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BUDAO, Cherry Pinky M.

BAAREZ, Karla Kristel A.


BAQUIRAN, Jessica Aevan U.
BASMAYOR, Edwin Marlon C.
BASTE, Charisse Liz P.
BAUTISTA, Jose Antonio L.
BEESLA, Sundeep Kaur B.
BELMONTE, Carlo Alphonso
BONDOC, Hidelisa E.
BORROMEO, Christian Leo P.
BRION, Marco Alberto C.
BUENSALIDA, Rainier John
BULAONG, Marie Veronica G.
BUMANGLAG, Nia M.
BURGO, Terence Aaron L.
BUAG, Mark Chester Victor T.
CACDAC, Maybelle Chris
CAMACLANG, Marie Len A.
CANADALLA, Kristine Joyce L.
CAOILI, Sylvia Nica J.
CASTILLO, Maria Carmella P.
CHAN, Jose Carlos A.
CHAVEZ, Frances Joy T.

THE EFFICACY OF
TSAANG GUBAT (Ehretia
microphylla Lam)
DECOCTION AS AN ANTIDIARRHEAL AGENT
VERSUS ATROPINE
SULFATE
GROUP 2A

INTRODUCTION

PATHOGENESIS

Agents / Factors:

Escherichia coli

Campylobacter jejuni

Shigella spp.

Aeromonas spp.

side effects from medications i.e.


antibiotics, bronchodilators, antacids,
laxatives
assoc DO: lactose intolerance, IBS

PATHOGENESIS

Other Assoc'ns

ingestion of poisonous substances e.g.


organophosphate insecticides

amanita and other mushrooms

arsenic cpds

preformed environmental toxins

APPROACH TO DIARRHEA

fluid and electrolyte replacement

oral rehydration solutions : replace lost


fluids
antibiotics : elimination of any causative
agent
elimination of dietary lactose :
suppressing the underlying mechanism
mild opiate i.e. Loperamide : cases of
mild to moderate diarrhea

LOCAL HERBAL MEDICATIONS

primary health care

increasing cost

found to be effective in tx of common


ailments attested by the NSDB

advocated by the DOH

Tsaang Gubat

Ehretia microphylla Lam.

tx: diarrhea, stomachache

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

to determine the efficacy of Tsaang Gubat as an


alternative anti-diarrheal drug
tested along with Atropine Sulfate and Normal Saline
Solution
Tsaang Gubat as effective as Atropine, as a very good
alt drug for diarrheal cases in poverty-stricken
communities due to lack of funds for purchasing
expensive anti-diarrheal drugs

OBJECTIVE

to determine the effectiveness of Tsaang Gubat, one of


the 10 herbal medicines launched by the DOH as an antidiarrheal medication, compared to the standard drug,
Atropine

1) By using the test drug Tsaang Gubat, was the distance


travelled by the charcoal meal shortened?
2) Is Tsaang Gubat for treatment of diarrhea?
3) Is Tsaang Gubat as effective as the standard drug,
Atropine, for the treatment of diarrhea?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Tsaang Gubat

one of the herbal medicines listed in Sampung


Halamang Gamot program in the early 1990's
shrub commonly found in the Philippines
endorsed as anti-spasmodic for abdominal pains and
for other GI DO (diarrhea, dysentery)
listed in the BFAD as medicinal plant

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

limited to the effects of the medicinal plant in decreasing


intestinal motility = beneficial of diarrhea or LBM
no other forms of treatment for diarrhea or LBM have
been included
Normal Saline Solution has no known effect on GI
motility
Atropine is a known muscarinic (cholinergic) blocker =
inhibits GI motility

SCOPE AND LIMITATION (con't)

starved mice of the same sex and about the same weight
as subjects = prevent bias d/t diff in sex and wt
starvation so as not to affect drug absorption and prevent
any obstruction in the GIT for the charcoal sol'n

