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Circulatory System
Note Set 10
Chapter 12

Circulatory System

Aortic arches- within

pharyngeal arches


Carries blood away from

Muscular, elastic fibrous
Regulates blood pressure
Terminate in capillary
Carry blood toward heart


Modified blood vessel

Figure 13.1: Cross

section of artery and vein.

Figure 13.2: Basic circulatory pattern of amniote embryo.

Figure 13.3: Embryological development

of aortic arches.

Portal Systems

Veins drain organ and dump blood

into other organ instead of heart

Figure 13.4: Portal systems.

Portal Systems (cont.)



Drains intestine into liver

Drains venous channels
of tail into kidneys

Drains hypothalamus into
sinusoids of anterior

Figure 13.5: Hepatic and

renal portal systems.

Portal Systems (cont.)

Figure 13.6: Hypophyseal portal



Typical tetrapod blood pumped

By pulmonary arteries, from heart to
By pulmonary veins, back to heart



Figure 13.7: Chambers of the

primitive vertebrate heart.



Figure 13.8: The heart tube elongates and


Fish Heart

Fish heart- tube like

4 chambers:
Sinus venosus
Conus arteriosus

Figure 13.9: Four chambered heart.

Fish Heart


Sinus venosus
Thin walled venous chamber
Receives blood from: duct of Cuvier,
coronary veins, hepatic veins

Large and thin walled
Dorsal to ventricle

Fish Heart (cont.)

Dumps into conus artriosus- continuous
with aorta
Chambers separated by valves: sinoatrial note, sino-ventricular node, semilunar valve

Conus arteriosus
Short in bony fish and amphibians
Not found in adult amniotes


Figure 13.10: Heart chambers,

oxygenated blood flow (red), and
septum modification.

Lungfish and Amphibian vs


Modifications of partial or complete

partition in atrium

Left and right atria

Advent of lungs
Double circulation
Modification in conus arteriosus
Semi-lunar valve modified to shunt
deoxygenated blood to lungs (spiral

Spiral Valve

Figure 13.11: Spiral

valve in dipnoans;
longitudinal folds of
conus lining.

Figure 13.12: Spiral valve in anurans;

single flap.

Amphibian Heart

Spiral valve directs

oxy. blood entering
ventricle from left
Conus (truncus)
arteriosus; also called
bulbous cordis
Bulbous arteriosus

Swelling of ventral aorta

Smooth muscle

Figure 13.13: Three-chambered frog


Amphibian Heart (cont.)

Urodele- partially
divided circulation

Right and left atrium

Sinus venosus dumps
into right atrium
Pulmonary veins leave
left ventricle

Reptile - fully divided

circulation, but
additional chamber
(as in turtle)

Figure 13.14: Turtle heart

chambers and circulation path.

Reptile Heart

Cavum venosum (CV)- internal pocket; e.g., turtle

Blood collected from post cava through sinus
venosus to precava

To right atrium
Venous blood to CV
Cavum pulmonale
Into pulmonary artery to lungs
Oxy. blood returns through pulmonary veins in left
Back to CV
To left and right aortic trunk

Blood Circulation

Figure 13.15: Single loop fish and double loop amphibian and
mammal circulation.

Crocodilian Heart

Mechanism for breathing and diving

Lungs not utilized
Blood not pumped to lungs

Foramen of Panizza
Valve between aortic trunks to divert
Allows left ventricle to pump to both
arches when right ventricle closed

Underwater right ventricle helps pump

systemic blood


Semilunar valve in right aorta closed when

above water
Semilunar valve forced open when
submerged in water to divert pulmonary



Figure 13.16: Crocodilian blood circulation when (a) diving and

when (b) on the surface.

Two Aortic Trunks

Figure 13.17: Turtle

heart and two aortic
trunks emerging.

Figure 13.18: Crocodilian

foramen of Panizza connects
two aortic trunks at base.

Amniote Heart

4 chambered heart

Birds and mammals

Sinus venosus- 5th chamber in reptile heart

2 atria and 2 ventricles

Becomes sino-atrial node

In embryo, right and left atria are not

Foramen ovale
Fossa ovalis

Auricle - flap on side of atrium

Adult Heart

Figure 13.19: Adult heart blood flow.

Aortic Arches

Basic pattern has 6 aortic arches

Major arterial channels
Ventral aorta
Dorsal aorta
6 pairs of aortic arches connects ventral
and dorsal aorta

Reptiles - additional aortic trunk

Aortic Arches

Figure 13.20: Basic

pattern of aortic arches
and dorsal aortae.


Figure 13.21: Ventral perspective

of aortic arches.

Figure 13.22: Left aortic arches.

