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Artificial

Intelligence

What is intelligence?
What do you think makes a person

intelligent?
Somebeing
ideas:
able to do lots
of math in your head
being able to memorize
lots of names and dates

grandiloquence

(a fancy
word for using fancy words)

knowing how to say words


having a photographicin different languages
memory

knowing everything
in the encyclopedia

Can you think of any others?

Intelligence is
complicated
These things make you smart, but not

necessarily intelligent
Intelligence is more than just book smarts
A computer can solve massive equations in
less than a second but it still isnt intelligent
like you are
Humans have many different types of
intelligence; computers only really have one.

Gardeners Theory of Multiple


Intelligences
Bodily-kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Verbal-linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Naturalistic (*)
Intrapersonal
Spatial
Musical
http://www.literacyworks.org/mi/assessment/inde

x.html

Computers and
Intelligence
How well do you think a computer would do in

your math class?


What about your English class?
How did you learn to be good at these things?
Practice, practice, practice

Can a computer think?


The question of whether Machines Can

Think... is about as relevant as the question of


whether Submarines Can Swim.
Edsger W. Dijkstra

Is thinking the same thing as learning?


Lets find out

More on thinking
"Can machines fly?" This is true, since

airplanes fly.
"Can machines swim?" This is false, because
submarines don't swim.
"Can machines think?" Is this question like the
first, or like the second?
Drew McDermott: "Saying Deep Blue
doesn't really think about chess is like saying
an airplane doesn't really fly because it
doesn't flap its wings.
John Searle: A thinking machine can only be

How do we know if something is


intelligent?
We know how to judge intelligence in humans,

so how can we test for intelligence in


machines?
We compare them to humans!
Alan Turing thought up a test
to see if a machine is as
intelligent as a human.
It goes like this:

The Turing Test

Turing Test
Put a person at a computer.

Hook this computer up to 2


other computers in a chat
program:
One has a person on the

other end, the other has a


computer
If the 1st person cant tell
which is the machine and
which is human, its true
Artificial Intelligence

However
Not one single computer has ever passed the

Turing test!
Heres an example of one trying, and failing
miserably

So much for
intelligence
Hi, how are you?
Im fine.
What are you going to do with
your day?
What are you going to do
with yours?
I'm learning about artificial
intelligence.
I have none.
You have no intelligence?
You have no chocolate.
I didnt say anything about
chocolate.
Did you know the ocean is
orange?
Im pretty sure its blue.
What is me?

A chat with

Cleverbot

More unintelligent robots


http://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnzlbyTZsQY
Siri?
Autocorrect?

What next?
So weve established that so far, no computer

has ever managed to pass as a human


Why do you think this is?
What do you think its learning algorithms look
like?

Uncanny Valley
Do we need or want robots that are human-

like?

Social Robots
Kismet, Leo, and social robots:
http://

www.ted.com/talks/cynthia_breazeal_the_rise_
of_personal_robots.html

Discussion
The moving camera robot seems to be like

having a hologram, but physical. What do you


think of this over taking a plane to go visit
family overseas?
Is it creepy or cool to have a robo-friend? Do
you think these will replace real friends?

Strong vs. weak AI


Strong AI means intelligence in the way we

humans think of it: being able to act and think


like us
Weak AI, also applied or narrow AI, is
made to respond to specific situations
intelligently, though not necessarily with
human intelligence

Is strong AI possible?
Computers fail the Turing Test because it tests

for general intelligent action or strong AI


Strong AI encompasses everything a human
can do, which is a lot.
Some robots, however, can be programmed
to learn, so even if they cant do something
now, they can write their own programs for
themselves.
Some philosophers dont even think strong AI
is possible.

Synthetic Intelligence
Another term for AI that emphasizes the idea

that computer intelligence doesnt need to


imitate human intelligence
Weve come up with many weak AI and
calculating programs that are much more
efficient than humans
Calculators

Such as programs you learned to write in Python for


converting temperatures and the Pythagorean
theorem.

Applications of
AI
Speech recognition
Handwriting recognition
Natural language

translation (harder than it


seems; thats why you
should never use
FreeTranslation.com to do
your Spanish homework)
Video game virtual
opponents
Diagnostics (WebMD,
anyone?)

Philosophy of AI
Youve all seen sci-fi movies with evil robots or

machines that can think


Is it even possible to program something to
think for itself?

The Future of AI
We may only have weak AI now, but people

are still doing research to make strong AI in


the future
Perfecting learning algorithms
Theres research in using neural networks to
build better AI
Predictive modeling, adaptive control (like

neurons in the brain)

What are people doing right now?


Robots that fly, cooperate, and map rooms:
http://

www.ted.com/talks/vijay_kumar_robots_that_f
ly_and_cooperate.html
Vijay Kumar and his team build flying, small,
agile robots that swarm, sense each other,
and form specialized teams -- for construction,
surveying disasters and far more.

Games!
Intelligent Piece of Paper Game
20 Questions
http://www.20q.net/
Akinator (20 Questions for people/characters)
http://en.akinator.com/