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ONS 15454 MSTP

DWDM Networking Primer


October 2003

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Agenda

Introduction
Optical Fundamentals
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

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Optical Fundamentals

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Some terminology
Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10 -.3 = 0.501
Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is
power and represents loss or gain.

Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt


X mW is 10log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW

Wavelength (): length of a wave in a particular medium.


Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, &
1550nm

Frequency ( ): the number of times that a wave is


produced within a particular time period. Common unit:
TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz)
Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light
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x=C

Some more terminology


Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
The extent to which lighting intensity from the source is diminished as it passes
through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This
specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable can
be properly illuminated by a given light source.

Chromatic Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in

ps/nm-km

The separation of light into its different coloured rays.

ITU Grid = Standard set of wavelengths to be used in Fibre Optic


communications. Unit Ghz, e.g. 400Ghz, 200Ghz, 100Ghz
Optical Signal to Noise Ration (OSNR) = Ratio of optical
signal power to noise power for the receiver
Lambda = Name of Greek Letter used as Wavelength
symbol ()
Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) = Management channel
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dB versus dBm

dBm used for output power and receive


sensitivity (Absolute Value)
dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

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Bit Error Rate ( BER)

BER is a key objective of the Optical


System Design
Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER <
BER threshold of the Rx
BER thresholds are on Data sheets
Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12

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Optical Budget
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm

R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget is affected by:


Fiber attenuation
Splices
Patch Panels/Connectors
Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc)
Bends in fiber
Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)

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Glass Purity

Fiber Optics Requires


Very High Purity Glass
Window Glass

1 inch (~3 cm)

Optical Quality Glass

10 feet (~3 m)

Fiber Optics

9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the


Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)
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Fiber Fundamentals
Attenuation
Dispersion
Nonlinearity
Distortion
It May Be a Digital Signal, but Its Analog Transmission

Transmitted Data Waveform


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Waveform After 1000 Km

Analog Transmission Effects


Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

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Fiber Geometry
Core

Cladding

An optical fiber is made of


three sections:
The core carries the
light signals
The cladding keeps the light
in the core
The coating protects the glass

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Coating

Propagation in Fiber
n2

n1

Cladding

Core
Intensity Profile

Light propagates by total internal reflections


at the core-cladding interface
Total internal reflections are lossless
Each allowed ray is a mode

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Different Types of Fiber


n2

Cladding

Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies
50 mm for step index
62.5 mm for graded index
Bit rate-distance product
>500 MHz-km

Single-mode fiber
Core diameter is about 9 mm
Bit rate-distance product
>100 THz-km

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n1

n2
n1

Core

Cladding
Core

Optical Spectrum
IR

UV

125 GHz/nm

Visible

Light
Ultraviolet (UV)

850 nm
980 nm
1310 nm

Visible
Infrared (IR)

1480 nm
1550 nm
1625 nm

Communication wavelengths
850, 1310, 1550 nm
Low-loss wavelengths

Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm
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C = x

(nanometers)
Frequency: (terahertz)

Wavelength:

Optical Attenuation

Specified in loss per kilometer


(dB/km)
0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm
0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm

Loss due to absorption


by impurities
1400 nm peak due to OH ions

EDFA optical amplifiers


available in 1550 window

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1310
Window

1550
Window

Optical Attenuation
Pulse amplitude reduction limits how far

Examples

Attenuation in dB

10dBm

10 mW

Power is measured in dBm:

0 dBM

1 mW

-3 dBm

500 uW

-10 dBm

100 uW

-30 dBm

1 uW

Pi

P0
T

T
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Types of Dispersion

Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds
Causes spreading of the light pulse

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Single-mode fiber supports two polarization
states
Fast and slow axes have different group
velocities
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A Snapshot on Chromatic Dispersion

Interference

Affects single channel and DWDM systems


A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber
Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to
performance impairments
Degradation depends on:
laser used (spectral width)
bit-rate (temporal pulse separation)
Different SM types
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Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion


