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ONS 15454 MSTP

DWDM Networking Primer

October 2003

Agenda

Introduction
Optical Fundamentals
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

Optical Fundamentals

Some terminology
Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10 -.3 = 0.501
Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is
power and represents loss or gain.

Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt

X mW is 10log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW

Wavelength (): length of a wave in a particular medium.

Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, &
1550nm

Frequency ( ): the number of times that a wave is

produced within a particular time period. Common unit:
TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz)
Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light

x=C

Some more terminology

Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
The extent to which lighting intensity from the source is diminished as it passes
through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This
specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable can
be properly illuminated by a given light source.

ps/nm-km

ITU Grid = Standard set of wavelengths to be used in Fibre Optic

communications. Unit Ghz, e.g. 400Ghz, 200Ghz, 100Ghz
Optical Signal to Noise Ration (OSNR) = Ratio of optical
signal power to noise power for the receiver
Lambda = Name of Greek Letter used as Wavelength
symbol ()
Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) = Management channel

dB versus dBm

dBm used for output power and receive

sensitivity (Absolute Value)
dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

BER is a key objective of the Optical

System Design
Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER <
BER threshold of the Rx
BER thresholds are on Data sheets
Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12

Optical Budget
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm

R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget is affected by:

Fiber attenuation
Splices
Patch Panels/Connectors
Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc)
Bends in fiber
Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)

Glass Purity

Fiber Optics Requires

Very High Purity Glass
Window Glass

10 feet (~3 m)

Fiber Optics

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the

Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)

Fiber Fundamentals
Attenuation
Dispersion
Nonlinearity
Distortion
It May Be a Digital Signal, but Its Analog Transmission

Analog Transmission Effects

Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:

Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Fiber Geometry
Core

An optical fiber is made of

three sections:
The core carries the
light signals
The cladding keeps the light
in the core
The coating protects the glass

Coating

Propagation in Fiber
n2

n1

Core
Intensity Profile

Light propagates by total internal reflections

at the core-cladding interface
Total internal reflections are lossless
Each allowed ray is a mode

Different Types of Fiber

n2

Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies
50 mm for step index
62.5 mm for graded index
Bit rate-distance product
>500 MHz-km

Single-mode fiber
Core diameter is about 9 mm
Bit rate-distance product
>100 THz-km

n1

n2
n1

Core

Core

Optical Spectrum
IR

UV

125 GHz/nm

Visible

Light
Ultraviolet (UV)

850 nm
980 nm
1310 nm

Visible
Infrared (IR)

1480 nm
1550 nm
1625 nm

Communication wavelengths
850, 1310, 1550 nm
Low-loss wavelengths

Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm

C = x

(nanometers)
Frequency: (terahertz)

Wavelength:

Optical Attenuation

Specified in loss per kilometer

(dB/km)
0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm
0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm

Loss due to absorption

by impurities
1400 nm peak due to OH ions

EDFA optical amplifiers

available in 1550 window

1310
Window

1550
Window

Optical Attenuation
Pulse amplitude reduction limits how far

Examples

Attenuation in dB

10dBm

10 mW

Power is measured in dBm:

0 dBM

1 mW

-3 dBm

500 uW

-10 dBm

100 uW

-30 dBm

1 uW

Pi

P0
T

T

Types of Dispersion

Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds
Causes spreading of the light pulse

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Single-mode fiber supports two polarization
states
Fast and slow axes have different group
velocities

Interference

Affects single channel and DWDM systems

A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber
Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to
performance impairments
laser used (spectral width)
bit-rate (temporal pulse separation)
Different SM types

Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion

Dispersion causes pulse distortion,
pulse "smearing" effects
Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less
robust to Chromatic Dispersion
Limits "how fast and how far
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28

(G.653 & G.655)

Dispersion Compensating Fiber

Transmitters with narrow spectral width

Dispersion Compensating Fiber

Dispersion
Compensating Fiber:
By joining fibers with CD of
opposite signs (polarity) and
suitable lengths an average
dispersion close to zero can
be obtained; the
compensating fiber can be
several kilometers and the
reel can be inserted at any
point in the link, at the
receiver or at the transmitter

Dispersion Compensation

Total Dispersion Controlled

+100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

No Compensation
With Compensation

Distance from
Transmitter (km)
Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter
Dispersion
Compensators

Distance (Km) =

Specification of Transponder (ps/nm)

Coefficient of Dispersion of Fiber (ps/nm*km)

A laser signal with dispersion tolerance of 3400 ps/nm

is sent across a standard SMF fiber which has a Coefficient of
Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km.
It will reach 200 Km at maximum bandwidth.
Note that lower speeds will travel farther.

