15 )
2 16

28

main plate (Row 1)

36 kips

36
10.2 ksi
15 1
(8 16 ) 2

main plate (Row 2)

36 kips

2 kips

2 kips

36 4
1
(8 2 15
16 ) 2

10.45 ksi

main plate (Row 3)

36 kips

2 kips 8 kips

8 kips
2 kips

36 20
15 1
(8 2 16
)2

5.23 ksi
29

Upper cover plate


4 kips

4 kips

2 kips

16 kips

4 kips
2 kips

Lower cover plate


2 kips

4 kips

2 kips

20 kips

4 kips

4 kips
2 kips

2 kips

30

Lower cover plate


2 kips

4 kips

2 kips

20 kips

4 kips

4 kips
2 kips

2 kips

31

32

Lab joints ( )

Butt joints ( )

33

shearing capacity of 1-rivet

Ps ( d 2 / 4)

95( 192 / 4) N

26.935 kN
bearing capacity of 1-rivet

d hole d rivet 1.5 mm 20.5 mm

220(8 19) N

Row1

P1

Pb b (td )

upper plate

33.44 kN

L 250 mm

Total rivets capacity

Privet 9 26.935 kN
P1 t t ( L d hole )
140 8 (250 20.5) N 257 kN

242.42 kN
34

Hence the joint


capacity is 242.42 kN
Efficiency =
242.42 kN
86.6%
140 8 250 N

d hole d rivet 1.5 mm


Row2

P2

upper plate

P2 26.94 kN t t ( L 2d hole )
L 250 mm

26.94 kN

140 8(250 2 20.5) N

P2 261 kN
Row3

P3

26.94 kN
26.94 kN

26.94 kN

P3 3 26.94 kN t t ( L 3d hole )
140 8(250 3 20.5) N

P3 291.9 kN

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

(-4.5,4)

(-1.5,4)

(1.5,4)

Pdx

28.8
2.4 kips
12

Pdy

38.4
3.2 kips
12

(4.5,4)

(-4.5,0)

(-1.5,0)

(1.5,0)

(4.5,0)

(-4.5,-4)

(-1.5,-4)

(1.5,-4)

(4.5,-4)

Twisting moment

T 38.4 4.5 kips.in


172.8 kips.in
43

44

45



1220 1240

46

47

friction type
bearing type (Bearing
stress) bolt plate
48

49

Butt Weld ()

strength of butt weld


allowable stress lenght of weld thickness of the thinner plate

allowable stress allowable stress of base metal

50

Fillet Weld (

t
45O

throat t sin 45O 0.707t

base on AISC, for E70 electrodes, A36 steel allow 21 ksi

51

52

3/8

3 1 5
t

8 16 16
E70 : 21 ksi

q 14.9t kips/in.
4.66 kips/in.

Ans
53

Ans

54

55

56

Torsional couple:

Centroid:

Polar moment of inertia:

57

58

59

60

61