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BIU 3043

(GROUP N)
DIRECT AND INDIRECT
SPEECH
NURUL NADIA BINTI ABD RAZAK
D 20121058277
NUR NAJWA BINTI MOHD NAWAWI
D 20121058288
NOR NABILAH BINTI HUSSIN
D 20121058542
FAIZAH BINTI ABDULLAH

D 20121061107

CHANGE IN MODALS
CHANGES IN MODAL MAY OCCUR WHEN CHANGING FROM DIRECT SPEECH TO
INDIRECT SPEECH .

DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH

Will
I will complete mycourse in
1996."

would
He said that hewould complete
his course in 1996

May
Itmayrainthisevening.

might
Hesaidthatitmightrainthat
evening

Can
"Imsurewecanmakeaprofit
fromthetransaction."

could
Hesaidhe was sure that they
could make a profit from the
transaction

Must
Had to/would have to / must
Abraham said,children must obey Abraham said that children must
their parents.
obey their parents

a) If you ought to/ you should

Used to express advice other than obligation


it can be reported by advice + object +
infinity. We can express advice and report
similary when you must is used.
Direct speech

Indirect speech

you ought to/should/must


read the instructions in the
recipe,

Ann advice/urged me to read


the instruction in the recipe

b) used to

Do not change in indirect statement


Direct speech

Indirect speech

I know the restaurant well


because I used to live here, he
explained

He explained that he knew the


restaurant well because he used
to live there

c) Could for ability


1 could for ability present remain unchange
Direct speech

Indirect speech

I cant/couldt stand the smell


of durians,he said

He said he couldt stand the


smell of durian

2- could for future ability remain unchanged or


replaced by would be able
Direct speech

Indirect speech

He said, I could buy you lunch


tomorrow

He said he could do it/ would


be able to buy her lunch the
next day.

3 - could for past ability remain unchanged or


replaced by had been able
Direct speech

Indirect speech

I could eat one whole


watermelon when I was three!
she boasted

She boasted that she colud /


had been able to eat one whole
watermelon when she was three

CHANGE IN
EXPRESSIONS OF
TIME

Here is a list of common time words :


direct speech

reported speech

now

then / at that time

today

that day, on Sunday, yesterday

tonight

that night, last night, on Sunday night

tomorrow

the next/following day, on Sunday,


today

yesterday

the day before/the previous day, on


Sunday

last night

the night before/the previous night, on


Sunday night

this week

that week, last week

last month

the month before/the previous month,


in May

next year

the following year, in 2014

two minutes ago

two minutes before

in one hour

one hour later

Here are some common place words, showing how


we change them for reported speech (indirect
speech):
direct speech

indirect speech

here

there, in Starbucks

this

that

this book

the book, that book, War and


Peace

in this room

in the room, in that room, in


the kitchen

EXAMPLE :
Direct speech

Indirect speech

IliveinNebbitownnow.

HelivedinNebbitownthen

Youcan'tstayherewithoutajob Hecouldn'tstaytherewithouta
job
They willgo forholidays
nextmonth

They wouldgofor holidaysthe


followingmonth

Yesterdaywasmybirthday

Thedaybefore/thepreviousda
yhadbeen his birthday

The dogsbarkedalotlastnight.

The dogs had barked a lot the


night before/theprevious
night.

EXAMPLE

Tasya : My train leavesat 9.30 tomorrow.


Tasya said her train leavesat 9.30 today.

"How long have you worked here?


"She asked me how long I'd worked there.

Ten minutes ago you said,


"We have a lot of work today.

THANK YOU..