Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 69

1

HOW TO WRITE FINAL


REPORT

EET 333 ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT (ETP)


2ND SEMESTER, 2014/2015 SESSION
Muhd Hafizi Bin Idris

ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)

COVER PAGE
TITLE PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
APPROVAL & DECLARATION SHEET
ABSTRAK (MALAY)
Preliminaries
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH)
Roman numbering,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
i, ii, iii, iv,
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS & DISCUSSION
CHAPTER 5 COMMERCIALIZATION POTENTIAL
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

Title should reflect the


objectives of the project.

COVER PAGE
ETP Project Title
(All in CAPITAL
letter)
DO NOT BOLD
Name for each
members
(All in CAPITAL
letter)
DO NOT BOLD

Refer Appendix A

Font size: 12
Spacing: 1.5
3 spaces
Font size: 18
Spacing: 1.0
Font size: 12
Spacing: 1.5
4 spaces
Font size: 18
Spacing: 1.0
Font size: 18 3
Spacing: 1.0
NO BOLD

COVER PAGE FORMAT


Binding type: Tape Binding
Paper Type: Hard A4 Paper (front & back)
Colour of paper: Will be decided later
Note: Please add plastic cover at the front and
back of your report.

TITLE PAGE
ETP Project Title
(All in CAPITAL
letter)
DO NOT BOLD
Name for each
members
(All in CAPITAL
letter)
DO NOT BOLD

Refer Appendix H

Start roman
numbering,
but the page
number is
HIDE for
page title 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Include a brief statement of appreciations and


in recognition of any special assistance such as
from supervisors, family, scholarships from certain
sources,
utilization
of
library,
engineers,
laboratory, technicians, computer facilities and
assistance provided by the Schools.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

APPROVAL & DECLARATION SHEET


Full Name for
each member and
their matrix
numbers.
Only the first
letter for each
word is in
CAPITAL
Full name of your
supervisors.
All letters are in
CAPITAL

Refer Appendix I

Title of the project


Only the first
letter for each
word is in
CAPITAL

Roman font

ABSTRAK (MALAY) & ABSTRACT


(ENGLISH)
provides the reader with a summary of the contents of
the project report.
It should therefore be brief but contain sufficient detail, telling
the reader the introduction to the research/project and/or problem
statement, techniques/methods employed; main results and
conclusions.
The Abstract is the "gateway" to the contents of the project report,
and therefore it is important that the Abstract gives the reader a
good initial impression.
Abstract

TIPS:
Write the Abstract last. The project report will be easier to be
summarised once all the bits are in place.
For abstrak (Malay), DO NOT translate word by word the abstract
(English). Write the abstrak in Malay language using your own
word which has the same meaning
like what
you use in abstract.
COMMON
MISTAKE!!

ABSTRAK (MALAY) & ABSTRACT


(ENGLISH)

Limit to one page only


Guide: 20% introduction, 60 % method, 20 % conclusion from
the results.
Not more than 200 words.
Write in one paragraph
Abstract CANNOT be included with the items below:
Issues related to personal feeling, e.g. learned a lot of
things from this project
First and second person pronouns (I, we, you, me, my, etc.)
Outline of chapters in your project report
Any issues that are not produced from your project (except
comparison cases with another persons work)
Figure/Tables.
Mathematical formulae.

10

ABSTRAK (MALAY) & ABSTRACT


(ENGLISH)
EXAMPLE
The project presents the modeling of Distributed Network Cell
(DNC) based on grey-box approach. The equivalent model of DNC
comprises of a converter-connected generator and a composite load model
in parallel. The detail development of the equivalent model is described
in this thesis. The dynamic equivalent model is presented in the form of
sixth-order nonlinear state space format and developed from the
algebraic and differential equations describing assumed typical
components of DNC. The accuracy of the equivalent model is evaluated
and validated by the best fit value calculation. The comparison has also
been made between the equivalent model based on grey-box approach
and black-box approach in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed
parameter estimation procedure. The results obtained demonstrate that
the developed grey-box model performs better under small and large
disturbance compared to the black-box model. Therefore the equivalent
model of DNC developed based on grey-box approach has the potential to
significantly improve model accuracy of DNC compared to the black-box
approach.

