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Instrument Parameters

The accuracy of an instrument or device is the difference between the


indicated value and the actual value. Accuracy is determined by
comparing an indicated reading to that of a known standard.
Accuracy depends on linearity, hysteresis, offset, drift, and
sensitivity. The
resulting discrepancy is stated as a deviation from the true value,
and is normally
specified as a percentage of full-scale reading or deflection
(%FSD). Accuracy can also be expressed as the percentage of span,
percentage of reading,
or an absolute value.

Example 1 A pressure gauge ranges from 0 to 50 psi, the worst-case


spread in
readings is 4.35 psi. What is the %FSD accuracy?
%FSD = (4.35 psi/50 psi) x 100 = 8.7
The range of an instrument specifies the lowest and highest readings it
can measure, i.e., a thermometer whose scale goes from -40 C to 100 C
has a range from -40 C to 100 C.
The span of an instrument is its range from the minimum to maximum
scale value, i.e., a thermometer whose scale goes from -40 C to 100 C has
a span of 140 C. When the accuracy is expressed as the percentage of
span, it is the deviation from true expressed as a percentage of the span.
Reading accuracy is the deviation from true at the point the reading is
being taken and is expressed as a percentage, i.e., if a deviation of 4.35
psi in Example 1 was measured at 28.5 psi, the reading accuracy would be
(4.35/28.5) x 100 = 15.26% of reading.

Example 2 In the data sheet of a scale capable of weighing up to


200 lb, the accuracy
is given as 2.5 percent of a reading. What is the deviation at the
50 and 100 lb
readings, and what is the %FSD accuracy?
Deviation at 50 lb = (50 x 2.5/100) lb = 1.25 lb
Deviation at 100 lb = (100 x 2.5/100) lb = 2.5 lb
Maximum deviation occurs at FSD, that is, 5 lb or 2.5% FSD
The absolute accuracy of an instrument is the deviation from
true as a number
not as a percentage, i.e., if a voltmeter has an absolute accuracy of
3 V in the 100-volt range, the deviation is 3 V at all the scale
readings, e.g., 10 3 V,
70 3 V and so on.

Precision refers to the limits within which a signal


can be read and may be somewhat subjective. In the
analog instrument shown in Figure, the scale is
graduated in divisions of 0.2 psi, the position of the
needle could be estimated to within 0.02 psi, and
hence, the precision of the instrument is 0.02 psi.
With a digital scale the last digit may change in
steps of 0.01 psi so that the precision is 0.01 psi.
Offset is the reading of an instrument with zero
input.
Drift is the change in the reading of an instrument
of a fixed variable with time.
Hysteresis is the difference in readings obtained
when an instrument approaches a signal from
opposite directions, i.e., if an instrument reads a
midscale value going from zero it can give a different
reading from the value after making a full-scale
reading. This is due to stresses induced into the
material of the instrument by changing its shape in
going from zero to full-scale deflection. Hysteresis is
illustrated in Figure

Vacuum is a pressure measurement made between total vacuum


and normal
atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi).
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure on the earths surface due to
the weight of the gases in the earths atmosphere and is normally
expressed at sea level as 14.7 psi or 101.36 kPa. It is however,
dependant on atmospheric conditions. The pressure decreases
above sea level and at an elevation of 5000 ft drops to about 12.2
psi (84.122 kPa).
Absolute pressure is the pressure measured with respect to a
vacuum and is expressed in pounds per square inch absolute
(psia).
Gauge pressure is the pressure measured with respect to
atmospheric pressure and is normally expressed in pounds per
square inch gauge (psig). Figure shows graphically the relation
between atmospheric, gauge, and absolute pressures.
Differential pressure is the pressure measured with respect to
another pressure and is expressed as the difference between the
two values. This would represent two points in a pressure or flow

Vacun sempurna
(0 bar a)

Absolute Presure

Gauge Pressure

Tekanan Atmosfir
1 bar a = 0 bar g
(pendekatan)

Beberapa jenis alat ukur tekanan meliputi :


