Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

Comparative

Anatomy
Circulatory System
Note Set 10
Chapter 12

Circulatory System

Aortic arches- within


pharyngeal arches
Arteries

Veins

Carries blood away from


heart
Muscular, elastic fibrous
walls
Regulates blood pressure
Terminate in capillary
bed
Carry blood toward heart

Heart

Modified blood vessel

Figure 13.1: Cross


section of artery and vein.

Figure 13.2: Basic circulatory pattern of amniote embryo.

Figure 13.3: Embryological development


of aortic arches.

Portal Systems

Veins drain organ and dump blood


into other organ instead of heart

Figure 13.4: Portal systems.

Portal Systems (cont.)

Hepatic

Renal

Drains intestine into liver


Drains venous channels
of tail into kidneys

Hypophyseal
Drains hypothalamus into
sinusoids of anterior
pituitary
Smallest

Figure 13.5: Hepatic and


renal portal systems.

Portal Systems (cont.)

Figure 13.6: Hypophyseal portal


system.

Heart

Typical tetrapod blood pumped


By pulmonary arteries, from heart to
lungs
By pulmonary veins, back to heart

Heart

(cont.)

Figure 13.7: Chambers of the


primitive vertebrate heart.

Heart

(cont.)

Figure 13.8: The heart tube elongates and


bends.

Fish Heart

Fish heart- tube like

4 chambers:
Sinus venosus
Atrium
Ventricle
Conus arteriosus

Figure 13.9: Four chambered heart.

Fish Heart

(cont.)

Sinus venosus
Thin walled venous chamber
Receives blood from: duct of Cuvier,
coronary veins, hepatic veins

Atrium
Large and thin walled
Dorsal to ventricle

Fish Heart (cont.)

Ventricle
Dumps into conus artriosus- continuous
with aorta
Chambers separated by valves: sinoatrial note, sino-ventricular node, semilunar valve

Conus arteriosus
Short in bony fish and amphibians
Not found in adult amniotes

Heart

Figure 13.10: Heart chambers,


oxygenated blood flow (red), and
septum modification.

Lungfish and Amphibian vs


Dogfish

Modifications of partial or complete


partition in atrium

Left and right atria

Advent of lungs
Double circulation
Modification in conus arteriosus
Semi-lunar valve modified to shunt
deoxygenated blood to lungs (spiral
valve)

Spiral Valve

Figure 13.11: Spiral


valve in dipnoans;
longitudinal folds of
conus lining.

Figure 13.12: Spiral valve in anurans;


single flap.

Amphibian Heart

Spiral valve directs


oxy. blood entering
ventricle from left
atrium
Conus (truncus)
arteriosus; also called
bulbous cordis
Bulbous arteriosus

Swelling of ventral aorta


Smooth muscle

Figure 13.13: Three-chambered frog


heart.

Amphibian Heart (cont.)

Urodele- partially
divided circulation

Right and left atrium


Sinus venosus dumps
into right atrium
Pulmonary veins leave
left ventricle

Reptile - fully divided


circulation, but
additional chamber
(as in turtle)

Figure 13.14: Turtle heart


chambers and circulation path.

Reptile Heart

Cavum venosum (CV)- internal pocket; e.g., turtle


Blood collected from post cava through sinus
venosus to precava

To right atrium
Venous blood to CV
Cavum pulmonale
Into pulmonary artery to lungs
Oxy. blood returns through pulmonary veins in left
atrium
Back to CV
To left and right aortic trunk

Blood Circulation

Figure 13.15: Single loop fish and double loop amphibian and
mammal circulation.

Crocodilian Heart

Mechanism for breathing and diving


Lungs not utilized
Blood not pumped to lungs

Foramen of Panizza
Valve between aortic trunks to divert
blood
Allows left ventricle to pump to both
arches when right ventricle closed

Underwater right ventricle helps pump


systemic blood

Diving

Semilunar valve in right aorta closed when


above water
Semilunar valve forced open when
submerged in water to divert pulmonary
circulation

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.16: Crocodilian blood circulation when (a) diving and


when (b) on the surface.