Dispersion causes pulse distortion,
pulse "smearing" effects
Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less
robust to Chromatic Dispersion
Limits "how fast and how far
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28

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Combating Chromatic Dispersion

Use DSF and NZDSF fibers


(G.653 & G.655)

Dispersion Compensating Fiber


Transmitters with narrow spectral width

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Dispersion Compensating Fiber

Dispersion
Compensating Fiber:
By joining fibers with CD of
opposite signs (polarity) and
suitable lengths an average
dispersion close to zero can
be obtained; the
compensating fiber can be
several kilometers and the
reel can be inserted at any
point in the link, at the
receiver or at the transmitter

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Dispersion Compensation

Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm)

Total Dispersion Controlled


+100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

No Compensation
With Compensation

Distance from
Transmitter (km)
Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter
Dispersion
Compensators
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How Far Can I Go Without Dispersion?

Distance (Km) =

Specification of Transponder (ps/nm)


Coefficient of Dispersion of Fiber (ps/nm*km)

A laser signal with dispersion tolerance of 3400 ps/nm


is sent across a standard SMF fiber which has a Coefficient of
Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km.
It will reach 200 Km at maximum bandwidth.
Note that lower speeds will travel farther.

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Polarization Mode Dispersion


Caused by ovality of
core due to:
Manufacturing process
Internal stress (cabling)
External stress (trucks)

Only discovered in
the 90s
Most older fiber not
characterized for PMD
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Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Ey
nx
Ex

ny

Pulse As It Enters the Fiber

Spreaded Pulse As It Leaves the Fiber

The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels


down the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon
than chromatic dispersion and it is of little
relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s or less

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Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion

Factors contributing to PMD


Bit Rate
Fiber core symmetry
Environmental factors
Bends/stress in fiber
Imperfections in fiber

Solutions for PMD


Improved fibers
Regeneration
Follow manufacturers recommended installation techniques for the
fiber cable

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Types of Single-Mode Fiber


SMF-28(e) (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest

DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)


Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm

NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)


For WDM operation, optimized for 1550 nm region
TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, TeraLight
Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90s
For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems
MetroCor, WideLight
Low PMD ULH fibers
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Different Solutions for


Different Fiber Types
SMF

Good for TDM at 1310 nm

(G.652)

OK for TDM at 1550


OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt)

DSF

OK for TDM at 1310 nm

(G.653)

Good for TDM at 1550 nm


Bad for DWDM (C-Band)

NZDSF

OK for TDM at 1310 nm

(G.655)

Good for TDM at 1550 nm


Good for DWDM (C + L Bands)

Extended Band

Good for TDM at 1310 nm

(G.652.C)

OK for TDM at 1550 nm

(suppressed attenuation
in the traditional water
peak region)

OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt


Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)

The primary Difference is in the Chromatic Dispersion Characteristics


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The 3 Rs of Optical Networking


A Light Pulse Propagating in a Fiber Experiences 3 Type of Degradations:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber

Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion
Phase Variation

Loss of Timing (Jitter)


(From Various Sources)

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

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ts Optimum
Sampling Time

The 3 Rs of Optical Networking (Cont.)


The Options to Recover the Signal from Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter
Degradation Are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber

Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape

DCU

Phase Variation

Re-Generate

Phase Re-Alignment

O-E-O
t

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

ts Optimum
Sampling Time

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Re-gen, Re-shape and ts Optimum


Remove Optical Noise Sampling Time

DWDM

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Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

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Increasing Network Capacity Options


Same bit rate, more fibers
Slow Time to Market
Expensive Engineering
Limited Rights of Way
Duct Exhaust

More Fibers
(SDM)

W
D
M

Faster Electronics
(TDM)
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Same fiber & bit rate, more s


Fiber Compatibility
Fiber Capacity Release
Fast Time to Market
Lower Cost of Ownership
Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Higher bit rate, same fiber


Electronics more expensive

Fiber Networks
Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber
Multiple channels per fiber
4 OC-3 channels in OC-12