11

ABSTRAK (MALAY) & ABSTRACT


(ENGLISH)

12

Refer Appendix J

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents lists all headings and subheadings
with their page numbers
For a computer programming project, students are
encouraged to put all non-significant language
programme-code in the APPENDICES.

13

TABLE OF CONTENTS

14

Refer Appendix C

TABLE OF CONTENTS

15

Refer Appendix C

TABLE OF CONTENTS

16

Refer Appendix C

LIST OF FIGURES

17

Refer Appendix L

LIST OF TABLES

18

Refer Appendix K

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS &


SYMBOLS
Provides a list of nomenclature and definitions of
acronyms used in the project report. Make sure
that the corresponding units, if applicable, are
included.
It is good practice to have a different section for
nomenclature involving Greek symbols as might
be encountered in equations and one for
acronyms.
The format is same with List of Tables/Figures
but without sequence number and page number

19

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS &


SYMBOLS
Abbreviations
WT Wind Turbine
TNB Tenaga Nasional Berhad
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
Symbols
P Power
I Current
V Voltage
R Resistance
C Capacitance
L Inductance

20

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
Chapter

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1 must discuss all the items below:

Background of the project / Overview of the


project
Problem statement
Objectives of the project
Scopes of the project
Report Outline

21

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

Problem Statement stated the current situation of a matter and


describes / explains the problems exist with the current situation and
propose a possible solution / method to eliminate the problems.
Example
Increasing penetration levels of renewable energy resources are calling for
detailed revisit of power system dynamic behavior in both transmission and
distribution network. For such a study the equivalent dynamic models of
DNC, or to that matter, the whole distribution network, are highly needed so
that power system operators can estimate its impact on power system
dynamic behaviour. Detailed modelling of the whole DNC is not practical due
to the size of the system and computational time constrains associated with
dynamic simulations of large power networks. The models should be simple
and of low order yet able to represent appropriately DNC dynamics as seen by
the external grid. The main goal therefore is to eliminate a part (small or
large) of distribution network and to replace it by the equivalent model which22
exhibits the same dynamic characteristics.

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

Objectives of the project objectives aim to create solution for


the problems stated in the problem statement

Example
1.
To design a hybrid energy system
2.
To develop the associate controller of the developed hybrid
energy system
IC
F
3.
To analyze the effects of .........
CI
E
SP

Wrong objectives:
4.
To help peoples...
5.
To ease the process of ..........
6.
To reduce the queue at .............

IC LE
F
I
B
C
A
E
R
SP SU
T
A
O
N ME
UN

23

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

Scopes of the Project FOCUS & LIMITATIONS


The scopes of the projectshould include the following:
1.
A brief statement of the general purpose of the project/study.
2.
The subject matter and topics studied and discussed.
3.
The location of the study, where the data were gathered or the entity to
which the data belong.
4.
The population or universe from which the respondents were selected.
5.
The period of the study. This is the time, either months or years,
during which the data were gathered.

Example:
This investigation was conducted to determine the status of the
teaching of science in the high schools of Province A as perceived by the
teachers and students in science classes during the school year 19891990. the aspects looked into were the qualifications of teachers, their
24
methods and strategies, facilities forms of supervisory assistance,
problems
and
proposed
solutions
to
problems.

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
Report Outline brief explanations on the type of contents inside
each chapter (1-5).
Make it in paragraph form.

Example
Chapter 1 discusses on the motivation of this project, the objectives
of the project, .............................
Chapter
2
is
on
literature
survey
of .........................................................................
Methodology
is
discussed
in
Chapter
3. ......................................................................................
Chapter
4
is
discussing
on
the
results ..............................................................................
Lastly, the conclusion on the project is discussed in Chapter
5. ..............................................................

25

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature review reviews on other peoples works and


findings. It also includes background theories (all
related equations), hypothesis and techniques related
to your work.
Justify the use of specific solution techniques or
problem solving procedures in your work
Comments on other peoples works.
What are the advantages?
What are lacking/drawbacks?
What need to be improved?