Polarization Mode Dispersion

Caused by ovality of
core due to:
Manufacturing process
Internal stress (cabling)
External stress (trucks)

Only discovered in
the 90s
Most older fiber not
characterized for PMD

Ey
nx
Ex

ny

The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels

down the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon
than chromatic dispersion and it is of little
relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s or less

Factors contributing to PMD

Bit Rate
Fiber core symmetry
Environmental factors
Bends/stress in fiber
Imperfections in fiber

Solutions for PMD

Improved fibers
Regeneration
Follow manufacturers recommended installation techniques for the
fiber cable

Types of Single-Mode Fiber

SMF-28(e) (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest

DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)

Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm

NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)

For WDM operation, optimized for 1550 nm region
TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, TeraLight
Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90s
For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems
MetroCor, WideLight
Low PMD ULH fibers

Different Solutions for

Different Fiber Types
SMF

(G.652)

OK for TDM at 1550

OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt)

DSF

(G.653)

Good for TDM at 1550 nm

Bad for DWDM (C-Band)

NZDSF

(G.655)

Good for TDM at 1550 nm

Good for DWDM (C + L Bands)

Extended Band

(G.652.C)

OK for TDM at 1550 nm

(suppressed attenuation
in the traditional water
peak region)

OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt

Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)

The 3 Rs of Optical Networking

A Light Pulse Propagating in a Fiber Experiences 3 Type of Degradations:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion
Phase Variation

Loss of Timing (Jitter)

(From Various Sources)

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

The 3 Rs of Optical Networking (Cont.)

The Options to Recover the Signal from Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber

Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape

DCU

Phase Variation

Re-Generate

Phase Re-Alignment

O-E-O
t

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

Re-gen, Re-shape and ts Optimum

Remove Optical Noise Sampling Time

DWDM

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

Increasing Network Capacity Options

Same bit rate, more fibers
Slow Time to Market
Expensive Engineering
Limited Rights of Way
Duct Exhaust

More Fibers
(SDM)

W
D
M

Faster Electronics
(TDM)

Same fiber & bit rate, more s

Fiber Compatibility
Fiber Capacity Release
Fast Time to Market
Lower Cost of Ownership
Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Higher bit rate, same fiber

Electronics more expensive

Fiber Networks
Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber
Multiple channels per fiber
4 OC-3 channels in OC-12

Channel 1

Single
Fiber (One
Wavelength)

Channel n

4 OC-12 channels in OC-48

16 OC-3 channels in OC-48

Wave division multiplexing

Multiple wavelengths per fiber
4, 16, 32, 64 channels
per system
Multiple channels per fiber

l1
l2

ln

Single Fiber
(Multiple
Wavelengths)

TDM and DWDM Comparison

TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async signals
and multiplexes them to a
single higher optical bit rate
E/O or O/E/O conversion

DS-1
DS-3
OC-1
OC-3
OC-12
OC-48

SONET

Fiber

(D)WDM
Takes multiple optical
signals and multiplexes
onto a single fiber
No signal format conversion

OC-12c
OC-48c
OC-192c

DWDM

Fiber

DWDM History
Early WDM (late 80s)
Two widely separated wavelengths (1310, 1550nm)

Second generation WDM (early 90s)

Two to eight channels in 1550 nm window
400+ GHz spacing

DWDM systems (mid 90s)

16 to 40 channels in 1550 nm window
100 to 200 GHz spacing

Next generation DWDM systems

64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window
50 and 25 GHz spacing

Why DWDMThe Business Case

Conventional TDM Transmission10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR

OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48

DWDM Transmission10 Gbps

OA

120 km

120 km
OA

4 Fibers Pairs
32 Regenerators

OA

120 km

1 Fiber Pair
4 Optical Amplifiers

OA

OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48

Drivers of WDM Economics

Fiber underground/undersea
Existing fiber

Conduit rights-of-way
Lease or purchase

Digging
Time-consuming, labor intensive, license
\$15,000 to \$90,000 per Km

3R regenerators
Space, power, OPS in POP
Re-shape, re-time and re-amplify

Simpler network management

Delayering, less complexity, less elements

Characteristics of a WDM Network

Wavelength Characteristics

Transparency
Can carry multiple protocols on same fiber
Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