Two Aortic Trunks

Figure 13.17: Turtle


heart and two aortic
trunks emerging.

Figure 13.18: Crocodilian


foramen of Panizza connects
two aortic trunks at base.

Amniote Heart

4 chambered heart

Birds and mammals


Sinus venosus- 5th chamber in reptile heart

2 atria and 2 ventricles

Becomes sino-atrial node

In embryo, right and left atria are not


separated
Foramen ovale
Fossa ovalis

Auricle - flap on side of atrium

Adult Heart

Figure 13.19: Adult heart blood flow.

Aortic Arches

Basic pattern has 6 aortic arches


Major arterial channels
Ventral aorta
Dorsal aorta
6 pairs of aortic arches connects ventral
and dorsal aorta

Reptiles - additional aortic trunk

Aortic Arches

Figure 13.20: Basic


pattern of aortic arches
and dorsal aortae.

(cont.)

Figure 13.21: Ventral perspective


of aortic arches.

Figure 13.22: Left aortic arches.

Aortic Arches

(cont.)

Teleost
1st and 2nd arches lost
Dorsal aortae become
internal carotids

Lung fish

Pulmonary artery from 6th


arch

Tetrapods
Pulmonary artery from 6th
arch
5th arch lost

Figure 13.23: Aortic arches,


internal carotids (ic) and
pulmonary artery.

Tetrapod Aortic Arches

1st and 2nd arches


lost
Dorsal segment
dropped between 3rd
and 4th arches

Ductus caroticus
Figure 13.24: Adult aortic
arches (book figure
14.19).

Tetrapod Aortic Arches


(cont.)

3rd arch extends to


internal carotids

Ventral aorta
extension

Carotid arch

External carotid

Common carotid at
base between 3rd and
4th

Figure 13.25: Aortic


arches, internal carotid (ic),
external carotid (ec) and
common carotid (cc).

Tetrapod Aortic Arches


(cont.)

5th arch lost


Dorsal segment of 6th arch
lost
4th arch- no anterior
connection

6th arch

Aortic arch
Pulmonary arch

Ex: adult anuran

Figure 13.26: Adult


aortic arches.

Figure 13.27: Modifications of


aortic arches and dorsal aortae into
mature vascular system.

Aortic Arches

Urodele

Ductus caroticus
Ductus arteriosus- dorsal segment of 6 th
arch

Reptiles

1st and 2nd arches lost


Ductus caroticus lost
5th arch lost
Ductus arteriosus lost
Additional aortic arch introduced
Arch from left side loops right
Arch from right side loops left

Mammalian Aortic
Arches

3rd, 4th, 5th, & 6th retained


embryonically
Adults- 1st and 2nd dropped
3rd carotid arch
4th systemic arch
5th lost
Dorsal segment of 6th lost

Figure 13.28: Adult


aortic arches.

Retained embryonicallyductus arteriosus (becomes


ligamentum arteriosum)
Figure 13.29: Left aortic
arches.

Bird Aortic Arches

Right portion of aortic arch is


retained and left is lost (opposite to
mammals)
Birds have right aortic arch
Mammals have left aortic arch

Venous System

Shark renal portal systemdrains

blood from tail before


entering post cardinal

Sinus venosus- where all


blood returns
Duct of Cuvier or
Common Cardinal--Cuvier
was a foremost French
comparative anatomist

2 ducts of Cuvier (or


derivatives) in most
vertebrates

Figure 13.30: Modifications


of basic venous patterns
showing sinus venosus (S).