26
Put the references [ ] in your paragraph for any theories, techniques,
methods and discussion on other peoples works.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW


Example
Generally most of the works done only considered the static
loads as the load models in the dynamic equivalent model of
DNC [14-16, 20-22]. Only a few papers take into account the
dynamic loads in their modelling [23, 25, 26]. The high
proportion of induction motors are usually the most
significant aspects of dynamic characteristics of system load
as motors consume 60 to 70% of the total energy supplied by
a power system [27]. Furthermore it has been suggested by
[28] that for transient stability analysis in weak
interconnected power systems (like DNC), the load needs to
be represented by static part and dynamic part from
induction motors. Thus it can be concluded that the
dynamic load models should be considered in DNC modeling
together with the static load model.

27

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW


Example
So far, the performance of micro grid/DNC has
been investigated, with special emphasis on island
operation [5]-[6], transient behaviour [7]-[8], as well
as on control and protection schemes. An adequate
equivalent dynamic model, representing the DNC,
has not yet been proposed even though it is
necessary for more thorough assessment of the
performance of power systems with DNC.
28

CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY

Methodology must include flow chart of the project showing all


methods required for the project in sequence.
Method can be defined as a systematic and orderly procedure
or process for attaining the stated objectives.
Every step/process stated in the flow chart must be described
in detail.
Methodology always involved a set of methods, techniques and
tools.
A tool is an instrument or apparatus that is necessary to the
performance of some task.
Technique is a systematic procedure by which a complex or
scientific task is accomplished
Method can include design, analysis and measurement.
29
Its better to separate general flow chart
and specific/technical flow chart

CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY

Example of a general/overall flow chart

30

CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY

Example of a technical/specific flow chart

31

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS &


DISCUSSION
Results can be depicted in the form of graphs,
tables, figures or other suitable forms.
Analysis must be made on every result you
get / displayed in the chapter.
Draw some conclusion after the analysis on all
results.

Results

Analysis

Conclusion

32

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS &


DISCUSSION
Example
No

Month

Total Sale

Jan

1200

Feb

3000

Mac

1500

April

2100

May

8000

June

10540

July

4678

August

3146

September

7251

10

October

1987

11

November

9987

12

December

11567

Total

64956

In the form of table

Total Sales of Perodua in 2013


1200 3000 1500
11567
2100

Jan

Feb

Mac

April

May

June

9987

July

August

8000

1987

September

October

10540

November

December

7251

3146 4678

In the form of pie chart


33

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS &


DISCUSSION
Example
Total Sales of Perodua in 2013
14000
12000

11567
9987

10540

10000

8000

8000
6000

7251
4678

3000

4000
2000 1200

1500

2100

3146

1987

In the form of Column Chart

In the form of graph

34

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS &


DISCUSSION
Example

In the form of picture

Simulation result
35

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS &


DISCUSSION
Example

36

Measurement Result

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS &


DISCUSSION

Analysis & conclusion

The
figure/table no.
must be stated
in the
text/paragraph

Total Sales of Perodua in 2013


14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0

10540

9987

8000

1200

3000

7251
4678

1500 2100

11567

3146

1987

Figure 2.1: Total Sales of Perodua in 2013

Figure 2.1 shows the total sale of Perodua in 2013. The


highest sale is in December with total of 11567 cars. The lowest
sale is in.. From the figure, it can be concluded 37
that
Analysis

Conclusion

CHAPTER 5 COMMERCIALIZATION
POTENTIAL
Target consumer / market / user / application / industry
Comparison
/ market survey between your
product/service with available product/service in the
market in term of

1.
2.
3.
4.

Cost
Extra features
Unique function
Etc

Please provide the data/information in the form of


table, chart etc to support your statement.
Draw conclusion how can your product/service
compete with the available product/service in the
market.

Commercialization potential bring 4 marks from


total marks of your project.

38

CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSION

Conclusion must have these 2 sections.


Summary of the report.

Highlights whether the work completed complies with the set


objective and the significance of the findings. State any
limitations in achieving the objectives. Conclusion also must
also includes:

Recommendations

for future works


Suggest future works based on work to be done to coupe
the limitation or to improve your work.
No analysis, data, figures, tables or equations should be
included in the conclusion
Dont make your conclusion too lengthy (max 3 pages)

39

CHAPTER 5 - CONCLUSION

Summary

Recommendations

40

Refer Appendix M

ALL THREE ELEMENTS IN YOUR


REPORT SHOULD HAVE A FLOW

Objective methodology conclusion


Objective

Methodology

Conclusion

To develop a

Design and

hybrid energy
system

analyse the

The developed
hybrid energy

hybrid energy
system using
MATLAB

system capable
to produce a
output power of
10kW.