- Manometer
- Bourdon Tubes
C Type Bourdon
Spiral Type Bourdon
Helical Type Bourdon
- Bellows
- Diaphragm
- Strain Gauges
Manometer
Alat ini bekerja dengan menggunakan prinsip perbedaan ketinggian
antara dua buah permukaan cairan didalam tabung manometer. Secara
matematis perbedaan ketinggian ini dapat dikonversikan dalam satuan
tekanan dengan terlebih dahulu melalui perhitungan matematis yang
dinyatakan dalam persamaan (1). Fluida yang berada didalam tabung
manometer berfungsi sebagai sensor tekanan sederhana yang ekonomis,
handal dan akurat.

Manometer Bentuk U
Secara mendasar prinsip kerja dari peralatan ini hampir sama dengan
barometer. Perbedaan tinggi kedua permukan cairan menunjukkan
besarnya tekanan absolut yang diukur. Cairan yang digunakan pada
manometer ini bisa berupa merkuri ataupun air (H2O). Alat ini Memiliki
range pengukuran > 150 inchi H2O. Tekanan maksimum operasi > 400 psig.

Simple U

With leg connection

Tabung Bourdon (Bourdon Tube)


Tabung bourdon merupakan alat ukur tekanan yang paling sering
digunakan di industri. Hal ini karena bentuknya yang sederhana
dan kasar. Range ukur alat ini bisa mencapai dari 0 100.000 Psig.
Alat ini terdiri dari tabung silinder yang membentuk huruf C, spiral
atau Helical. serta dengan luas penampang yang tidak berbentuk
lingkaran. Tabung bourdon ini biasanya terbuat dari pospor, baja
ataupun perak.
Prinsip kerjanya: bila sebuah fluida bertekanan memasuki tabung
ini, maka hal ini akan merubah bentuk tabung ini , misalnya dari
oval menjadi lingkaran. Hasil dari perubahan ini adalah pergerakan
pointer pada papan skala. Bila besarnya pergerakan ini sebanding
dengan tekanan maka hasil pengukurannya dapat diketahui melaui
besarnya pergerakan jarum penunjuk ini.position sensor

As the Bourdon tube may be


damaged by high temperatures, it
is common practice on steam
systems to install the gauge at
the end of a syphon tube. The
syphon tube is filled with water
which transmits the pressure of
the working fluid to the Bourdon
tube, enabling the gauge to be
located some distance from the
actual point where the pressure is
being measured. The two most
common forms of syphon tube are
the 'U' and ring types. The ring
tube is used on horizontal
pipelines where there is sufficient
space above the pipe, and the 'U'
type is used when mounting the
gauge on a vertical pipeline, or on
horizontal pipelines where there is
not sufficient space for a ring type
siphon

Type-Bourdon Elemen
Digunakan untuk indikasi lokal, transmisi sinyal tekanan dan aplikasiapplikasi pengendalian.
Tabung berbentuk seperti busur lingkaran (arc 2500) dan digunakan
dalam istem transmisi sinyal baik pneumatik maupun elektrik,
Akurasi pengukuran bervariasi mulai dari 0,5 - 2 %.

Spiral Type-Bourdon
- Digunakan untuk tekanan akibat
gerakan akhir yang bebas.
-Tidak dapat memberikan tekanan
yang cukup besar terhadap gerakan
yang
dibutuhkan.
- Akurasi pengukuran normal 0,5%.

Helical Type Bourdon


- Keuntungan memiliki kapasitasi range yang cukup tinggi,
stabil terhadap
pengaruh tekanan yang berfluktuasi dan mudah adaptasi
untuk penggunaan
tekanan tinggi.
- Jumlah koil-koil paling sedikit memiliki 3 coil untuk range
etekanan rendah dan > 16 coil untuk range tekanan tinggi.
- Akurasi pengukuran bervariasi mulai dari 0,5 - 1 %.