Channel 1

Single
Fiber (One
Wavelength)

Channel n

4 OC-12 channels in OC-48


16 OC-3 channels in OC-48

Wave division multiplexing


Multiple wavelengths per fiber
4, 16, 32, 64 channels
per system
Multiple channels per fiber
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l1
l2

ln

Single Fiber
(Multiple
Wavelengths)

TDM and DWDM Comparison


TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async signals
and multiplexes them to a
single higher optical bit rate
E/O or O/E/O conversion

DS-1
DS-3
OC-1
OC-3
OC-12
OC-48

SONET
ADM

Fiber

(D)WDM
Takes multiple optical
signals and multiplexes
onto a single fiber
No signal format conversion

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OC-12c
OC-48c
OC-192c

DWDM
OADM

Fiber

DWDM History
Early WDM (late 80s)
Two widely separated wavelengths (1310, 1550nm)

Second generation WDM (early 90s)


Two to eight channels in 1550 nm window
400+ GHz spacing

DWDM systems (mid 90s)


16 to 40 channels in 1550 nm window
100 to 200 GHz spacing

Next generation DWDM systems


64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window
50 and 25 GHz spacing
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Why DWDMThe Business Case


Conventional TDM Transmission10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR

OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48

DWDM Transmission10 Gbps


OA

120 km

120 km
OA

4 Fibers Pairs
32 Regenerators
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OA

120 km

1 Fiber Pair
4 Optical Amplifiers

OA

OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48

Drivers of WDM Economics

Fiber underground/undersea
Existing fiber

Conduit rights-of-way
Lease or purchase

Digging
Time-consuming, labor intensive, license
$15,000 to $90,000 per Km

3R regenerators
Space, power, OPS in POP
Re-shape, re-time and re-amplify

Simpler network management


Delayering, less complexity, less elements

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Characteristics of a WDM Network


Wavelength Characteristics

Transparency
Can carry multiple protocols on same fiber
Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

Wavelength spacing

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz


Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used

Wavelength capacity
Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

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Optical Transmission Bands


Band

New Band
S-Band
C-Band
L-Band
U-Band

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Wavelength (nm)
820 - 900
1260 1360
1360 1460
1460 1530
1530 1565
1565 1625
1625 1675

ITU Wavelength Grid

1530.33 nm

0.80 nm

195.9 THz

100 GHz

1553.86 nm

193.0 THz

ITU-T grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz


It is a standard for laser in DWDM systems
Freq (THz)
192.90
192.85
192.80
192.75
192.70
192.65
192.60

ITU Ch
29
28
27
26

Wave (nm) 15201/252


1554.13
x
1554.54
1554.94
x
1555.34
1555.75
x
1556.15
1556.55
x

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15216
x

15800
x

15540
x

15454
x

Fiber Attenuation Characteristics


Attenuation vs. Wavelength

S-Band:14601530nm
L-Band:15651625nm

2.0 dB/Km

Fibre Attenuation Curve

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)

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1500

1600
C-Band:15301565nm

Characteristics of a WDM Network

Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding


Ability to put multiple services onto a single
wavelength

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Why DWDM?
The Technical Argument
DWDM provides enormous amounts of
scaleable transmission capacity
Unconstrained by speed of
available electronics
Subject to relaxed dispersion and nonlinearity
tolerances
Capable of graceful capacity growth

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Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design

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DWDM Components
1

15xx

1...n

Transponder
Optical Multiplexer

1
2

1...n

1
2

Optical De-multiplexer
Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
(OADM)
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More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier
(EDFA)

Optical Attenuator
Variable Optical Attenuator

Dispersion Compensator (DCM / DCU)

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Typical DWDM Network Architecture


DWDM SYSTEM

DWDM SYSTEM
VOA

DCM

Service Mux
(Muxponder)

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EDFA

EDFA

DCM

VOA

Service Mux
(Muxponder)

