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Introduction to set theory, Set operations, Algebra of sets,

Duality, Finite and Infinite sets, Classes of sets, Power Sets,

Multi sets, Cartesian Product, Representation of relations,

Types of relation, Equivalence relations and partitions , Partial

ordering relations and lattices Function and its types,

Composition of function and relations, Cardinality and inverse

Relations Introduction to propositional Calculus: Basic

operations: AND(^), OR(v), NOT(~), Truth value of a

compound statement, propositions, tautologies, contradictions.

PDM CSE

Contd..

Section B: Techniques of Counting and Recursion and

recurrence Relation:

Permutations

with

and

without

repetition,

Combination.Polynomials and their evaluation, Sequences,

Introduction to AP, GP and AG series, partial fractions, linear

recurrence relation with constant coefficients, Homogeneous

solution. Particular solutions, Total solution of a recurrence

relation using generating functions.

PDM CSE

Syllabus

Section C: Algebric Structures

Definition and examples of a monoid, Semigroup, Groups and

rings, Homomorphism, Isomorphism and Automorphism,

Subgroups and Normal subgroups, Cyclic groups, Integral

domain and fields, Cosets, Lagranges theorem

Section D: Section Graphs and Trees:

Introduction to graphs, Directed and Undirected graphs,

Homomorphic and Isomorphic graphs, Subgraphs, Cut points and

Bridges, Multigraph and Weighted graph, Paths and circuits,

Shortest path in weighted graphs, Eurelian path and circuits,

Hamilton paths and circuits, Planar graphs, Eulers formula,

Trees, Spanning trees, Binary trees and its traversals

PDM CSE

Reference Books

Elements of Discrete Mathematics,C.L Liu, 1985, McGraw

Hill

Discrete Mathematics by Johnson Bough R., 5th Edition,

PEA, 2001..

Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science,

Ronald Graham, Donald

Knuth and Oren Patashik, 1989, Addison-Wesley.

Mathematical Structures for Computer Science, Judith L.

Gersting, 1993, Computer Science Press.

PDM CSE

Reference Books

Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science, Doerr and

Levasseur, (Chicago:1985,SRA)

Discrete Mathematics by A. Chtewynd and P. Diggle (Modular

Mathematics series),1995, Edward Arnold, London,

Schaums Outline series: Theory and problems of Probability

by S. Lipshutz, 1982,McGraw-Hill Singapore

Discrete Mathematical Structures, B. Kolman and R.C. Busby,

1996, PHI

Discrete Mathematical Structures with Applications to

Computers by Tembley & Manohar, 1995, Mc Graw Hill.

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Background

Knowledge of Mathematics.

Basic idea of digital gates.

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SECTION-A

PDM CSE

SETS

Set Theory starts very simply :- it examines whether an

object belongs, or does not belong, to a set of objects which

has been described.

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Defintion of Set

A set can be defined as a collection of things that are brought

together because they obey a certain rule.

These 'things' may be anything you like: numbers, people,

shapes, cities, bits of text ..., literally anything.

The key fact about the 'rule' they all obey is that it must

be well-defined.

PDM CSE

Elements

Elements

A 'thing' that belongs to a given set is called an element of that

set. For example:

A: {1,2,5,4} here 1 ,2 ,5,4 are elements of set.

Sets will usually be denoted using upper case letters: A , B, ...

Elements will usually be denoted using lower case letters: x , y

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10

Notation

Curly brackets {} are used to stand for the phrase 'the set

of ...' . These braces can be used in various ways. For example:

We may list the elements of a set:

{-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3}

We may describe the elements of a set:

{integers between -3 and 3 inclusive}

We may use an identifier (the letter for example) to represent

a typical element, a symbol to stand for the phrase 'such that',

and then the rule or rules that the identifier must obey:

{x| x is an integer and |x|=4}

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11

Set Representation

Tabular Form:

{-1,-2,-3,0,1,2,3,4}

Builder Form:

{x|x is an integer and |x|=4}

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12

Finite Set

means 'is an element of ...'. For example:

dog animal

Finite set A set can be finite when it consists of specific no. of different

elements.

Q = {2,4,6,9}

R = {months of year}

P = {x: x N, 3<x<9 }.

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13

Infinite Set

Infinite set A set can be infinite when it consists of infinite number of

different elements.

A = { 2,4,6,8,}

This ellipse.. shows that there is infinite number of elements

in the set.

