Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 38

North Carolina

Problem Solving
Model
Preparation
&
Implementation

NC DPI
Summer 2010

Lets review..
Two National models of RtI
Problem-solving
Standard Protocol

North Carolinas RtI Model


Problem-Solving Model (PSM)
Four tiers

Assessment
Includes Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) and
Formative Assessment (FA)
2

What is a Problem-Solving Model


?

Systematic analysis
Functional assessment
Data
Instructional plan
Plan implementation
Monitoring
3

Why use a Problem Solving


Model ? (PSM)

Ensure positive student outcomes, rather


than determining failure or deviance
(Deno, 1995)

Problem-Solving Model (PSM)


Core Curriculum assessment
Meet the needs of diverse learners
within school districts
Identify and implement best educational
strategies for all learners
5

So
Youve assessed your core.
Identified gaps.
Strengthened your curriculum and
instruction
Differentiated instruction for all
learners..
AND students are still struggling

Whats next ?
6

Problem-Solving Model (PSM)

Change in mind-set is necessary for all


Student problems are defined
Questions drive assessments
Engage in instruction that addresses learning
Intervention is derived from analysis of
baseline data

Implementation of a RtI
System

Seven step
cyclical process

All seven occur


throughout the
process
8

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Step 7
Analysis of the
Intervention Plan

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

make a team decision on the


effectiveness of the
intervention

Step 6
Implement the
Intervention Plan

Provide strategies, materials, and


resources: include
progress monitoring

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

Step 3
Analysis of the
Assessment Plan

Create a functional and


multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis

Step 5
Develop an
Intervention Plan

Step 4
Generate a Goal
Statement

Base interventions on best


practices and research-proven
strategies

Specific Description of the changes


expected in student
behavior

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

10

Step 1:
Define the Problem

Essential step

Develop a behavioral/academic definition


Concrete, Observable and Measurable
Stranger test ?
Most difficult step !
11

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

12

Step 2:
Develop an Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis
Why is the problem occurring ?
Formulate predictions of students behavior
Formulate assessment questions to confirm / reject hypothesis

Procedure (RIOT)

Review
Interview
Observe
Test

13

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

Step 3
Analysis of the
Assessment Plan

Create a functional and


multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis

14

Step 3:
Analysis of the Assessment
Plan
Domains that impact learning

Curriculum
Instruction
Environment
Learner

Procedure

Review
Interview
Observe
Test

Consider all that are relevant


Not required to address all domains each time
I

15

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

Step 3
Analysis of the
Assessment Plan

Create a functional and


multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis

Step 4
Generate a Goal
Statement

Specific Description of the changes


expected in student
behavior

16

Step 4:
Generate a Goal Statement
Essential step
Precise definition
Set before plan implementation
Goal statement- specific description of
desired change in student behavior as a
result of an intervention
SMART Goal
17

Doran, George T. "There's a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management's goals and


objectives." Management Review, Nov 1981, Volume 70 Issue 11.
18

Three Components of a Goal


Statement

19

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

Step 3
Analysis of the
Assessment Plan

Create a functional and


multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis

Step 5
Develop an
Intervention Plan

Step 4
Generate a Goal
Statement

Base interventions on best


practices and research-proven
strategies

Specific Description of the changes


expected in student
behavior

20

Step 5:
Develop an Intervention Plan
Identify methods, procedures and
materials that are research-based
Describe plan of action
Include specific goals
Progress-monitoring plans included
21

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

Step 6
Implement the
Intervention Plan

Provide strategies, materials, and


resources: include
progress monitoring

Step 3
Analysis of the
Assessment Plan

Create a functional and


multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis

Step 5
Develop an
Intervention Plan

Step 4
Generate a Goal
Statement

Base interventions on best


practices and research-proven
strategies

Specific Description of the changes


expected in student
behavior

22

Step 6:
Implement the Plan
Multiple activities
Fidelity and integrity of intervention
Monitor the Intervention
Effect on student performance
Integrity of implementation

Make changes as indicated


Decisions !
23

Progress Monitoring
An act of collecting data to determine the
effectiveness of an intervention.

24

Intervention Plan

Continuation of hypothesis-testing step


Evaluate effectiveness of plan
Change as needed
Reasonable plan for implementation
Clear understanding of implementation
Personnel
Skills and materials

**Retention is not a research-based intervention


25

Problem Solving (PSM) Process

1
2
7
6
3
5 4
Step 1
Define the
Problem

Step 7
Analysis of the
Intervention Plan

Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition
of problem

make a team decision on the


effectiveness of the
intervention

Step 6
Implement the
Intervention Plan

Provide strategies, materials, and


resources: include
progress monitoring

Step 2
Develop an
Assessment Plan
Generate a hypothesis and
assessment questions
related to the problem

Step 3
Analysis of the
Assessment Plan

Create a functional and


multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis

Step 5
Develop an
Intervention Plan

Step 4
Generate a Goal
Statement

Base interventions on best


practices and research-proven
strategies

Specific Description of the changes


expected in student
behavior

26

Step 7:
Analysis of the Intervention
Plan
EVALUATE the DATA

Progress monitoring is essential


Examine student performance
Evaluate the effectiveness of instruction
27

School-Wide system of support for student


achievement should look like this:
Intensive Intervention 5%

Strategic Interventions
15%

Core Curriculum
80%

Amount of Resources Required to Address Need(s)

The NC Problem-Solving
Model

Tier II
Consultation
With Other
Resources
Tier I
Consultation
Between
Teachers-Parents

Significance of Need(s)

Tier IV
Consideration
for
EC referral

Tier III
Consultation
with the
Problem Solving
Team

Evaluate

Identify Area(s)
of Need

Implement Plan

Develop a Plan

Amount of Resources Required to Address Need(s)

Tier IV
Consideration
For
Tier III
Consultation EC Referral

Tier II
Consultation
With Other
Resources
Tier I
Consultation
Between
Teachers-Parents

With the
Problem Solving
Team

Intensive
Strategic
Benchmark

Significance of Need(s)

31

Implementation of a RtI
System
Tiers I-III call for implementation of PSM
and CBM in the general education
setting
Tier IV represents referral for
consideration of Special Ed
the highest level of service intensity
32

Tier I
Examine the Core
Parent and teacher working together to
define the problem

What is it?
When does it occur?
Why is this happening?
Analyze baseline data or develop plan for
collecting baseline data?
33

Tier II
Repeat steps of cyclical problem-solving
model
Additional school personnel are involved
as needed
Parent
Teacher
Teaching peer, Counselor, school psychologist,
reading teacher, administrator, social worker,
nurse, etc.
34

Tier III
Steps of cyclical problem-solving model

repeat
Team members may vary

Problem-solving model forms are completed

Collect :

Baseline, goal setting, and progress monitoring data

Data are provided as evidence for need of intervention


35

Tier IV
Review all available data and
Continue interventions at Tier III
OR
Refer for consideration of special education
If referral is made:

Define the problem


Use progress monitoring data as baseline on IEP

IEP (intervention) is developed based on data


36

Avg Classroom Academic


Performance Level

Discrepancy 1: Skill Gap


(Current
Discrepancy 2:
Performance Level)
Gap in Rate of
Learning (Slope
Target
of Improvement)
Student

Dual-Discrepancy: RTI Model


of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003)
37

Send us your tired, your hungry, your


poor. Your students who arent
performing.
Shift from placement to high quality
interventions
Progress of
ALL students

38