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Cell the basic unit of life

Cells
Smallest living unit
Most are
microscopic

Discovery of Cells
Robert Hooke (mid-1600s)
Observed bark of oak tree
Saw row of empty boxes
Coined the term cell

The origin and evolution of


cells
On the basis of presence of nucleus cells are
divided into two groups:
Prokaryotic cells: lack a nuclear envelope
Eukaryotic cells: have a nucleus in which the genetic
material is separated from the cytoplasm.

Prokaryotic

cells

are

generally

smaller

and

simpler than eukaryotic cells; their genomes are


less complex and they do not contain cytoplasmic
organelles.

Cell Types

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic Cells
First cell type on earth
Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea

Prokaryotic Cells
No membrane bound nucleus
Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration
Organelles not bound by membranes

Prokaryotic Cells
Features shared by all prokaryotic cells:
All have a plasma membrane.
All have a region called the nucleoid
where the DNA is concentrated.
The cytoplasm (the plasma-membrane
enclosed region) consists of the nucleoid,
ribosomes, and a liquid portion called the
cytosol.

Prokaryotic Cells
Specialized features of some
prokaryotic cells:
A cell wall just outside the plasma
membrane.
Some bacteria have an outermost slimy
layer made of polysaccharides and
referred to as a capsule.

Some bacteria have flagella,


locomotory structures.
Some bacteria have cillia, threadlike
structures that help bacteria adhere
to one another during mating or to
other cells for food and protection.

Figure 4.5 A Prokaryotic Cell

Structure of Prokaryotic cell


Using bacteria as our sample prokaryote,
the following structures can be found in
bacterial cells:
Capsule- Found in some bacterial cells,
this additional outer covering protects the
cell when it is engulfed by other
organisms, assists in retaining moisture,
and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and
nutrients

Cillia- Hair-like structures on the surface of the


cell that attach to other bacterial cells.
Flagella- Long, whip-like protrusion that aids in
cellular locomotion.
Ribosomes- Cell structures responsible for
protein production.
Plasmids- Gene carrying, circular DNA
structures that are not involved in reproduction.
Nucleiod Region- Area of the cytoplasm that
contains the single bacterial DNA molecule.

Cell Wall- Outer covering of most cells that


protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape.
Cytoplasm- A gel-like substance composed mainly
of water that also contains enzymes, salts, cell
components, and various organic molecules.
Cell Membrane or Plasma MembraneSurrounds the cell's cytoplasm and regulates the
flow of substances in and out of the cell.

Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleus bound by membrane
Include fungi,, plant, and
animal cells
Possess many organelles

Protozoan

Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotes, animals, plants, fungi
have a membrane-enclosed nucleus
in each of their cells.
Eukaryotic cells:
tend to be larger than prokaryotic cells.
have a variety of membrane-enclosed
compartments called organelles.
have a protein scaffolding called the
cytoskeleton.

Eukaryotic Cells
Compartmentalization is the key
to eukaryotic cell function.
Each organelle has a specific role
defined by chemical processes.
Membranes surrounding these
organelles keep away
inappropriate molecules and also
act as traffic regulators for raw
materials into and out of the
organelle.

Representative Animal Cell

Structure
cell membrane
nucleus
nucleolus
ribosomes
ER
Golgi
centrioles
cell wall
mitochondria
cholorplasts
One big vacuole
cytoskeleton

Animal cells
Yes
Yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
yes

Plant cells
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
Yes

Cell Structures and Their


Functions

Things in common
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Genetic Material
Energy Currency
Enzymes

Plasma Membrane
Every cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane, a
continuous membrane composed of a lipid bilayer
with proteins floating within it and protruding from
it.

Plasma Membrane
The current model of how
membranes are constructed is known
as Fluid-Mosaic Model.
Proposes that various molecules
of membrane are able to flow
and move about.

Phospholipids
Polar
Hydrophylic head
Hydrophobic tail

Interacts with
water

Proteins
Can be found on the surface of the
membrane or within the membrane
among phospholipids.

Roles of the plasma membrane:


Acts as a selectively permeable barrier.
Is an interface for cells where
information is received from adjacent
cells and extracellular signals.
Allows cells to maintain a constant
internal environment.
Has molecules that are responsible for
binding and adhering to adjacent cells.

