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# Deriving Using Product and Quotient

Rules
Michael Turner
Alex Barbolovici

Objective
Quotient rules, used for deriving equations consisting of two or more
distinct functions.
You should know
the following
single-function
derivative rules:
f ' (c ) 0

f ' ( x) 1
f ' ( x n ) nx n 1
f ' (cx) cf ' ( x)
f ' (sin x) cos x
f ' (cos x) sin x
f ' (tan x) sec 2 x
f ' (csc x) csc x cot x
f ' (sec x ) sec x tan x
f ' (cot x) csc 2 x
f ' (e x ) e x
f ' (ln x) 1 / x

## You should know

how to use the
chain rule:
h( x) f ( g ( x ))
h' ( x) f ' ( g ( x )) * g ' ( x )

Click these
buttons to go to a
specific section:
Product Rule
Quotient Rule
Both Rules

Quick Review:
True or False: the derivative of

## Hint: Click true or false

5x 2 is 10 x

Incorrect!
False
Think again!

back

Correct!
True!
The derivative of

5x 2 is indeed 10 x

Product Rule
The Product Rule is used to derive an
equation consisting of two or more
distinct functions multiplied
together.

p( x) f ( x) g ( x)
f ' ( x)
f ( x)
g ' ( x)
g ( x)
p ' ( x) f ( x) g ' ( x) f ' ( x) g ( x)

## A common mistake when deriving is to

simply multiply the separate functions
together, and derive this resulting
equation. This, however, leads you to
derive a different equation than the
one you started with.

Objective

Example 1
p ( x) f ( x) g ( x) x 2 (2 x 1)

f ( x) x 2
g ( x) 2 x 1
f (x) g ' ( x)

f ' ( x) 2 x

g ' ( x) 2
f ' ( x)

1. Initial equation
2. Separate and derive
functions

g (x)

p ' ( x) ( x 2 )( 2) (2 x)( 2 x 1)
p ' ( x) 2 x 2 4 x 2 2 x

## 3. Recombine using product

rule
4. Expand

p ' ( x) 6 x 2 2 x

5. Simplify

Example 2
p( x) f ( x) g ( x) e

f ( x) e

g ( x) cos 2 x
f (x)

p ' ( x ) (e

p' ( x) (2e

1. Initial equation

cos 2 x
x2

x2

x2

x2

f ' ( x) 2 xe
g ' ( x) 2 sin 2 x
g ' ( x)

f ' ( x)
x2

)( 2 sin 2 x) (2 xe
x2

sin 2 x) (2e

x2

functions

g (x)

)(cos 2 x )

cos 2 x)

rule
4. Expand

## Now try one yourself!

p ( x) ( x 3 2 x)(sin 3x)
p ' ( x) 9 x 2 cos 3 x 6 cos 3 x

A.)
B.) p' ( x) cos 3x(3x 3 6 x) sin 3x( x 2 2)
5
3
p
'
(
x
)

3
x

8
x
4 x 3 sin 3x cos 3 x
C.)
2
p
'
(
x
)

9
x
cos 3 x 6 sin 3 x
D.)
Hint: Click the choice you
think is correct

Incorrect!
p ' ( x) 9 x 2 cos 3 x 6 cos 3 x

## Did you remember to use the Product

Rule?

back

Incorrect!
p ' ( x) 3 x 5 8 x 3 4 x 3 sin 3 x cos 3 x
Did you recombine the
functions properly?

back

Incorrect!

## p ' ( x) 9 x 2 cos 3 x 6 sin 3x

Did you remember to use the Product
Rule?

back

Correct!
p ' ( x) cos 3 x(3x 3 6 x) sin 3x( x 2 2)

p ( x) f ( x) g ( x) ( x 2 x)(sin 3x)
3

f ( x) x 3 2 x

f ' ( x) 3x 2 2

g ( x) sin 3 x

g ' ( x) 3 cos 3 x

f (x)

g ' ( x)

f ' ( x)

1. Initial equation
2. Separate and
derive functions

g (x)