Transponders
Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O)
Used when Optical LTE (Line Termination Equipment) does not have tight tolerance ITU optics
Performs 2R or 3R regeneration function
Receive Transponders perform reverse function

OEO

1
2

From Optical
OLTE

To DWDM Mux

OEO
n
OEO

Low Cost
IR/SR Optics
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Wavelengths
Converted

Performance Monitoring

Performance monitoring performed on a


per wavelength basis through transponder
No modification of overhead
Data transparency is preserved

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Laser Characteristics
Non DWDM Laser
Fabry Perot
Power

DWDM Laser
Distributed Feedback (DFB)
Power

Spectrally broad

Dominant single laser line

Unstable center/peak wavelength

Tighter wavelength control

Mirror

Partially transmitting
Mirror

Active medium

Amplified light

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DWDM Receiver Requirements

I
Receivers Common to all Transponders
Not Specific to wavelength (Broadband)

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Optical Amplifier
Pin

Pout = GPin

EDFA amplifiers
Separate amplifiers for C-band and L-band
Source of optical noise
Simple

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OA Gain and Fiber Loss


Typical
Fiber Loss
25 THz
4 THz

OA Gain

OA gain is centered in 1550 window


OA bandwidth is less than fiber bandwidth
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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier


Isolator

Coupler

Coupler

Isolator

Erbium-Doped
Fiber (1050m)
Pump
Laser

Pump
Laser

Simple device consisting of four parts:


Erbium-doped fiber
An optical pump (to invert the population).
A coupler
An isolator to cut off backpropagating noise
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Optical Signal-to Noise Ratio (OSNR)


Signal Level

X dB

Noise Level

Depends on :
Optical Amplifier Noise Figure:
(OSNR)in = (OSNR)outNF

Target : Large Value for X


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EDFA Schematic
(OSNR)out

(OSNR)in
Pin

NF

Loss Management: Limitations


Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
Each EDFA at the Output Cuts at Least in a
Half (3dB) the OSNR Received at the Input

Noise Figure > 3 dB


Typically between 4 and 6

Each amplifier adds noise, thus the optical SNR


decreases gradually along the chain; we can have
only have a finite number of amplifiers and spans and
eventually electrical regeneration will be necessary
Gain flatness is another key parameter mainly for
long amplifier chains

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Optical Filter Technology

Dielectric Filter

Well established technology, up to 200 layers

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Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

DWDM
Mux

DWDM
Demux

Wavelength
Multiplexed
Signals

Wavelength
Multiplexed
Signals

Wavelengths
Converted via
Transponders

Loss of power for each Lambda


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Wavelengths
separated into
individual ITU
Specific
lambdas

Optical Add/Drop Filters (OADMs)


OADMs allow flexible add/drop of channels
Drop
Channel

Drop &
Insert

Add
Channel

Pass Through loss and Add/Drop loss


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Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

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Transmission Errors
Errors happen!
A old problem of our era (PCs, wireless)
Bursty appearance rather than distributed
Noisy medium (ASE, distortion, PMD)
TX/RX instability (spikes, current surges)
Detect is good, correct is better
Information
Transmitter
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Noise
Transmission
Channel

Information
Receiver

Error Correction
Error correcting codes both detect errors
and correct them
Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a system
adds additional information to the data stream
corrects eventual errors that are caused by the
transmission system.

Low BER achievable on noisy medium


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FEC Performance, Theoretical


FEC gain 6.3 dB @ 10-15 BER
Bit Error Rate

BER without FEC


10 -10

Coding Gain
BER floor

10 -20

BER with FEC


10 -30
-46

-44

-42

-40

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-38

-36

-34

-32

Received Optical
power (dBm)

FEC in DWDM Systems


9.58 G

10.66 G

9.58 G

10.66 G

IP

FEC

FEC

IP

SDH

FEC

FEC

SDH

.
.

.
.

