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ROBERT M.

GAGN
(1916-2002)

Born 1916 in North


Andover, Massachusetts

His

theory deals with all


aspects of learning.

The focus of the theory is


on intellectual skills.

GAGNES PRINCIPLES:
1.

Different instruction is required for dif


ferent learning outcomes.

2. Learning Hierarchies define what


intellectual skills are to be learned and
a sequence of instruction.
3

. Events of learning operate on the learn


er in ways that constitute the conditions
of learning.

CATEGORIES OF
LEARNING

1. VERBAL INFORMATION
Example of Learning outcome:
Stating previously learned materials such
as facts, concepts, principles and procedures.
Conditions of Learning:
1. Draw attention to distinctive features by
variations in print or speech.
2. Present information so that it can be made
into chunks.
3. Provide a meaningful context for effective
encoding of information

2. INTELLECTUAL SKILLS
Example of Learning Outcome:
Discriminations: Distinguishing objects, features,
or symbols
Concrete Concepts: Identifying classes of concrete
objects, features, or events
Defined concepts: Classifying new examples of
events or ideas by their definition
Rules: Applying a single relationship to solve a class
of problems
Order Rules: Applying a new combination of rules
to solve a complex problem

Conditions of Learning:
1. Call attention of distinctive features.
2. Stay within the limits of working memory.
3. Stimulate recall of previously learned
component skills.
4. Present verbal cues to the ordering or
combination of component skills.
5. Schedule occasions for practice and spaced
review.
6. Use a variety of contexts to promote transfer.

3.COGNITIVE
STRATEGIES

Example of Learning Outcome:


Employing personal ways to guide
learning, thinking, acting and feeling.
Conditions of Learning:
1. Describe or demonstrate the strategy.
2. Provide a variety of occasions for practice
using strategy.

4. ATTITUDES

Example of Learning Outcome:


Choosing personal actions based on
internal states of understanding and
feeling.
Conditions of Learning:
1. Establish an expectancy of success
associatde with the desired attitude.
2.Assure student identification attitude.

5. MOTOR SKILLS

Example of Learning Outcome:


Executing performances involving the use
of muscles.
Conditions of Learning:
1. Arrange repeated practice.
2. Present verbal or other guidance to cue the
executive subroutine.
3. Furnish immediate feedback as to accuracy
of performance.

GAGNE'S NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION:


Enhancing( 9)
retention and transfer
(generalization)

(8) Assessing
performance (Retrieval)

(1) Gaining
attention
(Reception)

Nine instructional events


&corresponding
cognitive processes:

Informing learners of( 2)


the objective
(Expectancy)

(3) Stimulating recall


of prior learning
(Retrieval)

Presenting the stimulus( 4)


(Selective perception)

Providing feedback( 7)
(Reinforcement)

(6) Eliciting
performance
(Responding)

(5) Providing learning guidance


(Semantic encoding)

THE NINE INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS


Event of
Instruction

Lesson Example

1. Gaining
attention

Teacher shows variety of Giving background information creates


validity.
computer generated
triangles
The use of multimedia grabs the
audience attention.

Rationale

Asking questions in the beginning


creates an interactive atmosphere.
2. Informing the Teacher pose question:
What is an equilateral
learner of the
triangle?
objective

3. Stimulating
recall of prior
learning

Review definitions of
triangles

Make earners aware of what to expect


so that they are aware and
prepared to receive information.

When learning something new,


accessing prior knowledge is major
factor in the process of acquiring
new information.

Event of
Instruction

Lesson Example

Rationale

4. Presenting
the stimulus

Give definition of
equilateral triangle

The goal is information


acquisition, therefore, the
stimulus employed is written
content and the actual software
program.

5. Providing
learner
guidance

Show example of how to Teacher uses discovery learning


create equilateral triangle
because learners are adults
and it gives them the freedom
to explore.
Teacher facilitates the learning
process.
Guidance is minimal.

6. Eliciting
performance

Ask students to create 5


different examples

Requiring the learner to produce


based on what been taught
enables the learner to confirm
their learning.

Event of Instruction

Lesson Example

7. Providing

Check all examples as Regular feedback enhances


correct/incorrect
learning.

Feedback

8. Assessing
performance

9. Enhancing
retention and
transfer

Rationale

Provide scores and


remediation

Independent practice forces


students to use what they
learned and apply it.
Assessing such gives
instructors a means of testing
student learning outcomes.

Show pictures of
objects and ask
students to identify
equilaterals

Applying learning in real-life


situations is a step towards
Mastery Learning.