Venus System

Major venous channels

Cardinals: anterior, posterior, common


Renal portal
Lateral abdominals
Vitellines- associated with hepatic portal
system
Coronary veins

Additional characteristics of higher


vertebrates
Pulmonary
Posterior vena cava

Venus System

Common Cardinals- directs blood to sinus


venosus
Anterior Cardinals- receives blood from head
Post Cardinals- receives blood from kidneys
Renal Portal- receives blood from caudal vein
Lateral Abdominals- receives blood from
abdominal stream to iliac (lateral wall of body)
Hepatic Veins- receives blood from intestine
into liver

Modifications to Basic
Venous System

Post cardinal lost in adult anurans

Post cava- new vessel

Post cava drains kidneys in turtle

External iliac vein connects lateral


abdominals and renal portal system

Modifications to Basic
Venous System

Most mammals lose renal portal


system
Pre-cava- common cardinals in
higher verts
Internal jugular- anterior cardinal
veins
Anterior vena cava- only right precava retained

Modifications to Basic
Venous System

Azygous- vestige of
right post cardinal
veins
Hemiazygousremnant of left
post cardinal
Inferior vena cavapost cava

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.31: Ventral view of anterior


venous channels of cat and human (a)
and ventral view of azygos of rhesus
monkey (b).

Azygos and Hemiazygos

Figure 13.32: Ventral view of


venous channels of rabbit.

Fetal Circulation

Figure 13.33: Circulation of


mammalian fetus.

Fetal Circulation

Figure 13.34: Fetal circulation


before birth.

(cont.)

Fetal Circulation

(cont.)

Figure 13.35: Pre birth fetal circulation:


liver (I), inferior vena cava (II), rt. atrium
(III), lt. atrium (IV), ductus arteriosus into

Fetal Circulation (cont.)

Oxygenation at placenta
Umbilical veins supply
fetus with oxy. blood

Vein passes through liver


and unites with post cava

From right atrium, oxy.


blood goes 2 directions

To right ventricle
To left atrium through
foramen ovale

Figure 13.36: Foramen


ovale in fetal circulation
system.

Fetal Circulation

(cont.)

In right ventricle, oxy. blood sent to


pulmonary artery

Lungs nonfunctional
Ductus arteriosus diverts blood from lungs

Figure 13.37: Adult


aortic arches of

Figure 13.38: Left aortic arches


with ductus arteriosus.

Circulation At Birth

Placenta shuts down


Umbilical vein collapses- near falciform
ligament
Interatrial aperture closes (fossa ovalis)
Ductus arteriosus closes (ligamentum
arteriosum)
Deoxygenated blood now enters right
ventricle, pulmonary arteries, and
continues to lungs
Ductus venosus collapses (ligamentum
venosum)

Figure 13.39: Post birth modifications


in fetal circulation.

Literature Cited
Figure 13.1http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0006777.html
Figure 13.2- http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes9.html
Figure 13.3, 13.4, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.14, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.21, 13.22,
13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.37 & 13.38 Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th
ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Figure 13.5- http://www.teachnet.ie/farmnet/Circulatory.htm
Figure 13.6http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookENDOCR.html
Figure 13.7- http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes9.html
Figure 13.8- http://www.med.unc.edu/embryo_images/unitcardev/cardev_htms/cardev017.htm
Figure 13.13- http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/zoolab/Table_of_Contents/Lab9b/Frog_Heart_Model_3/frog_heart_model_3.htm
Figure 13.15- http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/bloodflow.jpg
Figure 13.16- http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes9.html
Figure 13.20- http://connection.lww.com/Products/sadler/imagebank.asp
Figure 13.27- http://connection.lww.com/Products/sadler/imagebank.asp
Figure 13.34http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/hrnewborn/nicuintr.html
Figure 13.35- http://www.med.unc.edu/embryo_images/unitcardev/cardev_htms/cardev042.htm
Figure 13.36- http://www.medizin.unikoeln.de/kliniken/innere3/assets/images/HEART_PFOcombo2.jpg
Figure 13.39- http://www.fofweb.com/Subscription/Science/Science-Detail.asp?
SID=1&iPin=H926