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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, AGI, JAIPUR

MID TERM - I

ELECTIVE -II
(VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA )
SUBMITTED BY:SUBMITTED TO:AR. ANUBHAV MITTAL

ABDUL SAKUR
B.ARCH VII SEM IV YR

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The term vernacular architecture stands for the art of


constructing buildings and shelters which is spontaneous,
environment-oriented, community-based knowledge

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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LOCATION

Located in south-western region of the Indian peninsula

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Wedged between the Arabian Sea in the west and Western


Ghats in the east

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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE


equatorial tropical climate
three climatically distinct zones:
eastern highlands (rugged and cool
mountainous terrain)
central midlands (rolling hills)
western lowlands (coastal plains)
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

INFLUENTIAL
FACTORS

control of the indoor environment is basis of traditional


architecture

the traditional architecture of kerala evolved through ages by


the influence of many factors of which the climate is most
important
major problems - excess of moisture, heavy rainfall, intense
solar radiation and effect of high temperature

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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CTION
square or rectangle in plan, are

oriented strictly to the cardinal


directions

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thatchu shastra and vasthu,


governing sciences

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this makes the spatial planning more perfect to control its


environment with maximum comfort in all distinct
seasons
a modular concept with four blocks built around an open
courtyard strictly adhering to the ancient rules of geometrical
grids, proportions and scale

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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

TYPES OF HOUSES:
VEEDU
range- caves, huts etc, to hamlets,
pathinarukettu
shelter to joint-family kinfolk or
tharavad (tharavad--kinship system)
consequently huge shelter

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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TYPES OF HOUSES:
VEEDU
five types of spatial house structures
ordinary folks and tribal people/ adivasis (cheri, chala,
kudi, variyam or pisharam or pumatham)
Ekasala, an I-shaped single rectangular hall house,
belongs to farmers or middle-class non-farmers
Nalukettu, a courtyard house, belongs to landlords
the great mansion Ettuketu and Patinjarukettu (double
ettukettu) or much bigger structures, belong to very rich
landlords
commoner houses

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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THE SINGLE HALL HOUSE


wretched huts and hamlets
one hall divided into inner and living spaces by means of
temporary structural dividers
the materials are locally available: bamboo reeds, wooden
poles, mud and local grass or leaves
the walls - wattle (bamboo splints woven together and
covered with a mud plaster) and red or white mud stripes,
sometimes decorated

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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THE SINGLE HALL HOUSE

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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

EKASALA / FARMERS
HOUSE
Farmers House
the grain store
designs vary from a small box
(pattayam), to a house grain storeroom
(ara) and a house for grain storage
with a treasury building (pattayapura/
pathayapura)
typical single hall partitioned into three
arrayed rooms, enriched or fronted by a
gallery/veranda

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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HOUSE
The middle room is thus regarded the most important part
which is utilized as ara.
Kalavara
the rooms are multifunctional and could be used as
bedroom, storage or treasury
beneath the ara, there is a semi basement storage
room called nilavara
the ara has two doors. one faces the interior and is for
daily use while the other side faces the exterior or rare
gallery / passageway to get the paddy in

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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EKASALA / FARMERS
HOUSE

length- owners hasta


unit
width:length= 1:3
And perimeter calculated
yoni number added- 1-e,
3-s, 5-w, 7-n

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Order of Preference of the four


salas

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

EKASALA / FARMERS
HOUSE

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expansion
proportions applicable to core
core extend by passage halls
upwards
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

as and trisalas

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Types of trisalas
Types of dwisalas
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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the houses of brahmins, landlords
and the royalty are usually
courtyard mansions called
nalukettu

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The Nalukettu can be multiplied to make a double


nalukettu with two courtyards (ettukettu), and a fourfold
nalukettu with four courtyards (patinyarukettu) following the
needs of spatial extension

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

NADUMUTTAM
CATTUSSALAS

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TYPES OF CATTUSSALAS

AND NADUMUTTAM

the plan or spatial boundaries for certain designs follow


patterns that are prescribed in vastu.

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SOUTH
KERALA

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NORTH
KERALA

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CHRISTIAN SYRIAN
VEEDU

TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A NAALUKETTU

MUSLIM VEEDU
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

KETTU AND NADUMUTTAM

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CENTRAL KERALA

NORTH KERALA

SOUTH KERALA

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

NALUKETTU AND NADUMUTTAM


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the enclosed courtyard - ankanam is usually sunk and


therefore called kuzhi (pit) ankanam

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the protruding roofs of the salas form shady verandas and


protect the rooms from direct sunlight, keeping them cool
even on the hottest of days

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western and eastern verandahs are left open, northern and


southern verandahs are enclosed or semi-enclosed

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

MONER HOUSES

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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

OUSES

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WAYANA
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SHANGGHUMUGAM
CHENGANNUR
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

STRUCTURES
shingle and bent roof construction
reflects the logic of tropical sloping as seen
in the shingle, hip, saddle roof and the span of
eaves of the roof slopes

basic structural
elements - kazhukol
(rafters), uttaram (wall
plate), montayam
(ridge), vala