Wavelength spacing

50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz

Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used

Wavelength capacity
Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

Band

New Band
S-Band
C-Band
L-Band
U-Band

Wavelength (nm)
820 - 900
1260 1360
1360 1460
1460 1530
1530 1565
1565 1625
1625 1675

1530.33 nm

0.80 nm

195.9 THz

100 GHz

1553.86 nm

193.0 THz

ITU-T grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz

It is a standard for laser in DWDM systems
Freq (THz)
192.90
192.85
192.80
192.75
192.70
192.65
192.60

ITU Ch
29
28
27
26

1554.13
x
1554.54
1554.94
x
1555.34
1555.75
x
1556.15
1556.55
x

15216
x

15800
x

15540
x

15454
x

Fiber Attenuation Characteristics

Attenuation vs. Wavelength

S-Band:14601530nm
L-Band:15651625nm

2.0 dB/Km

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)

1500

1600
C-Band:15301565nm

Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding

Ability to put multiple services onto a single
wavelength

Why DWDM?
The Technical Argument
DWDM provides enormous amounts of
scaleable transmission capacity
Unconstrained by speed of
available electronics
Subject to relaxed dispersion and nonlinearity
tolerances
Capable of graceful capacity growth

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design

DWDM Components
1

15xx

1...n

Transponder
Optical Multiplexer

1
2

1...n

1
2

Optical De-multiplexer

More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier
(EDFA)

Optical Attenuator
Variable Optical Attenuator

Typical DWDM Network Architecture

DWDM SYSTEM

DWDM SYSTEM
VOA

DCM

Service Mux
(Muxponder)

EDFA

EDFA

DCM

VOA

Service Mux
(Muxponder)

Transponders
Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O)
Used when Optical LTE (Line Termination Equipment) does not have tight tolerance ITU optics
Performs 2R or 3R regeneration function
Receive Transponders perform reverse function

OEO

1
2

From Optical
OLTE

To DWDM Mux

OEO
n
OEO

Low Cost
IR/SR Optics

Wavelengths
Converted

Performance Monitoring

Performance monitoring performed on a

per wavelength basis through transponder
No modification of overhead
Data transparency is preserved

Laser Characteristics
Non DWDM Laser
Fabry Perot
Power

DWDM Laser
Distributed Feedback (DFB)
Power

Tighter wavelength control

Mirror

Partially transmitting
Mirror

Active medium

Amplified light

I
Receivers Common to all Transponders
Not Specific to wavelength (Broadband)

Optical Amplifier
Pin

Pout = GPin

EDFA amplifiers
Separate amplifiers for C-band and L-band
Source of optical noise
Simple

Typical
Fiber Loss
25 THz
4 THz

OA Gain

OA gain is centered in 1550 window

OA bandwidth is less than fiber bandwidth

Isolator

Coupler

Coupler

Isolator

Erbium-Doped
Fiber (1050m)
Pump
Laser

Pump
Laser

Simple device consisting of four parts:

Erbium-doped fiber
An optical pump (to invert the population).
A coupler
An isolator to cut off backpropagating noise

Optical Signal-to Noise Ratio (OSNR)

Signal Level

X dB

Noise Level

Depends on :
Optical Amplifier Noise Figure:
(OSNR)in = (OSNR)outNF

EDFA Schematic
(OSNR)out

(OSNR)in
Pin

NF

Loss Management: Limitations

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
Each EDFA at the Output Cuts at Least in a
Half (3dB) the OSNR Received at the Input

Noise Figure > 3 dB

Typically between 4 and 6

Each amplifier adds noise, thus the optical SNR

decreases gradually along the chain; we can have
only have a finite number of amplifiers and spans and
eventually electrical regeneration will be necessary
Gain flatness is another key parameter mainly for
long amplifier chains

Optical Filter Technology

Dielectric Filter

Well established technology, up to 200 layers

Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

DWDM
Mux

DWDM
Demux

Wavelength
Multiplexed
Signals

Wavelength
Multiplexed
Signals

Wavelengths
Converted via
Transponders

Wavelengths
separated into
individual ITU
Specific
lambdas

Drop
Channel

Drop &
Insert

Channel

Pass Through loss and Add/Drop loss

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

Transmission Errors
Errors happen!
A old problem of our era (PCs, wireless)
Bursty appearance rather than distributed
Noisy medium (ASE, distortion, PMD)
TX/RX instability (spikes, current surges)
Detect is good, correct is better
Information
Transmitter

Noise
Transmission
Channel

Information

Error Correction
Error correcting codes both detect errors
and correct them
Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a system
adds additional information to the data stream
corrects eventual errors that are caused by the
transmission system.