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

METHODOLOGY

% distance travelled as indicator of antidiarrheal activity


parameter measured is the length of the
small intestine travelled by the charcoal

METHODOLOGY

Male and female albino mice obtained from UERM


day prior to the expt, mice were placed in wire meshed
cages, given standard pellet diet and water
experimentation carried out accdg to the IAEC
guidelines

mice were weighed and labeled for proper ID

divided into three groups:

Positive Control (Atropine Sulfate)

Negative Control (Normal Saline Solution)

Test Drug (Tsaang Gubat)

METHODOLOGY (con't)

9 mice in total; 3 mice per group


Negative control: Normal Saline Solution via gavage 0.5
mL/kg orally
Positive control: Atropine Sulfate via gavage 10mg/kg
Test drug: Ehretia microphylla Lam. (Tsaang Gubat)
extract via gavage 10g/kg orally

METHODOLOGY (con't)

Charcoal sol'n

10 gm charcoal mixed with 100 mL castor oil


20 mL of charcoal-castol oil suspension then mixed
with 10 mL coconut oil

suspension stirred constantly to obtain uniform


suspension

METHOLODOGY (con't)

2 kg dried leaves of Tsaang Gubat chopped into small


pieces, consequently boiled in 1L of distilled water for 8
hrs
boiled after filtering using filter paper, collected in a
beaker

repeated twice until dark-brown extract was obtained

refrigerated for 1 hr prior to the expt

METHODOLOGY

ANIMATION OF METHODOLOGY

COLLECTION OF DATA

20 mins after, mice were sacrificed

intestines were excised (from pylorum to cecum)

distance travelled by activated charcoal measured and


recorded corresponding to the different doses
administered
total length was also measured

Percentage Distance =

Activated charcoal___ X 100


Total length of intestine

ANALYSIS OF DATA

weight of the rat

dose of drug administered

length of intestine

charcoal distance

length of the small intestine travelled by the charcoal

percent of distance travelled


= Length travelled by activated charcoal x 100
total length of intestine

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 1.0. Mean and Standard Deviation of the Percentage of Distance
Travelled by Charcoal with administration of Atropine and Normal
Saline Solution
Group Statistics
Distance Travelled by Charcoal

DISTRA

DRUGS
atropin
NSS

N
18
18

Mean
23.2267
46.6561

Std. Deviation
23.85315
22.05226

Std. Error
Mean
5.62224
5.19777

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 2.0. T-test Values for the Individual Samples in the Positive Control
Group and the Negative Control Group

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

F
DISTRA

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.
.249

.621

t-test for Equality of Means

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean
Difference

Std. Error
Difference

95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper

-3.060

34

.004

-23.4294

7.65679

-38.98991

-7.86898

-3.060

33.793

.004

-23.4294

7.65679

-38.99343

-7.86546

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 3.0. Mean and Standard Deviation of the Percentage of Distance
Travelled by Charcoal with administration of Tsaang Gubat and
Normal Saline Solution
Group Statistics
Distance Travelled by Charcoal

DISTRA

DRUGS
tsaang
NSS

N
18
18

Mean
31.3539
46.6561

Std. Deviation
15.68023
22.05226

Std. Error
Mean
3.69587
5.19777

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Mouse 1: 10 cm distance (27% of the total intestinal


length of 36 cm)
Mouse 2: 12 cm distance (30% of the total intestinal
length of 40 cm)
Mouse 3: 18 cm distance (50% of the total intestinal
length of 36 cm)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Treatment
Atropine Sulfate
Norrmal Saline Solution
Tsaang Gubat

Dose
10 mg/kg
0.5 mL/kg
10 g/kg

% Distance Traveled
27.7
30
50

CONCLUSION

Negative Ctrl Grp (NSS)

isotonic solution; same conc as body cells; N


physiologic conditions in the intestine
ACTUAL: shorter % distance travelled in the intestine
THEORETICAL: longer % distance travelled in the
intestine

RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

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