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PID Controller Design,

Tuning and Troubleshooting

Disturbance responses for a close loop system

Disturbance responses for nine


combinations of the controller gain
and integral time for a first order +
time delay simple close loop system.

Aggressive response

Aggressive response

Performance criteria for closed-loop systems


Ideal performance criteria
The close loop system MUST be stable
Effect of disturbances are minimized,
providing good disturbance rejection.
Rapid and smooth response to the set
point changes
Steady state error (offset) is
eliminated
No excessive control
Control is robust. Insensitive to
changes in process conditions and to
inaccuracies in the process model.

Performan
ce

Robustnes
s

Performance criteria for closed-loop systems


Performan
ce

Robust

Wide range of
conditions
Rapid response
to changes
Smooth
responses

Reasonable
degree of mod
el
inaccuracy
Kc -> low
I -> large

PID Controller settings


Techniques
Direct Synthesis method (DS).
Internal Model Control method
(IMC).
Controller tuning relations
Frequency response techniques
Computer simulation
On-line tuning after control
system is installed.

Computer simulation

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method

What is ?

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method
A desired transfer function is used to make
the problem simpler.

Lets see some options for

is the desired closed-loop time

constant

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method

Lest see some options for

is a term to include the

time delay

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method
Lets derive controllers for two important
process models
First Order Plus Time Delay Model

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method
Lets derive controllers for two important
process models
Second Order Plus Time Delay Model

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method
Example: Use DS method to calculate

the PID controller settings for the


process. Consider three values of the
desired closed loop time constant

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method
Example: Use DS method to calculate

the PID controller settings for the


process. Consider three values of the
desired closed loop time constant

=3.75
=1.88
=0.682
3.75

1.88

0.682

15
(1/15)*

15
(1/15)*

15
(1/15)*

3.33

3.33

3.33

Model Based Design Methods


Direct Synthesis Method : The problem with this method is that we need to

guess
If the system can be simulated by then
1.

and

Model Based Design Methods

ON-Line Controller Tuning


Ziegler and Nichols (1942). Paper Continuous

cycling method this is a trial and error method


1. After process reaches steady state,
eliminate the integral and derivative control
actions. and (large value).
2. Set to a small value. Then set the controller
in automatic.
3. Introduce an small set point change.
Gradually increase until a sustained
oscillation with constant amplitude occurs.
This value of is called Ultimate gain. The
period of the oscillation is the ultimate
period,
4. Use the table to calculate
5. Evaluate the system by introducing a small

ZeiglerNichols
P

0.5

PI
PI

0.45

PID
PID

0.6

---

-------

ON-Line Controller Tuning


Use the Ziegler and Nichols method to tune the
following system

ON-Line Controller Tuning


Use the Ziegler and Nichols method to tune the
following system
1. After process reaches steady state,
eliminate the integral and derivative control
actions.

ON-Line Controller Tuning


Use the Ziegler and Nichols method to tune the
following system

2.
Set to a small value. Then set the controller
in automatic.
3. Introduce an small set point change.
Gradually increase until a sustained
oscillation with constant amplitude occurs.
This value of is called Ultimate gain. The
period of the oscillation is the ultimate
period,

.0

ON-Line Controller Tuning

Use the Ziegler and Nichols method to tune the


following system

4.
Use the table to calculate
ZeiglerNichols

0.5

PI
PI

0.45

PID
PID

0.6

---

-------

ON-Line Controller Tuning

Use the Ziegler and Nichols method to tune the


following system
5. Tune the controller trial and error if it is
necessary

ON-Line Controller Tuning


Disadvantages
1. It is time consuming.
2. There are many applications where this
system do not work as expected. In case of
a chemical reaction it may cause a
runaway.
3. It is not applicable to unstable systems.
4. For first and second order models the
ultimate gain do not exist.

ON-Line Controller Tuning


Process Reaction Curve Method
1. After process reaches steady state
2. Place the system in manual mode
3. Adjust the controller out put signal to the
values that were working in automatic
mode.
4. Wait for steady state
5. Introduce an step change in set point.
6. Record the response of the variable as
shown in the plot.
7. Return the controller to the initial values.
8. Calculate the new set up of the parameters
according to the table.

ZeiglerNichols
P

---

---

PI

---

PID

0.5

Model Based Design Methods


Tuning with Matlab
Example:

Model Based Design Methods


Tuning with Matlab
Example:

Model Based Design Methods


Tuning with Matlab
Example:

Workshop
Now you have time to solve the following question

Workshop
Use the Ziegler and Nichols method and the curve
response method to tune the proportional, proportional
integral and PID controlled systems indicated below.
Compare your results with the tuning results calculated by
using Matlab.