## p ' ( x) ( x 2 x)(3 cos 3 x) (3 x 2)(sin 3 x)

3. Recombine using
product rule

4. Expand

## p ' ( x) cos 3x(3 x 3 6 x) sin 3 x( x 2 2)

5. Simplify

Quotient Rule
The Quotient Rule is used to derive
an equation consisting of two or more
distinct functions divided by each
other.

q ( x)

f ( x)
g ( x)

f ( x)

f ' ( x)

g ( x)

g ' ( x)

g ( x) f ' ( x) g ' ( x) f ( x)
q' ( x)
( g ( x)) 2
Many students find the hardest part
of the Quotient Rule to be
remembering the order used. Dont
be afraid to check the formula if
youre lost!

Objective

q ( x)

f ( x) ( x 3)
2
g ( x) ( x 3)

Example 1

f ( x) x 3

f ' ( x) 1

g ( x) x 2 3

g ' ( x) 2 x

1. Initial equation
2. Separate and derive
functions

## g (x) f ' ( x) g ' ( x) f (x)

( x 2 3)(1) ( 2 x)( x 3)
q' ( x)
( x 2 3) 2
g (x)
x2 3 2x2 6x
q' ( x)
( x 2 3) 2

x2 6x 3
q' ( x)
( x 2 3) 2

3. Recombine using
quotient rule

4. Expand

5. Simplify

Example 2
f ( x) ( x 2 4 x 3)
q ( x)

g ( x)
x
f ( x) x 2 4 x 3
g ( x) x1/ 2

g (x) f ' ( x)
q ' ( x)

1. Initial equation

f ' ( x) 2 x 4
1
g ' ( x ) 1/ 2
2x

g ' ( x)

( x1 / 2 ) 2

## 2. Separate and derive

functions

f (x)
1
)
2 x1 / 2

3. Recombine using
quotient rule

g (x)
x2
3
2 x 4 x 1 / 2 2 x1 / 2 1 / 2
2x
2x
q ' ( x)
x
x2 3
3
2 x 2 x
2 x
q ' ( x)
x
3/ 2

1/ 2

4. Expand

5. Simplify

## Now try one yourself!

e x
q( x) 3
4x
2 x
q
'
(
x
)

4
x
e ( x 3)
A.)

e x ( x 3)
B.)q' ( x) 4 x 4
e x ( x 3)
C.)q' ( x) 4 x 4
e x
D.)q' ( x) 2
12 x

Incorrect!
q ' ( x) 4 x 2 e x ( x 3)
Did you remember to use the Quotient
Rule?

back

Incorrect!
e x ( x 3)
q ' ( x)
4x4
Did you recombine the functions
properly?

back

Incorrect!
e x
q' ( x)
12 x 2
Did you remember to use the Quotient
Rule?

back

Correct!

f ( x) e x
q( x)
3
g ( x) 4 x

e x ( x 3)
q' ( x)
4x4

f ( x) e x

f ' ( x ) e x

g ( x) 4 x 3

g ' ( x) 12 x 2

g (x)

f ' ( x)

g ' ( x)

4 x 3e x 12 x 2e x
q' ( x)
16 x 6
e x ( x 3)
q' ( x)
4x4

## 2. Separate and derive

functions

f (x)

(e x )(4 x 3 ) (e x )(12 x 2 )
q' ( x)
(4 x 3 ) 2
g (x)

1. Initial equation

3. Recombine using
quotient rule

4. Expand

5. Simplify

Both Rules

## Sometimes, a single equation may

consist of multiple functions both
multiplied and divided by each other.
In these cases, both rules must be
used.
h( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )

k ( x) i ( x) j ( x)
h( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )

b( x )

f ( x)

f ' ( x)

Objective

k ( x) i( x) j ( x)
i( x)

i ' ( x)

g ( x)
g ' ( x)
j ( x)
j ' ( x)
h' ( x) f ( x ) g ' ( x) g ( x) f ' ( x) k ' ( x) i ( x ) j ' ( x) j ( x)i ' ( x)
k ( x ) h' ( x ) h( x ) k ' ( x )
b' ( x )
(k ( x)) 2

## It is helpful when using both rules

simultaneously to separate the
functions further.