41

LANGUAGE STYLE & FORMAT


1) Report must be written in English.
2) Avoid using I , We, You etc.
e.g.: I designed an antenna using ADS software.
Instead use passive:
Antenna was designed using ADS software
3) Avoid using command form
e.g.: Connect the output of antenna to the rectifier
Instead use reporting style:
The output of antenna was connected to the rectifier

Use passive words

42

FLOW OF CONTENTS
One of the techniques to achieve smooth flow of
contents is to maintain a thread between adjoining
chapters; ensure that each section within a chapter
lead on to the subsequent section; and paragraphs of
sections are connected to each other.
A common practice is to use "joining" words or
sentences, particularly at the end and beginning of
each chapter. A joining sentence at the end of a
chapter tells the reader what to expect, while one at
the beginning of a chapter reminds the reader of the
contents of the previous chapter.

43

FLOW OF CONTENTS
Avoid using long sentences. Long sentences are
difficult to read. Use simple sentences/explanations.
Try to keep sentence length to less than two lines,
and at the same time, make appropriate use of
punctuation.
The repeated use of words can make a report
difficult, if not boring, to read. Use a thesaurus to get
synonyms to introduce variety, but make sure that
they are used in the proper context.
Do not employ bombastic words to show how clever
you are with the language. Explanations using
commonly encounter words are more effective than
pompous sounding but rarely used vocabulary.

44

MARGIN

The stipulated margins for the general text are as


follows:
Top

edge
Right side:
Left side
Bottom edge

: 2.5 cm or 1 inch
2.5 cm or 1 inch
: 3.5 cm or 1.35 inch
: 2.5 cm or 1 inch

45

MARGIN

46

Refer Appendix B

MARGIN

47

Refer Appendix B

FONT & SPACING


Font type: Times New Roman
Font size: 12
Spacing: 1.5 (except specified)
Paper size: A4
Draft report: 70 gsm
Final Report: 80 gsm
While 1.5 spacing is generally used throughout the
text, 1.0 spacing is recommended for long tables,
long quotations, notes, footnotes, and reference
entries.

48

REPORT LENGTH

The report length should not exceed 50 pages not


including the appendices.

49

PAGINATION
All page numbers are placed without punctuation
and about 1.0 cm from the top-edge, either above
the middle of the lines of text or in the upper righthand corner with the last digit even with the righthand margin.
Alternatively, page numbers may be positioned about
1.0 cm from the bottom edge below the middle of
the lines of text. Consistency is more important in
the choice of position of the page number.

50

PAGINATION
The Preliminaries are numbered in consecutive
lower case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.). The
Title Page at the front of the report is considered to
be page i, but the number is hide. Roman numeral ii
appears on the first page that follows the title Page.
The Chapter, Reference and Appendix pages are
numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2,
3, etc.) beginning with 1 on the first page of the text
(Chapter 1).
First page for every chapter (Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5)
is counted but the number is hide.

51

PAGINATION

The preliminaries

52

Refer Appendix C

PAGINATION

The page number for the first page


of each chapter is counted but the
number is hide.

53

MATHEMATICAL EQUATION
Equations and formulae should be typed clearly using
Equation Editor. The word equation (*) or eq. (*) are
used to refer to the equation number. i.e. equation
(1.0), eq. (1.0), equation (1.1), eq. (2.1), etc. Eq. (1.0),
Eq. (1.1), Eq. (1.2) refer to the equations in Chapter 1,
while Eq. (2.2), Eq. (2.3) refer to Chapter 2, etc.
Subscripts and superscripts in the equations must
be clearly shown.
Each
equations must be included in the
text/paragraph.
The variables or symbols used must be defined in
the text. Alternatively, all those can be defined in List
of Abbreviations & Symbols.

54

MATHEMATICAL EQUATION

The equation is centered

The equation
number is
aligned to
the right

55

FIGURES FORMAT

Figure must be properly centred on the page within the prescribed margin.

The number of the figure must correspond to a similar number in the text.