FEC Performance, Theoretical

FEC gain 6.3 dB @ 10-15 BER
Bit Error Rate

10 -10

Coding Gain
BER floor

10 -20

10 -30
-46

-44

-42

-40

-38

-36

-34

-32

power (dBm)

9.58 G

10.66 G

9.58 G

10.66 G

IP

FEC

FEC

IP

SDH

FEC

FEC

SDH

.
.

.
.

FEC

FEC

ATM
2.48 G

2.66 G

2.66 G

FEC implemented on transponders (TX, RX, 3R)

No change on the rest of the system

ATM
2.48 G

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

DWDM Design Topics

DWDM Challenges
Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional
Protection
Capacity
Distance

Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and nonlinear effects:

Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Noise and Jitter:

Leading to a blurred image

Optical
Amplification

Loss

OA

Saw Tooth
Compensation

Dispersion
Dispersion

Fiber spool

DCU

Fiber spool

DCU

+D

-D

Length

Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM

DWDM systems can be implemented in two different ways

Uni-directional:

wavelengths for one direction

travel within one fiber

two fibers needed for

Fiber

Fiber

Uni -directional

full-duplex system

Bi-directional:
a group of wavelengths for each
direction
single fiber operation for fullduplex system

Fiber

Bi -directional

Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM (cont.)

Uni-directional 32 channels system
Full band

32 ch
full
duplex

32
32

Channel
Spacing
100 GHz

Full band

Blue-band

16 ch
full
duplex

16

16

16

16

Red-band

Channel
Spacing
100 GHz

DWDM Protection Review

Unprotected

Splitter Protected

Client Protected

Protected

Unprotected
1 Client
Interface

1
Transponder

1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder)

needed, only 1 path available
No protection in case of fiber cut,
transponder failure, client failure, etc..

2
Transponders

2 Client
interfaces

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders)

needed, two optically unprotected paths
Protection via higher layer protocol

Working
lambda

Optical
Splitter

Switch

protected
lambda

Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single

transponder) needed
Protects against Fiber Breaks

2
Transponders

working
lambda

Y cable

Only one
TX active

protected
lambda

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders)

needed
Increased cost & availability

Bit Rate

Distance

Solution
Space
Wavelengths

Goal is to maximize transmission capacity and system reach

Figure of merit is Gbps Km
Long-haul systems push the envelope
Metro systems are considerably simpler

Designing for Distance

L = Fiber Loss in a Span

Pin

Pout

G = Gain of Amplifier
Amplifier Spacing

D = Link Distance

Link distance (D) is limited by the minimum

acceptable electrical SNR at the receiver
Dispersion, Jitter, or optical SNR can be limit

Amplifier spacing (S) is set by span loss (L)

Closer spacing maximizes link distance (D)
Economics dictates maximum hut spacing

Pnoise

20

60 km

10

Amp Spacing

80 km
100 km

120 km
140 km

2.5
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

System cost and and link distance both depend

strongly on OA spacing

au l
Long H

OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total

distance before regeneration
Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion
Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime

to back systems

3R with Optical Multiplexor and OADM

Back-to-back DWDM
Express channels must be
regenerated
Two complete DWDM
terminals needed

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

N
7

N
7

Provides drop-and- continue
functionality
Express channels only
amplified, not regenerated
Reduces size, power
and cost

1
2
3
4
N
7

1
2
3
4
N
7

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

DWDM Benefits

DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of

scalable transmission capacity today
Provides capacity beyond
TDMs capability
Supports incremental, modular growth
Transport foundation for next
generation networks

Metro DWDM

Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next

generation DWDM equipment
The value proposition is very different from the
long haul
Rapid-service provisioning
Protocol/bitrate transparency
Carrier Class Optical Protection