FEC

FEC

ATM
2.48 G

2.66 G

2.66 G

FEC implemented on transponders (TX, RX, 3R)


No change on the rest of the system

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ATM
2.48 G

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

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DWDM Design Topics

DWDM Challenges
Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional
Protection
Capacity
Distance

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Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and nonlinear effects:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Noise and Jitter:


Leading to a blurred image
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Solution for Attenuation

Optical
Amplification

Loss

OA

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Solution For Chromatic Dispersion

Saw Tooth
Compensation

Dispersion
Dispersion

Fiber spool

DCU

Fiber spool

DCU

Total dispersion averages to ~ zero


+D

-D

Length
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Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM


DWDM systems can be implemented in two different ways

Uni-directional:

wavelengths for one direction


travel within one fiber

two fibers needed for

Fiber

Fiber

Uni -directional

full-duplex system

Bi-directional:
a group of wavelengths for each
direction
single fiber operation for fullduplex system
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Fiber

Bi -directional

Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM (cont.)


Uni-directional 32 channels system
Full band

32 ch
full
duplex

32
32

Channel
Spacing
100 GHz

Full band

Bi-directional 32 channels system


Blue-band

16 ch
full
duplex

16

16

16

16

Red-band
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Channel
Spacing
100 GHz

DWDM Protection Review


Unprotected

Splitter Protected

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Client Protected

Y-Cable and Line Card


Protected

Unprotected
1 Client
Interface

1
Transponder

1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder)


needed, only 1 path available
No protection in case of fiber cut,
transponder failure, client failure, etc..
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Client Protected Mode


2
Transponders

2 Client
interfaces

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders)


needed, two optically unprotected paths
Protection via higher layer protocol
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Optical Splitter Protection


Working
lambda

Optical
Splitter

Switch

protected
lambda

Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single


transponder) needed
Protects against Fiber Breaks
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Line Card / Y- Cable Protection


2
Transponders

working
lambda

Y cable

Only one
TX active

protected
lambda

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders)


needed
Increased cost & availability
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Bit Rate

Designing for Capacity


Distance

Solution
Space
Wavelengths

Goal is to maximize transmission capacity and system reach


Figure of merit is Gbps Km
Long-haul systems push the envelope
Metro systems are considerably simpler

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Designing for Distance


L = Fiber Loss in a Span

Pin

Pout

G = Gain of Amplifier
Amplifier Spacing

D = Link Distance

Link distance (D) is limited by the minimum


acceptable electrical SNR at the receiver
Dispersion, Jitter, or optical SNR can be limit

Amplifier spacing (S) is set by span loss (L)


Closer spacing maximizes link distance (D)
Economics dictates maximum hut spacing
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Pnoise

Wavelength Capacity (Gb/s)

Link Distance vs. OA Spacing


20

60 km

10

Amp Spacing

80 km
100 km

120 km
140 km

2.5
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Total System Length (km)

System cost and and link distance both depend


strongly on OA spacing
2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

OEO Regeneration in DWDM Networks

au l
Long H

OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total


distance before regeneration
Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion
Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime

Longer spans can be supported using back


to back systems
2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

3R with Optical Multiplexor and OADM


Back-to-back DWDM
Express channels must be
regenerated
Two complete DWDM
terminals needed

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

N
7

N
7

Optical add/drop multiplexer


Provides drop-and- continue
functionality
Express channels only
amplified, not regenerated
Reduces size, power
and cost
2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

1
2
3
4
N
7

OADM

1
2
3
4
N
7

Agenda

Introduction
Components
Forward Error Correction
DWDM Design
Summary

2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DWDM Benefits

DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of


scalable transmission capacity today
Provides capacity beyond
TDMs capability
Supports incremental, modular growth
Transport foundation for next
generation networks

2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Metro DWDM

Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next


generation DWDM equipment
The value proposition is very different from the
long haul
Rapid-service provisioning
Protocol/bitrate transparency
Carrier Class Optical Protection

Metro DWDM is not yet as widely deployed

2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.