The word Figure or Fig. is numbered in Arabic numeral, and its caption
is placed below and middles the figure (font 12, single-spaced).
A figure should not extend beyond one page.
Figures should be arranged close to the discussion and analysis and
numbered in sequence, such as Figure 1.1, Figure 1.2, Figure 1.3, and so on
for figures correspond to Chapter 1.
The text Figure in the paragraph should not be Bold. For example:
Figure 1.2 shows the.....
The characteristic of distance relay is shown in Figure 3.1.
If the figure is taken from other sources, the reference must be cited. For
example:
Figure 4.1: Characteristic of a distance relay [6].

56

FIGURES FORMAT
2 spaces
Figure centered
Code the reference
if the figure is taken
from other source.
bold
2 spaces

Font 12, centered


Single spacing
57

Refer Appendix D

TABLES FORMAT
Table must be properly centred on the page within the prescribed
margin.
The number of the table must correspond to a similar number in the
text. It may be useful to place tables in each chapter very close to the
discussion related to the table.
The tables in a chapter must be organized in sequence such as for
Chapter 3, the tables are Table 3.1, Table 3.2 and so on.
The word Table, its number and its caption appear above and
middle the table (font 12, single-spaced).
The text Table in the paragraph should not be Bold. For example:
Table 6.3 shows the..... or
The data of sun radiation in Perlis is shown in Table 2.5.
If the table is taken from other sources, the reference must be cited.
For example:
58
Table 3.1: Data during bipolar mode [3].

TABLES FORMAT

2 spaces

bold

Font 12, centered,


Single spacing

Table must
be centered

Code the reference


if the table is taken
from other source.

2 spaces

59

Refer Appendix E

HEADINGS & SUB-HEADINGS


Major headings such as INTRODUCTION for
CHAPTER 1 should be in capitals and bold.
Content of each chapter may be divided into subheadings such as for Chapter 1, the sub-headings are
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and so on. The sub-headings also can be
divided into smaller sections such as 1.1.1, 1.1.2,
1.1.3 and so on depending how the writer organize the
text
The sub-heading should not be bold and in small
letters.

60

HEADINGS & SUB-HEADINGS

CAPITAL letters, Bold,


Centered

Subheadings: Do not
Bold, small letters

61

Refer Appendix B

CITATION IN TEXT

When u want to cite other peoples works (from


book, proceeding papers, journals, websites etc) in
your text/paragraph, you must use your own
words which bring the same meaning with
what trying to be explained by the authors. And
then put the reference [ ].

Example:

Your own words

Q. Zhang designed a xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx


xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx [2].

62

CITATION IN TEXT
The citation put in text must be in sequence, [1], [2],
[3], .
For a combination of citation in sequence, put under
one bracket, [3-9].

Example
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx [1].
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx [2]. xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx [3-6].

63

REFERENCES
This section begins on a fresh page bearing the
heading REFERENCES in capital letters,
centred.
The list of references begins four spaces below the
heading and is double-spaced between entries
but single-spaced within each entry.
References must be presented/wrote according to
the Number System.

Refer Appendix G

64

REFERENCES

65

Refer Appendix F

Double spacing
between references

APPENDICES
This section if it is included must be useful and must
be referred to in the text.
This section is separated from the preceding material
by a cover sheet bearing the heading APPENDICES
in capital letters and centred.
This section may be divided into APPENDIX A,
APPENDIX B, APPENDIX A(i), APPENDIX A(ii),
APPENDIX B(i) etc and should be in capital and
bold.
If appendix with its title, if it has one, should be
listed separately in the Table of Contents as a first
order subdivision under the heading APPENDICES.

66

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

The Systeme International dUnites (SI) should


be used for all scientific and laboratory data.

67

IMPORTANT
Do not copy & paste directly paragraph or
sentences taken somewhere. Use your own words to
represent the information/references cited.
Do not use Google Translate and directly put
into the report. Google translate only can be used as
guidance.
All report have to be uploaded into turn it in
website to check for similarity index/plagiarism.
Similarity index must be less than 30%.
The contribution of report evaluation is 40%.
So, produce THE BEST REPORT before it is
submitted to the panel for evaluation!!

68

Thank you..
Q&A
69