B ={set of all integers }

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14

Universal Set

Universal Set

It is denoted by U.

All the sets under investigation are subsets of fixed set U, then

set U is called universal set .The universal set may be

{alphabetic characters} or {all living people}, etc.

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15

Sets Of Numbers

The natural numbers

The 'counting' numbers starting at 1, are called the natural

numbers. This set is denoted by N. So N = {1, 2, 3, ...}

Integers

All natural numbers, positive, negative and zero form the set

of integers. It is denoted by Z. So Z = {..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,

...}

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16

Contd..

Real numbers

If we expand the set of integers to include all decimal

numbers, we form the set of real numbers. The set of reals is

denoted by R.

A real number may have a finite number of digits after the

decimal point (e.g. 3.625), or an infinite number of decimal

digits. In the case of an infinite number of digits, these digits

may:

recur; e.g. 8.127127127...

... or they may not recur; e.g. 3.141592653...

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17

Contd..

Rational numbers

Those real numbers whose decimal digits are finite in number,

or which recur, are called rational numbers. The set of

rationals is denoted by the letter Q.

A rational number can always be written as exact fraction p/q;

where p and q are integers. If q equals 1, the fraction is just the

integer p.

Note that q may NOT equal zero as the value is then

undefined.

For example: 0.5, -17, 2/17, 82.01, 3.282828... are all rational

numbers.

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18

Contd..

Irrational numbers

If a number can't be represented exactly by a fraction p/q, it is

said to be irrational.

Examples include: 2, 3, .

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19

Equality Of sets

Two sets A and B are said to be equal if and only if they have

exactly the same elements. In this case, we simply write:

A= B

facts about equal sets:

The order in which elements are listed does not matter.

If an element is listed more than once, any repeat occurrences

are

ignored.

So, for example, the following sets are all equal:

{1, 2, 3} = {3, 2, 1} = {1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 2}

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20

Subset

If all the elements of a set A are also elements of a set B, then

we say that A is a subset of B, and we write:

A B

For example:

If T = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} and E = {even integers},

then T E

If A = {alphanumeric characters} and P =

{printable characters}, then A P

If Q = {quadrilaterals} and F = {plane figures

bounded by four straight lines}, then Q F

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21

Proper Subset

If B does contain at least one element that isnt in A, then we

say that A is a proper subset of B. In such a case we would

write:

A B

In the examples above:

E contains 12, 14, ... , so T E

P contains $, ;, &, ..., so A P

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22

Disjoint Sets

Two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no elements in

common. For example:

If A = {even numbers} and B = {1, 3, 5, 11, 19},

then A and B are disjoint.

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23

Venn Diagram

A Venn diagram can be a useful way of illustrating

relationships between sets.

In a Venn diagram:

The universal set is represented by a rectangle.

Other sets are represented by loops, usually oval or circular in

shape, drawn inside the rectangle.

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24

Operation On Sets

Intersection

In Venn diagrams where the two loops overlap is called

the intersection of the sets A and B. It is denoted by A B. So

we can define intersection as follows:

The intersection of two sets A and B, written A B, is the set

of elements that are in A and in B.

For example,

if A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8}, then A B = {2,

4}.

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25

Contd..

Union

The union of two sets A and B, written A B, is the set of

elements that are in A or in B (or both).

So, for example,:

{1, 2, 3, 4} {2, 4, 6, 8} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}.

PDM CSE

26

Difference

Difference

The difference of two sets A and B (also known as the settheoretic

difference of A and B,

or

the relative

complement of B in A) is the set of elements that are in A but

not in B.

This is written A - B, or sometimes A \ B.

For example,

if A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8}, then A - B = {1,

3}.

PDM CSE

27

Unary

It is an unary operation - one that involves just one set.

The set of elements that are not in a set A is called

the complement of A. It is written A (or sometimes AC, or ).

For example,

if U = N and A = {odd numbers}, then A = {even

numbers}.

The word complement: its literal meaning is 'a complementary

item or items'; in other words, 'that which completes'. So if we

already have the elements of A, the complement of A is the set

that completes the universal set.

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28

Symmetric Difference

Symmetric Difference: things that are in A or in B but

not both.

A set containing all the elements that are in A or in B but not in

both is called as symmetric difference of set A and set B.