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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STRUCTURES

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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

actors
north kerala - more massive appearances in laterite
construction
it uses hipped roofs, wooden carvings and
openings
south kerala and central kerala - lighter structures in
timber
use of the bent or gabled ridge roof
environment or climate
use of shingle roofs and protruding eaves as response to
tropical rain, wind
use of grilled windows and porous walls as response to
tropical sun glare
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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COMPLEX
built in 1400- 1500
edifices reflecting variety of styles
depicting socio- political influences over
the years
building sciences applied- astronomy,
astrology, mathematics, religious values,
social moves, building technology

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The palace complex is inside an old granite fortress around four kilometers
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Located at the foot of the Veli Hills, a part of the Western
Ghats
The river Valli flows nearby
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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Entry
from the west
high door with pitched roof structure abutting it
Progress through succession of courtyards formed by buildings or
walls to reach core
The palace complex consists of several
structures:
Mantrasala, literal meaning, Kings Council Chamber
Thai Kottaram, literal meaning, Mothers
Palace
Nataksala, literal meaning, the Hall of
Performance
A four-storeyed building at the centre of the Palace
complex
Thekee Kottaram, literal meaning, the Southern
Palace
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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antrasaIa (CounciI chamber)


Most beautiful parts of the entire palace
complex
Has windows, with coloured mica, which keep the heat and the
dust away
Inside of the council chamber remains cool and
dark
Delicate and beautiful lattice
work
Floor beautifully done, with a fine and perfect finish
Dark coloured
Made of a mixture of varied substances, including burnt coconut
shells, egg white etc
This particular floor finish and texture could not be duplicated in
any other construction
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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Thai Kottaram (Mothers paIace)


The oldest construction in the entire palace
complex
centre piece or focus
basic reference point in relation to which location and openings
of other buildings have been determined
Inner courtyard, called nalukettu
Sloping roofs from all four sided taper
down
Four pillars on four corners support the roof
On the south-west corner there is a small room, the chamber of
solitude or ekantha mandapam
Intricate wood carvings
Of particular interest is a pillar of single jackfruit wood, with very
detailed and beautiful floral designs.
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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a (HaII of performance)

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relatively new building, constructed at the behest of


Maharaja Swathi Thirunal, (reign from1829 to 1846)
He was a great connoisseur of arts, especially
music and dance
Has solid granite pillars and gleaming black
floor
There is a wooden enclosure, with peepholes, for the women of royal
household

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Thekee kottaram (Southern paIace


As old as the Thai kottaram
Now, it serves as a heritage museum, exhibiting antique household
articles and curios
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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ntraI buiIding (UPPIRIKKA MALIGA)

Four-storied building is located at the centre of the


palace complex
Top floor (called upparikka malika)- worship
chamber
Walls covered with exquisite 18th century murals, depicting scenes from the
puranas, and also few scenes from the social life of the Travancore of that
time
Several rooms just below the worship chambers, which included the kings
bedroom
The ornamental bedstead is made of 64 types of herbal and medicinal
woods, and was a gift from the Dutch merchants
rooms have built-in recesses in walls for storing weapons like swords and
daggers.

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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a.Gate
b.Centre for ceremonies
c.The old mint
d.Entrance
Porch
e.Weapon
Store
f. Kitchen
g.Temple
h.Dance
hall
j.Audienc
e hall
for
Europea
ns
k.Minister

m.Hall for performing


arts
n.Large feeding hall
p.Mother palace
q.Small feeding hall
r. Bath houses
u.Tank
v.Kings residence
w. Womans residence
y. Well
z.Palace offices

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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Ground Floor Plan

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a.Gate
b.Centre for ceremonies
c.The old mint
d.Entrance
Porch
e.Weapon
Store
f. Kitchen
g.Temple
h.Dance
hall
j.Audienc
e hall
for
Europea
ns
k.Minister
ial
audienc
e hall
m.Hall for
perfor
ming
arts
n.Large
feeding
hall
p.Mother
palace
q.Small
feeding
hall
r. Bath
houses
u.Tank
v.Kings
residen
ce
w. Woman
s
residen
ce
y. Well
z.Palace
offices

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First Floor Plan,


Padmanabhapuram

Section, Padmanabhapuram
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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a.Gate
b.Centre for ceremonies
c.The old mint
d.Entrance
Porch
e.Weapon
Store
f. Kitchen
g.Temple
h.Dance
hall
j.Audienc
e hall
for
Europea
ns
k.Minister
ial
audienc
e hall
m.Hall for
perfor
ming
arts
n.Large
feeding
hall
p.Mother
palace
q.Small
feeding
hall
r. Bath
houses
u.Tank
v.Kings
residen
ce
w. Woman
s
residen
ce
y. Well
z.Palace
offices

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First Floor Plan,


Padmanabhapuram

Section, Padmanabhapuram
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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Roof Plan,
Padmanabhapur
am

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Elevation, clock tower

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a.Courtya
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b.Store
c.
Room
d.Passag
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e.Verand
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f.
Balcony

Section, Kings Residence

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Section,
Mothers Palace
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA

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THANK YOU

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA