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ROPEWORK

Use And Maintenance of


Cordage onboard ships

Types of Cordage
Fibre Cordage

Natural Fibre
Synthetic Fibre
Steel Wire Ropes
Wire Core
Fibre Core

Fibre Ropes
Manila
Sisal
Hemp
Jute, Flax and Cotton.

Manila
Made from abaca plant.
Strongest of natural fibre ropes.
Colour is dark golden brown.
Has a black marker thread.
Has a natural resistance to salt water.
Has good resistance to wear and tear
It is flexible and durable.

Sisal
Made from sisalas agave plant
Colour is of pale straw
Texture is rougher than manila
The fibres are shorter and protrude
from the strands.
Is not as durable as manila.

Both Sisal & Manila do not float.


Both will only stretch 13 15 %
before parting.
When wet the fibers swell and lose
strength

Hemp
Made from the plant cannabis
sativa.
When new the colour is pale straw
of a shade between sisal & manila.
Tarred Hemp or marlin twine
weathers better due to the
protective tar but is not as strong.

Hemp rope is a superior hand rail rope that feels firm and s

Jute, Flax and Cotton


Used as raw product but must be
protected from the weather by
applying oil or wax.
Referred to as soft fibers and are
used as small stuf for whippings
and seizing's.

Synthetic Fibre ropes


Sometimes referred as man-made
fibres. Common synthetic fibres are

Polyamide (PA) also known as Nylon,


Polyester (PES) also known as Terylene
or Dacron,
Polypropylene (PP) and
Polyethylene (PE).
Dynema (HMPE)

Dyneema/Spectra (HMPE)
FEATURES & BENEFITS

Very High strength to weight ratio.


Very low stretch.
Very high abrasion resistance.
High UV Resistance.
Floats & does not absorb water.
Commonly used to replace wire ropes.

Advantages of Synthetic
fibres
Greater strength,
Greater elasticity,
Some float.

Characteristics of manmade fibres


Synthetic
Fibre

Strength
when wet

Polyamide

Less

Polyester

Less

Polypropylen
e

Same

Polyethylene

Melting
point

Float or
sink

Maximum
stretch

250o

Sinks

50%
32%

Sinks
2500

18%
Floats

Same

165o

20%
Floats

130o

Identifying Rope Fibres


Polyamide (nylon)

Burns with whitish smoke


Smells like fish or celery
May melt and drip before catching fire

Polyester (dacron)

Burns with dense black smoke


Smells like mushroom
May melt and drip before catching fire.

Manila
Made from abaca plant.
Strongest of natural fibre ropes.
Colour is dark golden brown.
Has a black marker thread.
Has a natural resistance to salt water.
Has good resistance to wear and tear
It is flexible and durable.

Polypropylene

Smooth
Lightweight
Burns with little smoke or smell

Polyethylene

Shiny
Burns with little smoke or smell

Construction of fibre ropes


Fibres twisted to form yarns
Many yarns form a strand
Two or more strands form a rope

Fibre Rope Lay


Right Hand (RH) lay (Z Lay)
Left Hand (LH) lay (S Lay)
Multi-plait rope
Braided Core
Hollow Braided Rope

Yarn Forms
Mono-filament,
Multi-filament,
Fibre film,
Staple spun.

Rope Strength
Breaking Strain (BS),
Working Load Limit (WLL) was SWL.
Dependent on the make up of the
rope, the size, the condition and the
age.

Load Limit Factor


All fibre ropes is 1/6 of breaking
strain.
All wire ropes 1/5 of breaking strain.
This is dependent on make up, size,
condition, age and in certain
circumstances the lay.

Load Limit

Never exceed WLL


Does not apply to
worn or damaged
ropes

Examples of
WLL for
10mm

Examples of
WLL for
30mm

3D2
2.5D2

300Kg
250Kg

2700Kg
2250Kg

2.5D2

250Kg

2250Kg

1.8D2

180Kg

1620Kg

Polypropylen
e

1.8D2

180Kg

1620Kg

Polyethylene
Polyethylene
mono
staple

1.2D2

120Kg

1080Kg

Fibre type

WLL
Given by
Kg D2

100Kg

900Kg

Manila/sisal

Polyamide<
50
Polyamide>
50
Polyester

Fibre Rope Damage


External wear
Internal wear
Overloading
Chemical attack
Heat damage
Ultra-violet radiation

Fibre rope Maintenance &


Care
Keep away from dirt
Keep cordage clean
Keep cordage dry
Protect from chafing
Avoid sharp angles
Remove unnecessary knots
Store ropes correctly

Safe use of ropes


Keep away from ropes under tension,
Do not stand in the bight of a rope,
Do not wear rings when handling rope,
Inspect rope carefully before and after use,
Do not exceed WLL of rope,
Replace knots with splices,
Never strain a rope that has twists and turns,
Avoid sharp corners and chaffing.