It is denoted as A +

B

PDM CSE

29

Cardinality

The cardinality of a finite set A, written | A | (sometimes #(A)

or n(A)), is the number of (distinct) elements in A. So, for

example:

If A = {lower case letters of the alphabet}, | A | = 26.

PDM CSE

30

Power Set

The power set of a set A is the set of all its subsets (including,

of course, itself and the empty set). It is denoted by P(A).

Using set comprehension notation, P(A) can be defined as

P(A) = { Q | Q A }

PDM CSE

31

Power Sets

Example

Write down the power sets of A if:

(a) A = {1, 2, 3}

(b) A = {1, 2}

(c) A = {1}

(d) A =

Solution

(a) P(A) = { {1, 2, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 3}, {1, 2}, {1}, {2},

{3}, }

PDM CSE

32

Contd..

(b) P(A) = { {1, 2}, {1}, {2}, }

(c) P(A) = { {1}, }

(d) P(A) = { }

PDM CSE

33

Foundational Rules Of

Set theory

The Idempotent Laws

A A= A

A A= A

De Morgan's Laws

(A B) = A B

(A B) = A B

Commutative Laws

A B = B A

A B = B A

PDM CSE

34

Contd..

Associative Law

(A B) C = A (B C)

(A B) C = A (B C)

Distributive Laws

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

PDM CSE

35

Contd..

Idempotent Laws

A A= A

A A= A

Involution Law

(A ) = A

Identity Laws

A =A

A U =A

A U = U

PDM CSE

36

Contd..

Complement Laws

A A' = U

A A' =

U=

=U

PDM CSE

37

Algebra

You may notice that the above Laws of Sets occur in pairs: if

in any given law, you exchange for and vice versa (and, if

necessary, swap U and ) you get another of the laws. The

'partner laws' in each pair are called duals, each law being the

dual of the other.

For example,

each of De Morgan's Laws is the dual of the other.

PDM CSE

38

Contd..

The first complement law, A A = U, is the dual of the

second: A A = .

... and so on.

This is called the Principle of Duality. This set of laws

constitutes the axioms of a Boolean Algebra.

PDM CSE

39

Ordered Pairs

If an event R can occur in r ways and a second event S can

then occur in s ways, then the total number of ways that the

two events, R followed by S, can occur is r s. This is

sometimes called the r-s Principle.

arranged in a certain order.

The two 'things' that make up an ordered pair are written in

round brackets, and separated by a comma; like this:

(Lasagne, Gateau)

PDM CSE

40

Relations

A relation is any association between elements of one set,

called the domain or (less formally) the set of inputs, and

another set, called the range or set of outputs.

bananas} and the codomain is a set Flavors = {sweetness,

tartness, bitterness}, the flavors of these fruits form a relation.

PDM CSE

41

Definition

A relation is a subset of ordered pairs drawn from the set

of all possible ordered pairs (of elements of two other sets,

which we normally refer to as the Cartesian product of those

sets). Formally, R is a relation if

R {(x, y) | x X, y Y}

for the domain X and codomain Y.

PDM CSE

42

Notations

When we have the property that one value is related to

another, we call this relation a binary relation and we write it

as

xRy

where R is the relation.

PDM CSE

43

Properties

Reflexive

A relation is reflexive if, we observe that for all values a:

aRa

Symmetric

A relation is symmetric if, we observe that for all values a and

b:

a R b implies b R a

PDM CSE

44

Contd..

Transitive

A relation is transitive if for all values a, b, c:

a R b and b R c implies a R c

The relation greater-than ">" is transitive.

If x > y, and y > z, then it is true that x > z. This becomes

clearer when we write down what is happening into

words. x is greater than y and y is greater than z. So x is

greater than both y and z.

PDM CSE

45

Contd..

Antisymmetric

A relation is antisymmetric if we observe that for all

values a and b:

a R b and b R a implies that a=b

Trichotomy

A relation satisfies trichotomy if we observe that for all values

a and b it holds true that:

aRb or bRa

PDM CSE

46

Equivalence Relations

We have seen that certain common relations such as "=", and

congruence obey some of these rules above.

Characteristics of equivalence relations

For a relation R to be an equivalence relation, it must have the

following properties, viz. R must be:

symmetric

transitive

PDM CSE

47

Contd..

reflexive

(A helpful mnemonic, S-T-R)

In the previous problem set you have shown equality, "=", to

be reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. So "=" is an

equivalence relation.

