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Classifications of crude

drugs

Definition
Any raw or unrefined medicinal
compound in its natural form,
especially one taken from a plant.
Crude drugs are the dried,
unprepared material of plant, animal
or mineral origin, used for medicine

CLASSIFICATIONS
MORPHPOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION
CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION
PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

Scope
Morphology identification and
detection of adulteration
Taxonomy- studying evolutionary
developments
Chemical- to study activity of drug
Pharmacology To study therapeutic
utility.

MORPHPOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
Under this the drugs are arranged acc
to the part of the plant used( Official
part).
Eg- leaves, Barks, stems, roots, flower,
seeds, Etc.

Again classified into organized and


unorganized,
Organized- the drugs obtained from
direct parts of the plant and they
contain cellular tissues. EgRhizomes, bark, leaves, root fruit etc.
Unorganized- The drugs which are
prepared by some intermediate
physical process such as incision,
drying, extraction with solvent and
they do not containing any cellular
tissues.

Classification of drugs on the bases


of Morphological Characteristics

Wood. Eg.. Chandana, Rakta chandana, etc


Leaves Eg.. Vasa, Tulashi, Tamalpatra,
Bark Eg.. Arjuna, Ashoka, Kutaja, Twaka, etc
Flowering parts Eg.. Clove, Dhakati,
Fruits Eg.. Triphala, Bilva,
Seeds Eg.. Yava, nux vomica
Roots eg.. Ashwagandha, Chitraka,
Rhizomes Eg.. Turmeric, Ginger,
Whole Plants Eg.. Bhoonimba,
Mandookaparni, Shankhapuspi etc
Hairs and Fibers Eg.. Cotton Jute etc.

Unorganized Drugs
Dried Latex.. Opium
Gums.. Acacia
Resins.. Hingu, Giggulu, Shallaki
Fixed oils and Fats.. Eranda Taila Til Taila
Waxes.. Bees wax
Volatile oil..
Animal products.. Honey.

Merits and Demerits


Identification and detection of
adulteration
There is no co-relation with chemical
constituents with therapeutic
actions.

TAXONOMICAL
CLASSIFICATION
Taxonomical classification is based

on the principles of natural


relationship and evolutionary
development.
They are grouped in
Phyllum
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Phylum

Order

Family

Genus

Angiosper
ms
(Monocoty
ledons)

Liliflorae

Liliaceae

Asparagu
s
recimosis

Angiosper
m
(Dicotyledo

Malvales

Malvacea
e

Sida
Cordifolia

ns)

Species

Drugs
Shatavari

Sida
Bala
acuta
Sida
rhombhifo
lia

Merits and Demerits


evolutionary development
As all the entire plants are not used
as Drugs therefore it is of no
significance this division from
identification point of view.
This system also does not co-relate
in between the chemical constituents
and biological activity of the drugs.

CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION
The Biological activity of drug is due
to presence of certain Chemical
constituents in the drug.
Such as Fats, carbohydrates, proteins,
volatile oils, alkaloids, Tannins, resins
etc
A single active ingredient may be
isolated and used for Therapeutic
purpose
Eg.. Vascicine, Ephidrine

Carbohydrates eg.. Starch


Glycosides.. Kumari, Arjuna,
Ystimadhu,Katuki,
Tannins.. Ashoka, Khadira, Bilva,
Volatile oils.. Lemongrass, Clove, caraway
Lipids.. Castor oil,almond oil,
Resins.. Hingu, Guggulu,
Alkoloids..
Triterpens .. Rasna

PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

The drugs are grouped according to their


Therapeutic uses.
Eg.. Anti-inflammatory Dashamoola
Anti- amoebic Kutaja
Anti septic Turmeric
Analgesic- opium
Purgatives- Trivrutta
Expectorant Vasa, Yastimadhu,
Tranquilizers- Rauwolfia,

Merits And Demerits

Single drug is placed in various


clases
Eg; Vasa in Raktapitta and kasa