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AASHTO LRFD Section 11

Abutments, Piers, and Walls

AASHTO Section 11
Design

specifications for:

Conventional

gravity/semigravity walls
Non-gravity cantilevered walls
Anchored walls
Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE)
walls
Prefabricated modular walls

Common Load Groups for Walls


DC

EV

EH
(Active)

ES

LS

Strength Ia

0.90

1.00

1.50

1.50

1.75

Strength Ib

1.25

1.35

1.50

1.50

1.75

Service I

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Group

Load Definitions

DC dead load of structural components


and attachments
EV vertical pressure from dead load of
earth fill
EH horizontal earth pressure load
ES earth surcharge load
LS live load surcharge (transient load)

Surcharge Loads

Earth surcharge AASHTO Section


3.11.6.1 and 3.11.6.2
Live load surcharge AASHTO
3.11.6.4

Conventional Retaining Walls

Strength Limit States

Sliding
Bearing resistance
Eccentricity

Service Limit States

Vertical settlement
Lateral wall movement
Overall stability

External Failure Mechanisms

Sliding Failure

Bearing Failure

Overturning Failure
Deep-Seated
Sliding Failure

1.50 EHsin()

1.50 EHsin()

1.50
EHcos()

1.00 EV

1.00 WAV

1.00 WAV

1.50 EH

0.90 DC

1.35 EV

1.25 DC

Load Factors for Conventional Walls

1.00 WAH

Load Factors for


Bearing
Resistance

1.50 EH

1.50
EHcos()

1.00 WAH

Load Factors for


Sliding and
Eccentricity

Conventional Walls - Summary

Use resistance factors for spread footings


or deep foundations, as appropriate
(Section 10.5)

Eccentricity limited to:

e/B < 0.25 for soil (compare to ASD 0.167)


e/B < 0.375 for rock (compare to ASD 0.25)

Non-gravity Cantilevered Walls

Strength Limit States

Bearing resistance of embedded portion of wall


Passive resistance of embedded portion of wall
Flexural resistance of wall/facing elements

Service Limit States

Vertical wall movement


Lateral wall movement
Overall stability

Resistance Factors
Bearing Resistance
Passive Resistance
Flexural Resistance

Section 10.5
1.00
0.90

Code allows increase in Resistance Factors


for temporary walls but specific guidance is
not provided

Pressure Diagrams Discrete Elements


ASD

LRFD

Non-gravity Cantilevered Walls

Below excavation line, multiply by 3b


on passive side of wall and 1b on
active side of wall for discrete elements

Look at forces separately below


excavation line on passive side and
active side (because different load
factors)

Non-gravity Cantilevered Walls

Factor embedment by 1.2 for


continuous wall elements

Do not factor embedment for discrete


wall elements (conservatism of 3b
assumption)

Example

Cantilevered sheet pile wall retaining a


10-ft deep cut in granular soils
Assume 36 ksi yield stress for sheet
pile
Compare required embedment depth
and structural section for ASD and
LRFD
Load Factor of 1.5 used for EH (active)

Example Geometry

Example Results
Method

Mmax

Embedment

(k-ft)

(ft)

ASD

15.4

12.2

LRFD

29.2

12.2

Section
Modulus
(in3/ft)
9.23 (S)
(elastic)
10.83 (Z)
(plastic)

Since Z is about 1.15 to 1.20 times S,


similar section would be acceptable

Anchored Walls

Strength Limit States

Bearing resistance of embedded portion of wall


Passive resistance of embedded portion of wall
Flexural resistance of wall/facing elements
Ground anchor pullout
Tensile resistance of anchor tendon

Service Limit States

Same as non-gravity cantilevered wall

Apparent Earth Pressure


Diagrams

Based on FHWA-sponsored research


Builds upon well-known Terzaghi-Peck
envelopes
Appropriate for walls built in competent
ground where maximum wall height is
critical design case
Same diagram shape for single or
multi-leveled anchored walls

/3 H 1
Hn H2

H1

/3 H

Thn

Th2

/3 Hn+1

Hn+1

Th1

/3 (H-H1)

Th1

H1

/3 H1

Recommended AEP for Sands

R
p

R
TOTALLOAD
K A H
2 H
3

(a) Walls with one level


of ground anchors

TOTALLOAD
H- 13 H1 13 Hn1

(b) Walls with multiple


levels of ground anchors

LRFD Check on Tensile Breakage

Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile


Strength (GUTS)