PDM CSE

48

Partial Orders

The partial order , as the name suggests, this relation gives

some kind of ordering to numbers.

Characteristics of partial orders

For a relation R to be a partial order, it must have the

following three properties, viz R must be:

reflexive

antisymmetric

transitive

(A helpful mnemonic, R-A-T).We denote a partial order, in

general, by x y.

PDM CSE

49

Posets

A partial order imparts some kind of "ordering" amongst

elements of a set. For example, we only know that 2 1

because of the partial ordering .

We call a set A, ordered under a general partial ordering ,

a partially ordered set, or simply just poset, and write it

(A, ).

Terminology

When we have a partial order , such that a b, we write <

to say that a but a b. We say in this instance that

a precedes b, or a is a predecessor of b.

PDM CSE

50

Posets

If (A, ) is a poset, we say that a is an immediate predecessor

of b (or a immediately precedes b) if there is no x in A such

that a < x < b.

If we have the same poset, and we also have a and b in A, then

we say a and b are comparable if a b and b a. Otherwise

they are incomparable.

PDM CSE

51

Hasse Diagram

Hasse diagrams are special diagrams that enable us to

visualize the structure of a partial ordering.

A Hasse diagram of the poset (A, ) is constructed by

placing elements of A as points

if a and b A, and a is an immediate predecessor of b, we

draw a line from a to b

if a < b, put the point for a lower than the point for b

not drawing loops from a to a (this is assumed in a partial

order because of reflexivity)

PDM CSE

52

Operations on Relations

Inversion

Let R be a relation, then its inversion, R-1 is defined by

R-1 := {(a,b) | (b,a) in R}.

Concatenation

Let R be a relation between the sets A and B, S be a relation

between B and C. We can concatenate these relations by

defining

R S := {(a,c) | (a,b) in R and (b,c) in S for some b out

of B}

PDM CSE

53

Operations contd..

Diagonal of a Set

Let A be a set, then we define the diagonal (D) of A by

D(A) := {(a,a) | a in A}

PDM CSE

54

Functions

A function is a relationship between two sets of numbers.

This is as a mapping; a function maps a number in one set to a

number in another set.

Notice that a function maps values to one and only

one value. Two values in one set could map to one value, but

one value must never map to two values: that would be a

relation, not a function.

PDM CSE

55

Range ImageCodomain

If D is a set, we can say:

which forms a new set, called the range of f.

D is called the domain of f, and represents all values

that f takes.

In general, the range of f is usually a subset of a larger set.

This set is known as the co-domain of a function.

For example, with the function f(x) = cos x,

the range of f is [-1,1], but

the co-domain is the set of real numbers.

PDM CSE

56

Compositions and

Inverse Functions

Given two functions f : A B and g : B C

we can define a new function g o f : A C by (g o f)(x) =

g(f(x)) for all x A.

One useful function that can be defined for any set A is the

identity function

iA : A A, defined by iA(x) = x for all x A.

We can use identity functions to define inverse functions.

Specifically, if f : A B is a bijection,

then its inverse f-1: B A is defined so that f1 o f =

iA and f o f1 = iB.

PDM CSE

57

Contd..

Another result that is sometimes used is the following:

If f : A B and g : BC are bijections

then g o f : A C is a bijection,

and (g o f)1 = f1 o g1.

PDM CSE

58

Mathematical Logic

Perhaps the most distinguishing characteristic of mathematics

is its reliance on logic.

Familiarity with the concepts of logic is also a prerequisite to

studying a number of central areas of computer science,

including databases, compilers, a complexity theory.

PDM CSE

59

Prepositions

A proposition is a statement that is either true or false.

rain tomorrow are propositions.

PDM CSE

60

Compound Prepositions

A complex preposition that can be split into number of simpler

prepositions is called as compound prepositions.

Example-It was raining and I had to go to school,so I took my

umbrella and went to school

PDM CSE

61

Tautology

Whan all conclusions are true ,statement is called a tautology.

Whatmayever be the premises but conclusion will always

comes to be true.

Tautology is calles as a truth statement.

PDM CSE

62

Contradiction

Exactly reverse of tautology is called contradiction.

When all the conclusion comes out to be false ,the statement is

called as a contradiction.

PDM CSE

63

Contingency

When the statement can be either true or false depending upon

the situation and premises,it is called as a contingency.

PDM CSE

64

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