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Aslipstreamis a region behind a moving object in

which awakeoffluid(typically air or water) is
moving atvelocitiescomparable to the moving
object (in comparison to the ambient fluid
through which the object is moving).
The turbulent flow of air driven backward by the
propeller or propellers of an aircraft.

Turbulent & Laminar Flow

A slipstream created byturbulent flowhas a

slightly lower pressure than the ambient fluid
around the object. When the flow islaminar, the
pressure behind the object is higher than the
surrounding fluid.
A tapered rear will permit the particles of the
medium to rejoin more easily and quickly than a
truncated rear.
This reduces lower-pressure effect in the
slipstream, but also increasesskin friction(these
effects must be balanced).

Wake Turbulence
turbulencethat forms behind anaircraftas it passes
through the air.
the most important of which arewingtip vorticesand
Jetwash: rapidly moving gases expelled from a jet
engine (extremely turbulent, but of short duration).
Wingtip vortices: much more stable and can remain
in the air for up to 3 minutes after the passage of an
Wake turbulence exists in the vortex flow behind the
wing. The strength of wingtip vortices is determined
primarily by the weight and airspeed of the aircraft.

Wake Turbulence

Preceding Aircraft

Following Aircraft

Minimum Radar



4 NM


6 NM


7 NM


8 NM


4 NM


5 NM


5 NM


4 NM



To the pilot, torque is the 4 left turning tendency
of the airplane, which cause the plane to twist
around at least one of the airplane's three axis:
lateral, longitudinal, and vertical.

1) Torque Reaction from

Engine or Propeller
Newton's Third Law states: the mutual forces of
action and reaction between two bodies are
equal, opposite and collinear.
As the propeller of an aircraft spins (action) to the
right (as seen from the cockpit), the aircraft has a
tendency to roll to the left (reaction) around the
longitudinal axis.
Torque is greatest during takeoff and climb while
the aircraft is at high power and low airspeed.

2) Corkscrew Effect
the high speed rotation of the propeller gives a
corkscrew/spiraling rotation to the slipstream
at high propeller speeds and low forward speed, this spiraling
rotation exerts a strong sideward force on the left side of the
vertical tail surface.
pushes the tail surface to the right and the opposite reaction
is that the nose Yaws to the left about the aircraft's vertical
this corkscrew flow also causes a rolling motion around the
longitudinal axis.
notice that this rolling moment caused by the corkscrew is to
the right, while the rolling effectcaused by torque reaction is
to the left - in effect one may counteract the other.

Spiral Slipstream

3) Gyroscopic Precession
while sitting in the cockpit of a single engine propeller driven
aircraft, the propeller spins clockwise and acts as a gyro
gyroscopic precession that creates a left turning tendancy
acts 90 degrees ahead of the rotation where a force is
during takeoff in a tail-dragger aircraft, as the tail wheel is
lifted off the ground, a force is being applied to the top of the
acting 90 degrees ahead of the rotation, the force reacts on
the right side of the propeller and pushes the aircraft to the

4) Asymmetrical Thrust
while flying a single engine propeller driven aircraft
at a high angle-of-attack, the descending side of
the propeller (right) takes a larger "bite" of air than
the ascending blade.
the greater "bite" on the right creates and uneven
thrust known as P-factor.
P-factor makes the aircraft yaw to the left around
it's veritcal axis.
P-factor is greatest at high power settings and when
the aircraft is flown at a high angle-of-attack.

Critical Engine
thecritical engineof a multi-engine,fixed-wing
aircraftis the one whose failure would result in the
most adverse effects on the aircraft's handling and
athrustimbalance exists between the operative and
inoperative sides of the aircraft.
causes several negative effects in addition to the loss
of one engine's thrust.
the left engine of a conventional twin-engine propellerdriven aircraft is typically considered critical.

Search & Rescue

When making signals~

form signals by any available means. (strips of
fabric, parachute material, pieces of wood,
stones, tamping snow or by staining the surface
with oil, etc.).
not less than 3.5 meters in length.
as much color contrast as possible
attract attention by other means such as radio,
flares, smoke, or reflected light (seen for a great
distance and will be investigated by all pilots,
both military and civilian)

Replies from Pilot

Message received and understood
In daylight: flying the plane and tipping the
wings in a rocking motion from side to side
At night: flashing green lights
Message received but NOT understood
In daylight: flying the plane in a right-handed
At night: flashing red lights


Mountain Rescue

Flare Signal

Sound signal

Light signal



3 short blasts, 3
long, 3 short
Repeat after 1
minute interval

3 short flashes, 3
long, 3 short
Repeat after 1
minute interval

Help Needed


6 blasts in quick
succession Repeat
after 1 minute

6 flashes in quick
succession Repeat
after 1 minute



3 blasts in quick
succession Repeat
after 1 minute

3 flashes in quick
succession Repeat
after 1 minute

Return to Base


succession of

succession of

Crew Resource Management

is a procedure and training system in systems
wherehuman errorcan have devastating effects.
Used primarily for improvingair safety,
focuses oninterpersonal communication,
leadership, anddecision makingin the cockpit.
wide range of knowledge, skills and attitudes
including communications, situational awareness,
problem solving, decision making, and teamwork

Aircraft Marshalling
visual signalling between ground personnel
andpilotson anairport,aircraft carrierorhelipad.
marshalling is one-on-one visual communication
and a part ofaircraft ground handling.
alternative/additional to radio communications
between the aircraft andATC
usual equipment: reflectingsafety vest, a helmet
with acousticearmuffs, and gloves or marshalling
wands, handheld illuminatedbeacons.

Taxiway Lights

Taxiway Edge Lights:outline the edges of taxiways during

periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions. BLUElight.
Taxiway Centerline Lights:steady burning and emit GREEN
light located along the taxiway centerline
Clearance Bar Lights:Three in-pavement steady-burning
YELLOW lights installed at holding positions on taxiways
Stop Bar Lights:A row of RED, unidirectional, steady-burning inpavement lights installed across the entire taxiway at the runway
holding position, and elevated steady-burning RED lights on each
side used in low visibility conditions
A controlled stop bar is operated in conjunction with the taxiway
centerline lead-on lights which extend from the stop bar toward
the runway. Following the ATC clearance to proceed, the stop bar
is turned off and the lead-on lights are turned on.

Runway Lights

Runway end lights: a pair of four lights on each side of the runway
which extend along the full width of the runway. GREEN when viewed
by approaching aircraft and RED when seen from the runway.
Runway edge lights: WHITE elevated lights that run the length of
the runway on either side.
Runway Centerline Lighting System: lights embedded into the
surface of the runway at 15m intervals along the runway centerline .
White except the last 914m, alternate WHITE and RED for next
610m and RED for last 305m.
Touchdown Zone Lights: rows of WHITE light bars (with three in
each row) at 30 m intervals on either side of the centerline.
Land and Hold Short Lights: a row of WHITE pulsating lights
installed across the runway to indicate hold short position.
Approach Lighting System: installed on the approach end of an
airport runway and consists of a series of lightbars,STROBE lights, or
a combination of the two that extends outward from the runway end.