Tn
GUTS

Select tendon with:

iQi
GUTS

Resistance Factors for Ground


Anchors Tensile Rupture
Mild Steel
High Strength Steel

0.90
0.80

Resistance factors are applied to


maximum proof test load
For high strength steel, apply resistance
factor to GUTS

Comparison to ASD
Tensile Rupture

ASD

0.8 GUTS > 1.33 Design Load


(DL = EH + LS)
0.8 GUTS > 1.33 EH + 1.33 LS

LRFD

GUTS > p EH + 1.75 LS


0.8 GUTS > 1.5 EH + 1.75 LS

Maximum proof test load must be at


least equal to the factored load

Anchor Bond Length

Tn
Lb(min)
Qa

Lb = anchor bond length


Tn = factored anchor load

Qa = nominal anchor pullout resistance

Nominal Anchor Pullout


Resistance

Qa d a Lb

Qa = nominal anchor pullout capacity


d = anchor hole diameter
a = nominal anchor bond stress
Lb = anchor bond length

Preliminary Evaluation Only

Bond stress values in AASHTO


should be used for FEASIBILITY
evaluation

AASHTO values for cohesionless


and cohesive soil and rock

Presumptive Nominal Bond Stress


in Cohesionless Soils
Anchor/Soil Type
(Grout Pressure)

Soil Compactness or SPT


Resistance

Presumptive
Ultimate Bond
Stress, n (ksf)

Gravity Grouted Anchors


(<50 psi)
Sand or Sand-Gravel Mixtures

Medium Dense to Dense 11-50

1.5 to 2.9

Medium Dense to Dense 11-50


Medium Dense 11-30
Dense to Very Dense 30-50

1.7 to 7.9
2.3 to 14
5.2 to 20

Silty Sands

-----

3.5 to 8.5

Sandy Gravel

Medium Dense to Dense 11-40


Dense to Very Dense 40-50+
Dense 31-50

4.4 to 29
5.8 to 29
6.3 to 11

Pressure Grouted Anchors


(50 to 400 psi)
Fine to Medium Sand
Medium to Coarse Sand w/Gravel

Glacial Till

Resistance Factors
Anchor Pullout
Cohesionless (Granular)
Soils
Cohesive Soils
Rock
Where Proof Tests Preformed
1)
2)

0.65(1)
0.70(1)
0.50(1)
1.00(2)

Using presumptive values for preliminary


design only
Where proof tests conducted to at least 1.0
times the factored anchor load

Comparison to ASD
Anchor Pullout
1.1

LRFD/ASD

1.05
1.0

Rock (FS = 3.0, = 0.50)

0.95
Sand (FS = 2.5, = 0.65)

0.9

0.85
0.8

Clay (FS = 2.5, = 0.70)


0

10

15

20

Dead Load / Live Load

EH
Lb(min)(ASD)
1 FS
LS

EH

1.5

1.75

LS

Lb(min)(LRFD)

Final Anchor Design

Section 11.9.4.2 Anchor Pullout


Capacity
For final design, the contract documents
shall require that verification tests or
pullout tests on sacrificial anchors in each
soil unit be conducted
Different than current ASD practice, but
intent is not to require, in general, pullout
testing

Bearing Resistance of Wall


Element

Assume all vertical loads carried by portion


of wall below excavation level
Code refers designer to section on spread or
deep foundations for analysis methods
Resistance factors used are for static
capacity evaluation of piles or shafts (i.e., =
0.3 to 0.5 FS ~ 3.0 to 4.5)
Resistance factors should be modified to
correlate to FS = 2.0 to 2.5 for bearing
resistance evaluation

MSE Walls

Strength Limit States

Same external stability checks as for


conventional gravity walls
Tensile resistance of reinforcement
Pullout resistance of reinforcement
Structural resistance of face elements and face
element connection

Service Limits States

Same as for conventional gravity walls

MSE Walls External Stability

MSE Walls Internal Stability

Check pullout and tensile


resistance at each reinforcement
level and compare to maximum
factored load, Tmax

Maximum Factored Load

Apply factored load to the reinforcements

Tmax
HS
v stress at
H = factored
horizontal
soil
reinforcement (ksf)
Sv = vertical spacing of reinforcement

AASHTO 11.10.6.2.1-2

Factored Horizontal Stresses

Factored Horizontal Stress

P = load
for EV)
H factorP(=1.35V
r
kr = pressure coefficient

k H

V = pressure due to resultant of gravity forces from soil


self weight
H = horizontal stress

AASHTO 11.10.6.2.1-1

Reinforcement Tensile
Resistance

Tmax Tal R c

Tal = Nominal long-term


reinforcement design strength
= Resistance factor for tensile
resistance

AASHTO 11.10.6.4.1-

Resistance Factors for Tensile


Resistance
Metallic
Reinforcement

Geosynthetic
Reinforcement

Strip Reinforcement
Static loading
Combined static/earthquake loading
Grid Reinforcement
Static loading
Combined static/earthquake loading

0.75
1.00
0.65
0.85

Static loading
0.90
Combined static/earthquake loading 1.20

ASD/LRFD Tensile Breakage


Example of Steel Strip Reinforcement

Other Developments

LRFD for Soil Nails NCHRP 24-21

Draft LRFD Design and Construction


Specification for Micropiles

The
End