Aortic Arches


1st and 2nd arches lost
Dorsal aortae become
internal carotids

Lung fish

Pulmonary artery from 6th


Pulmonary artery from 6th
5th arch lost

Figure 13.23: Aortic arches,

internal carotids (ic) and
pulmonary artery.

Tetrapod Aortic Arches

1st and 2nd arches

Dorsal segment
dropped between 3rd
and 4th arches

Ductus caroticus
Figure 13.24: Adult aortic
arches (book figure

Tetrapod Aortic Arches


3rd arch extends to

internal carotids

Ventral aorta

Carotid arch

External carotid

Common carotid at
base between 3rd and

Figure 13.25: Aortic

arches, internal carotid (ic),
external carotid (ec) and
common carotid (cc).

Tetrapod Aortic Arches


5th arch lost

Dorsal segment of 6th arch
4th arch- no anterior

6th arch

Aortic arch
Pulmonary arch

Ex: adult anuran

Figure 13.26: Adult

aortic arches.

Figure 13.27: Modifications of

aortic arches and dorsal aortae into
mature vascular system.

Aortic Arches


Ductus caroticus
Ductus arteriosus- dorsal segment of 6 th


1st and 2nd arches lost

Ductus caroticus lost
5th arch lost
Ductus arteriosus lost
Additional aortic arch introduced
Arch from left side loops right
Arch from right side loops left

Mammalian Aortic

3rd, 4th, 5th, & 6th retained

Adults- 1st and 2nd dropped
3rd carotid arch
4th systemic arch
5th lost
Dorsal segment of 6th lost

Figure 13.28: Adult

aortic arches.

Retained embryonicallyductus arteriosus (becomes

ligamentum arteriosum)
Figure 13.29: Left aortic

Bird Aortic Arches

Right portion of aortic arch is

retained and left is lost (opposite to
Birds have right aortic arch
Mammals have left aortic arch

Venous System

Shark renal portal systemdrains

blood from tail before

entering post cardinal

Sinus venosus- where all

blood returns
Duct of Cuvier or
Common Cardinal--Cuvier
was a foremost French
comparative anatomist

2 ducts of Cuvier (or

derivatives) in most

Figure 13.30: Modifications

of basic venous patterns
showing sinus venosus (S).

Venus System

Major venous channels

Cardinals: anterior, posterior, common

Renal portal
Lateral abdominals
Vitellines- associated with hepatic portal
Coronary veins

Additional characteristics of higher

Posterior vena cava

Venus System

Common Cardinals- directs blood to sinus

Anterior Cardinals- receives blood from head
Post Cardinals- receives blood from kidneys
Renal Portal- receives blood from caudal vein
Lateral Abdominals- receives blood from
abdominal stream to iliac (lateral wall of body)
Hepatic Veins- receives blood from intestine
into liver

Modifications to Basic
Venous System

Post cardinal lost in adult anurans

Post cava- new vessel

Post cava drains kidneys in turtle

External iliac vein connects lateral

abdominals and renal portal system

Modifications to Basic
Venous System

Most mammals lose renal portal

Pre-cava- common cardinals in
higher verts
Internal jugular- anterior cardinal
Anterior vena cava- only right precava retained

Modifications to Basic
Venous System

Azygous- vestige of
right post cardinal
Hemiazygousremnant of left
post cardinal
Inferior vena cavapost cava



Figure 13.31: Ventral view of anterior

venous channels of cat and human (a)
and ventral view of azygos of rhesus
monkey (b).

Azygos and Hemiazygos

Figure 13.32: Ventral view of

venous channels of rabbit.

Fetal Circulation

Figure 13.33: Circulation of

mammalian fetus.

Fetal Circulation

Figure 13.34: Fetal circulation

before birth.


Fetal Circulation


Figure 13.35: Pre birth fetal circulation:

liver (I), inferior vena cava (II), rt. atrium
(III), lt. atrium (IV), ductus arteriosus into

Fetal Circulation (cont.)

Oxygenation at placenta
Umbilical veins supply
fetus with oxy. blood

Vein passes through liver

and unites with post cava

From right atrium, oxy.

blood goes 2 directions

To right ventricle
To left atrium through
foramen ovale

Figure 13.36: Foramen

ovale in fetal circulation

Fetal Circulation


In right ventricle, oxy. blood sent to

pulmonary artery

Lungs nonfunctional
Ductus arteriosus diverts blood from lungs

Figure 13.37: Adult

aortic arches of

Figure 13.38: Left aortic arches

with ductus arteriosus.

Circulation At Birth

Placenta shuts down

Umbilical vein collapses- near falciform
Interatrial aperture closes (fossa ovalis)
Ductus arteriosus closes (ligamentum
Deoxygenated blood now enters right
ventricle, pulmonary arteries, and
continues to lungs
Ductus venosus collapses (ligamentum

Figure 13.39: Post birth modifications

in fetal circulation.

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