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What Is Cancer?

is a large
group of diseases
(over 200)
characterized by
uncontrolled growth
and spread of
abnormal cells.*
*American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures

Normal Cells Vs. Cancer


Cancer cells:
Lose control over growth
and multiplication

Do not self-destruct
when they become worn
out or damaged

Crowd out healthy cells

Signs and Symptoms of


Change in bowel habits or bladder functions

Sores that do not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Lumps or thickening of breast or other parts
of the body
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Recent change in wart or mole
Persistent coughing or hoarseness

Types of Cancers

(cells that cover
internal and external
body surfaces)



(Lymph nodes


(Blood Cells)




Cells in supportive
tissues bones &

What Causes Cancer?



Lifestyle Risks


Diet high fat and low

in fruits and

Lack of exercise

Unprotected exposure
to the sun, (UV) rays


Environmental Risks

Second hand smoke

Air pollution

Industrial pollution

Chemical exposures

Inherited Risks

Less than 15% of

cancers are inherited
Gene mutations are
linked to some
inherited cancers
Cancers that may be
caused by inherited
gene mutations are:
Colon cancer
Breast cancer
Prostate cancer
Skin cancer

Screening Tests and

Screening tests:

Why Screening
The treatment of cancer
is most successful when
the cancer is detected as
early as possible, often
before symptoms occur.

Lung Cancer

Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of

various cancers.
30% of cancer deaths, including 87% of
lung cancer deaths, are attributed to
tobacco use.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer
deaths in the United States.
Smoking cigarettes is most common cause.

Lung Cancer
Signs and symptoms

In the early stages, signs and

symptoms may be difficult to detect.
Cigarette smokers may have chronic cough
or chronic bronchitis
Risk factors and prevention

Risk increases with:

The number of cigarettes smoked/day
The number of years a person smokes
How deeply the smoker inhales
Smoking high-tar or unfiltered cigarettes

Lung Cancer


tobacco use reduces lung

cancer risk, but it never returns to
that of a nonsmoker.
Passive smoking may increase
nonsmokers risk of lung cancer.
Environmental tobacco smoke is
associated with 20% to 30%
increase in lung cancer risk.
Asbestos and radon exposure also
increase risk.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer occurs primarily in women.

Signs and symptoms involve changes in breast
Risk factors
Family history
Women with mothers, sisters, or daughters who
have breast cancer
Rare before age 20
Risk increases throughout the 20s
Rises dramatically during the 30s through mid70s (majority or cases occur in women 40 and
Drops significantly after mid-70s

Breast Cancer
Screening Guidelines

mammograms starting at age 40

and continuing for as long as a woman
is in good health.
Clinical breast exams (CBE) should be
part of a periodic health exam, about
every three years for women in their
20s and 30s and every year for women
40 and over.

Breast Cancer
Screening Guidelines

Women should report any breast change

promptly to their health care providers. Breast
selfexam (BSE) is an option for women for
women starting in their 20s.
Women at increased risk (e.g., family history,
genetic tendency, past breast cancer ) should
talk with their doctors about the benefits and
limitations of starting mammography screening
earlier, having additional tests (e.g., breast
ultrasound or MRI), or having more frequent

Cervical Cancer

A causal association exists between

infection with human papillomavirus
(HPV) and cervical cancer.
Causes genital warts
Is sexually transmitted
Risk of infection increases with an
increased number of sexual partners
and/or non-monogamous partners
Women who became sexually active
before age 17 have higher risk

Cervical Cancer
Long-term use of oral contraceptives is

associated with an increased risk of cervical

In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) approved a vaccine to prevent cervical

The vaccine, Gardasil, prevents infection with four

types of HPV.

The American Cancer Society (ACS)

recommends that all women should have
annual Pap tests three years after their first
vaginal intercourse but not later than age 21.

Cervical Cancer
Screening Guidelines
Annual pap testing should
begin with the onset of
sexual activity or at age 18
Investigate pros & cons of
new HPV vaccine
Pap testing should continue
less frequently at the
discretion of the medical
provider and patient after
three or more annual tests
have been normal

Prostate Cancer
Screening Guidelines

Men should speak to their doctor about the

pros and cons of prostate cancer screening

Both prostate specific antigen (PSA) and

digital rectal examinations (DRE) are
recommended for men over 50 and who
choose to undergo screening for prostate

Testicular Cancer
Screening Guidelines

Doctors agree that examination of a mans

testicles is an important part of a general
physical exam. It is recommended that a
testicular exam be conducted during
routine cancer-related checkups.

It is believed that it is important to make

men aware of testicular cancer and that
any unusual mass should be evaluated by
a health care provider immediately.

How Far Have We Come ?

Five year survival
1913 - 10%

2003 - 66%

Advances in cancer
research continue

Avoid Smoking or Chewing


Cigarette smoking is the

leading cause of
preventable death in the US
Second hand smoke affects

Reducing Cancer Risk

Eat a diet low in fat and red meats,

especially high-fat and processed meats.
Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
Follow ACSs recommendations for cancer
screening tests.
Men should conduct monthly testicular
Know warning signs of cancer and see
your health care provider immediately if
you detect any.

Reducing Cancer Risk


Sexually active people should use

condoms to avoid contacting HPV.
Maintain a healthy weight.
Women should consult with their health
care providers about risks of using oral
contraceptives or hormone replacement
Exercise most days of the week.
When in the sun, takes steps to limit UV
radiation exposure.

Reducing Cancer Risk

Dont smoke or chew tobacco.

Avoid secondhand smoke.

Dont drink excessive amounts of alcohol.
Avoid unnecessary exposure to ionizing
radiation, such as x-rays and UV light.
Dont lie in the sun or tanning beds.
Avoid direct sun exposure between 10 a.m.
and 4 p.m.
Avoid exposure to toxic chemicals and fumes.
Avoid asbestos dust and radon gas.
Avoid eating cured or smoked meats.