Steel Wire Ropes


For heavier work than Fibre ropes
can,
Strength depends on type of steel
used,
Has very little elasticity,
Flexibility depends on the type of
construction.

Properties of SWR
Type of steel
Construction
Size
Lay
Type of core

Type of Steel
Stainless Steel
Galvanised Steel
Bright steel
Black steel

Construction
The amount of wires that make a
strand,
The amount of strands in the rope,
The type of core

Steel
Fibre

Size of wire rope


Measured in mm,
Measured across the diameter
using a tape or callipers,
Measured at the widest part, that
is not in the cut of the rope.

Steel Wire Rope

LAY
Right Hand Ordinary Lay (RHOL),
Left Hand Ordinary Lay (LHOL),
Right Hand Langs Lay (RHLL),
Left Hand Langs Lay (LHLL).

Langs Lay Vs Ordinary Lay


Langs Lay

More surface contact


More resistant to abrasive conditions
Must not be used for lifting

Ordinary Lay

More suited for standing rigging


Used in all lifting applications

Left hand ordinary la

Left hand Langs lay

Right hand ordinary la

Right hand Langs lay

A comparison of wear characteristics


between regular lay and Lang lay
rope.The lines on a-b, on drawings
indicates the rope axis.

Core
Purpose

To provide support for the strands


To act as storage for lubrication

Types

Fibre core used where flexibility is


required
Wire core used where extra strength
is required with little flexibility.

Abbr.
FC
FSWR
FW
IWR
IWRC
J
LH
LL
NR
OL
RH
S
SF
SW
SWL
TS
W
WF
WLL
WS

Description
Fibre core
Flexible steel wire rope
Filler wire
Independent wire rope
Independent wire rope core
Jute (fibre)
Left hand lay
Lang's lay
Non-rotating
Ordinary lay
Right hand lay
Seale
Seale filler wire
Seale Warrington
Safe working load
Triangular strand
Warrington
Warriflex
Working load limit
Warrington Seale

Protection
Galvanising
Protects against corrosion
PVC coating

Protects against corrosion

Lubrication

Protects against internal wear & tear


Protects against corrosion

Proper storage

Protect from the elements.

Wire rope care and


maintenance
Inspect for defects,
Keep well lubricated,
Store off the deck
Store in a dry place,
Turn reels over every few months
to prevent loss of lubricant.

SWR strength
Breaking Strain

The ultimate strain on a rope at failure.

Working Load Limit

A safety factor of 1/5 of the breaking strain


is given for SWR.
Applies only when new or in good condition.
WLL is approximately 8D2

SWR Damage
Fatigue
Abrasion
Deformed strand
Corrosion

Fatigue
Constant bending and straightening,
Long periods of stress causing the
wires to stretch beyond limit of
elasticity.
Signs of fatigue are broken wires both
inside and outside the rope.

Abrasion
Caused by
Wear over fairleads, sheaves and
sharp or rough objects
Constant rubbing of the wires
against each other
Being buried within the turns on a
winch drum

Signs of Abrasion
Deposits of brown powder between
the strands
Wires that are flattened or have
lost their round shape
Broken wires on the outside

Prevention of Abrasion
Ensure sufficient lubrication on and
in the wire
Ensure sheaves and roller fairleads
turn freely
Avoid running over sharp objects
and edges

Deformed Strands
Caused by
Stretching when the elastic limit of
individual wires is exceeded
Crushing when excessive loads are
applied
Splicing wire is disturbed from its
tight lay
Kinking when load is applied with
twists in the rope or over a sharp edge

Corrosion
Caused by
The wear and tear on the rope Galvanising coat wears off
Insufficient application of
lubrication friction between the
wires wearing off protective
coating

Safe handling of SWR


Inspect the SWR thoroughly before use
Note the state of internal lubrication
Note the degree of corrosion
Look for indentations and deformations
Note the presence of wire breaks
Do not allow wires to kink under load
Never use beyond WLL
Beware of jags wear protective gloves

Safe handling of SWR


Do not stand in the bight of SWR
Do not stand in line of strain

Winding on drums
Roll from top to top or bottom to
bottom
Ensure there are no gaps between
each turn of the wire
Use the first layer thumb rule to
prevent gaps occurring

SWR Transfer

CORRECT METHOD

Termination Point

Rule of Thumb