Bellows
Alat ukur tekanan jenis ini, biasanya digunakan untuk mengukur
tekanan
absolut. Jika dibandingkan dengan tabung bourdon, alat ini memiliki
sensitifita yang
jauh lebih besar. Selain itu bellows juga memiliki jangka waktu
pemakaian yang lama
dan akurasi yang bagus yaitu % dari span. Material penyusun terdiri
dari brass,
phosphor brounze, beryllium-cooper, stainless steel of monel dengan
efek histerisi
yang kecil. Prinsip kerjanya: bila fluida bertekanan memasuki ruangan
bellows, akan
menimbulkan defleksi pada pegas elastis yang dipasang didalamnya.
Bila pegas ini
dihubungkan dengan sebuah jarum penunjuk, maka besarnya defleksi
pegas ini
akan sebanding dengan pergerakan jarum penujuk yang menyatakan
besarnya
tekanan fluida yang diukur. Konstruksi bellow dinyatakan dalam gambar
10 berikut

Diaphragm
- Prinsip kerja elemen diaphragm adalah mirip seperti bellows.
- Merupakan keping flat datar yang fleksibel. (corrugated surface).
- Terdiri dari disc tunggal atau dua diaphragm yang terhubung satu
sama lain dengan konfigurasi berbeda yang digunakan untuk bentuk
capsuler elements.
- Kondisi pengukuran tekanan absolute, capsuler memiliki peranan
penting.
- Range akurasi pengukuran dari 0,5 - 1 % dari span penuh.
- Aplikasinya biasa digunakan untuk range tekanan rendah kecuali
untuk diaphragm bagian bawah digunakan untuk tekanan 15.000 psig.

The nozzle flapper system is widely used in D.P. cells. The form
shown below converts differential pressure (e.g. from a
differential pressure flow meter) into a standard pneumatic
signal. This is widely used in the control of
air operated pipeline valves.

The bellows respond to the differential pressure and moves the


lever. This moves the flapper towards or away from the nozzle.
The air supply passes through a restrictor and leaks out of the
nozzle. The output pressure hence
depends on how close the flapper is to the end of the nozzle. The
range of the instrument is adjusted by moving the pivot and the
zero position is adjusted by moving the relative position of the
flapper and nozzle. This system is used in a variety of forms.
Instead of bellows, a bourdon tube might be used and this is

Strain gauges can be bonded


to the surface of a pressure
capsule or to a force bar
positioned by the measuring
element. Shown in Figure is a
strain gauge that is bonded
to a force beam inside the DP
capsule. The change in the
process pressure will cause a
resistive change in the strain
gauges, which is then used
to produce a 4-20 mA signal.

Instalasi
A DP transmitter is used to measure
the gas pressure (in gauge scale)
inside a vessel. In this case, the lowpressure side of the transmitter is
vented to atmosphere and the highpressure side is connected to the
vessel through an isolating valve. The
isolating valve facilitates the removal
of the transmitter. The output of the
DP transmitter is proportional to the
gauge pressure of the gas, i.e., 4 mA
when pressure is 20 kPa and 20 mA
when pressure is 30 kPa.

Sensor

Limits of
Application

Accuracy

Dyna
mics

bourdo
n, "C"

up to 100
MPa

1-5% of full
span

spiral

up to 100
MPa

0.5% of full
span

helical

up to 100
MPa

0.5-1% of
full span

Disadvantages

-low cost with


reasonable
accuracy
-wide limits of
application

-hysteresis
-affected by shock
and vibration

-low cost
-differential
pressure

-smaller pressure
range of application
-temperature
compensation
needed

-very small
span possible

-usually limited to
low pressures (i.e.
below 8 kPa)

typically
vacuum to
500 kPa

0.5% of full
span

diaphra
gm

up to 60 kPa

0.5-1.5% of
full span

capacit
ance/
inducta
nce

up to 30 kPa

0.2% of full
span

resistiv
e/strain
gauge

up to 100
MPa

0.1-1% of
full span

fast

bellows

Advantages

-large range of
pressures

-sensitive to