CELL WALL
Thecell wallis the tough, fairly rigid
layer that surrounds some types ofcells.
It is located outside thecell membrane.
In bacteria,peptidoglycan forms the cell
wall.
Fungi possess cell walls made of chitin.
In plants: cellulose

Functions
provides these cells with structural
support and protection.
A major function of the cell wall is to
act as a pressure vessel,
preventingover-expansionwhen
water enters thecell.

Membranous Organelles

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes
Chloroplast
Mitochondrion
Peroxisomes
Nucleus

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Is a set of folded membranes and
tubes throughout the system.
The general structure :membranous
network ofcisternae.
Two types: rough endoplasmic
reticulum
smooth endoplasmic
reticulum

Functions
Provides a large surface area on which
chemical reactions can take place.
It synthesizeslipids,phospholipidsand
steroid.
It also carries out the metabolism of
carbohydrates, drug detoxification.
attachment of receptors on cell membrane
proteins.
RER involved in protein synthesis

Golgi Bodies
The Golgi is composed of stacks of membranebound structures known ascisternae.
Each cisternae comprises a flat, membrane
enclosed disc that includes special Golgi enzymes.
The cisternae stack has two main functional
regions: the cis-Golgi network and trans-Golgi
network.
Vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum fuse
with the network and subsequently progress
through the stack to the trans Golgi network,
where they are packaged and sent to their
destination

Functions
Site of synthesis and packaging of
molecules produced in cells.
Involved in transportation of
molecules s/a carbohydrates,
proteins, insulin outside the cell.

Lysosomes
Lysosomesare
cellularorganellesthat contain
hydrolaseenzymes that break down
waste materials and cellular debris.

Used in four major ways


Cell damaged- membranes of
Lysosomes break-enzymes releasecomponents of cells broken- available
for surrounding cells.
Also play part in normal development of
an organism.
Lysosomes combine with food vacuoles.
Eg: Paramecium
Used in destruction of engulfed harmful
microbes

Peroxisomes
Peroxisomes are small membrane
bound vesicles.
In human cells, peroxisomes produce
hydrogen peroxides that is used to
destroy invading microbes.
They contain enzymes responsible
for breakdown of fatty acids and
cholesterol synthesis.

Mitochondria
Have their own DNA- semiautonomous
Structure :
1.the outer mitochondrial membrane
2.the intermembrane space
3.the inner mitochondrial membrane
4.the cristae space
5.the matrix
Located on their surface are enzymes
involved involved in respiration

Figure 4.14 A Mitochondrion Converts Energy from Fuel Molecules into ATP (Part 2)

Mitochondria
Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration)
Glucose
Fatty acids

Release energy
ATP

Mitochondria found in both plants and animals are called the


power houses of the cell. They convert the energy in the bonds
of glucose and oxygen to readily available energy in the form of
ATP. This process is called aerobic respiration.

Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
-organelles present in cells of plants
and some other eukaryotes
-contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
-surrounded by 2 membranes
-thylakoids are membranous sacs
within the inner membrane
-grana are stacks of thylakoids
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Nucleus
Known as the control centre of the
Cell
a membrane-bound sac evolved to store

the cells chromosomes(DNA)


stores the genetic material of the cell in
the form of multiple, linear chromosomes
To control the activity of cell by regulating
gene expression

surrounded

by a nuclear envelope
composed of 2 phospholipid bilayers
in chromosomes DNA is organized with
proteins to form chromatin

Nuclear membrane:
separates the nucleoplasm, liquid
material in the nucleus, from the
cytoplasm
Nuclear pores:
Exchange of materials
allows thousands of large molecules
such as RNA to pass into and out of
the nucleus each minute.

Nucleolus:
Inside nucleus
Location of ribosome factory
Made of RNA

NON MEMBRANEOUS

Ribosomes
Cytoskeleton
Centrioles
Cillia and Flagella

Ribosomes
A ribosome is made from complexes
of RNAs and proteins
-ribonucleoprotein.
Each ribosome is divided into two
subunits: the smaller subunit and
the larger subunit

Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
-network of protein fibers found in all
eukaryotic cells
-supports the shape of the cell
-keeps organelles in fixed locations
-helps move materials within the cell

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Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton fibers include
- microfilaments responsible for
cellular contractions, crawling,
pinching
-microtubules provide organization to
the cell and move materials within the
cell
-intermediate filaments provide
structural stability
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Cytoskeleton

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Cilia and flagella

both cilia and flagella are constructed from microtubules


both provide either locomotion for the cell or move fluid
pass the cell