Example 1

h( x) f ( x) g ( x) 3x 2 (4 x 2 3)
b( x )

k ( x)
k ( x)
x2
h( x) f ( x) g ( x) 3x 2 (4 x 2 3)
f ( x) 3x 2

k ( x) x 2

1. Initial equation
k ' ( x) 2 x

f ' ( x) 6 x

g ( x) 4 x 2 3

g ' ( x) 8 x

f (x) g ' ( x)

f ' ( x)

functions

g (x )

## h' ( x) (3x 2 )(8 x) (6 x)(4 x 2 3)

h' ( x) 48 x 3 18 x
k (x)

h' ( x )

k ' ( x)

h(x)

## ( x 2 )(48 x 3 18 x ) (2 x)(3x 2 ( 4 x 2 3))

b' ( x )
( x2 )2

k (x)

48 x 18 x 24 x 5 18 x 3
b' ( x )
x4
5

24 x 5
b' ( x ) 4
x

b' ( x) 24 x

3. Recombine using
both rules

4. Expand
5. Simplify
6. Simplify

Example 2
h( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )
2 x ln x

2
k ( x)
i ( x) j ( x)
x ( x 1)
2
h( x) f ( x) g ( x) 2 x ln x k ( x) i ( x) j ( x) x ( x 1)
2
i ' ( x) 2 x
f ( x) 2 x
f ' ( x) 2 i ( x) x
1
g ' ( x)
g ( x) ln x
j ( x) x 1
j ' ( x) 1
x
b( x )

f (x) g ' ( x)

f ' ( x) g (x)

i (x ) j ' ( x )

h' ( x )

k ' ( x)

## 2. Separate and derive

functions

i ' ( x ) j (x )

1
h' ( x) (2 x)( ) (ln x)(2) k ' ( x) ( x 2 )(1) ( x 1)(2 x)
x
h' ( x) 2 2 ln x
k ' ( x) 3x 2 2 x
k (x)

1. Initial equation

h(x)

3. Recombine using
both rules

( x 2 ( x 1))(2 2 ln x) (2 x ln x)(3x 2 2 x)
b' ( x )
( x 2 ( x 1)) 2
k (x)

2 x 3 4 x 3 ln x 2 x 2 2 x 2 ln x
b' ( x )
x6 2x5 x 4

4. Expand

## Now try one yourself!

Which of the following is NOT a solution to b( x)

12 x 3 8 x 48 x 3 ln x 16 x ln x
b' ( x )
(12 x 4 8 x 2 ) 2

A.)

12 x 3 8 x 48 x 3 ln x 16 x ln x
b' ( x )
144 x 8 192 x 6 64 x 4

B.)

12 x 3 8 x 48 x 3 ln x 16 x ln x
b' ( x )
(12 x 4 8 x 2 )

C.)

1
(12 x 4 8 x 2 )( ) (48 x 3 16 x)(ln x)
x
b' ( x )
(12 x 4 8 x 2 ) 2

D.)

ln x
?
(4 x 2 )(3 x 2 2)

Incorrect!
12 x 3 8 x 48 x 3 ln x 16 x ln x
b' ( x )
(12 x 4 8 x 2 ) 2
This is indeed a solution to b( x)

back

ln x
(4 x 2 )(3 x 2 2)

Incorrect!
12 x 3 8 x 48 x 3 ln x 16 x ln x
b' ( x )
144 x 8 192 x 6 64 x 4
This is indeed a solution to b( x)

back

ln x
(4 x 2 )(3 x 2 2)

Incorrect!
1
(12 x 4 8 x 2 )( ) (48 x 3 16 x)(ln x)
x
b' ( x )
(12 x 4 8 x 2 ) 2
ln x
This is indeed a solution to b( x)
(4 x 2 )(3 x 2 2)

back

Correct!
12 x 3 8 x 48 x 3 ln x 16 x ln x
b' ( x )
(12 x 4 8 x 2 )
ln x
b
(
x
)

## This is NOT a solution to

,
(4 x 2 )(3 x 2 2)
because the bottom isnt squared.

Sources
http://res.cloudinary.com/primedia-

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