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WATER SUPPLY And

distribution system
SYSTEM

Water Supply Plan through Direct Pressure System


Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP
- CEBU

Step 1. Determine the following:


a.
b.
c.

Type and quantity of plumbing fixtures


Equivalent Water Supply Fixture Unit (WSFU) per identified plumbing
fixture
Total Fixture Load
*Water Supply

Table 1.0 EQUIVALENT *WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE


UNITS (WSFU)
Number of Water Supply Fixture Units
(WSFU)
Type of Fixture

Private Use

Public Use

Bar Sink

Bathtub (with or without


Shower over)

Bidet

Drinking Fountain (each


faucet)

Hose Bibb

Laundry Tub or Clothes


Washer

Lavatory

Shower (each head)

Sink (kitchen) or dishwasher

Urinal (wall or stall type)

Water Closet Flush Tank

Danilo V. Ravina
3 NAMPAP - CEBU

Fixture Unit
(WSFU) is a
numerical weighing
factor to account for
the water demand
of various plumbing
fixtures, using the
lavatory (for private
use) as 1 WSFU. It
is just an index
number meant to
put all fixtures on a
common basis.

Step 2. Determine the size of the pipes using the


Table 2.0
CALCULATED SIZE OF
PIPE
(Inside Diameter)

COMMERCIAL PIPE SIZE


(PPR)
(Outside Diameter)

NO. OF
WSFU
SERVED

In
millimeters

In inches

PPR Pn 10

PPR Pn 20

13mm

----

20mm

1-10 WSFU

20mm

----

32mm

11-25 WSFU

25mm

32mm

40mm

26-50 WSFU

30mm

1-1/4

40mm

50mm

51-75 WSFU

40mm

1-1/2

50mm

63mm

76-150
WSFU

50mm

63mm

75mm

151-300
WSFU

63mm

2-1/2

75mm

90mm

301-600
WSFU

What are the General Types of Water


Distribution System?
1. Upfeed Distribution System
a. Direct Pressure
b. Hydropneumatic Pressure
System
or Pneumatic Air-Pressure
system
2. Downfeed Distribution System
a. Gravity Tank
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

Upfeed Water Distribution System:

Direct Pressure System

Hydropneumatic Pressure Boosting


System
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

Domestic Water Supply with a Pressurized Tank


The domestic water supply system with a pressurized tank is
presented in the next slide:
The pressurized tank is partly filled with air behind a membrane.
The air compensates for pressure variations during consumption
and during supply pump starts and stops.
The pressurized tank has a limited compensating capacity for
shortage in main supply lines.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

Hydropneumatic Pressure System


This is a pumping system that provide water
within pre-set flow and pressure ratings,
automatically on demand giving all the
advantages of city water supply.
This system contains 3 basic elements:

1. A Pump (of any type or manufacture)


2. A Pressure Sensing Electric Switch
3. A Pressure Vessel (Pressure Tank)
which contains an elastic medium.
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

10

Pressure
Tank
Pressure Sensing
Electric Switch
Pump

Hydropneumatic
Pressure
Boosting System

Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

11

Bladder
type
Pressure
Tank
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

12

To House

Hydropneumatic Pressure Boosting System using


Bladder Type Pressure Tank:
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

13

Downfeed
Water
Distribution
System

Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

14

Domestic Water Supply with Gravity Tank


The domestic water supply system with gravity tank is
presented below:
For proper operation of the
system, the gravity tank is
located at least30 ft or 10
mabove the highest outlet or
consumer. In tall buildings it's
necessary to use pressure
reducing valves in the lowest
floors before the fittings.
The volume of the tank must be
designed to compensate for the
limited capacity of the supply
lines. The tank fills up when the
consumption of hot and cold
water is lower than the capacity
of the supply lines - and the
tank is emptied when the
consumption is higher than the
supply lines capacity. DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

WATER STORAGE TANK

Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

16

What are the requirements for Water


Supply Tank Design and Construction?
1. Tanks should be designed and
constructed so as to be:
a. watertight
b. vermin-proof (rat proof)
c. corrosion proof
d. capable of withstanding the pressure
under which they are to be operated
and
e. provided with safe and easy means
of access for inspection.
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

17

Water Storage Tanks

Polyethylene Water
Storage Tanks: For
Hard water, deep well
system, cisterns &
other fluids.

Stainless Steel
Grade 304 Water
Storage Tanks

Stainless Steel Grade


304 Modular Water
Storage Tank: 100,000
to 1 million liter
Capacity

Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

18

2. The capacity of any single tank in or


on building shall not exceed 113,000
liters (30,000 gallons) or 113 cubic
meters.
3. Tanks shall not be located over
openings in floor and roof
construction.
4. Potable water supply tanks for
domestic supply and for standpipe
or automatic sprinkler systems shall
be designed and installed to furnish
water in sufficient quantity and
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

19

5. The gravity tanks


shall be provided
with the
following pipes:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Inlet Pipe
Overflow
Drain Pipe
Outlet Pipe
Air Vent Pipe
Manholes &
Covers
Water Level
Indicator
Control Valves
Section of a Water Storage Tank
Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

20

Float switch
Float Valve
A float valve is used to
shut off the flow of
liquids, normally water,
at a pre-determined
level.

A float switchis a device


used to detect the level
ofwaterwithin a tank
that actuates the pump to
turn ON or OFF.

TANK ACCESSORY

Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

21

Types of Elevated Storage Tanks as to Location of


Inlet Pipe:

Floating-On-The-Line System
water is pumped both into the tank
& to the consumers. Water goes up
to the tank when the water demand
is low or if there is a residual water
supply, & water is drawn from the
tank during peak demand. This
system requires continuous
Danilo V. Ravina,
pumping @ low pumping capacity

Fill-And-Draw System Water


is pumped directly into the
reservoir and from the reservoir,
water supply is distributed to the
consumers through gravity Flow.
The tank is usually installed near
the water source to minimize
headCEBU
losses due to friction.
NAMPAP
22

How a water tower works:


1. Pump station
2. Reservoir
3. Water use
WATER TOWER
Riyadh, KSA

FILL AND - DRAW SYSTEM


Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

23

WATER STORAGE TANK: GRAVITY


Danilo V. Ravina, NAMPAP CEBU

24

WATER TANK DATA: FRP


(Fiber Reinforced Plastic)

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

WATER TANK DATA: FRP

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

WATER TANK
DATA:
STAINLESS
STEEL

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

WATER
TANK
DATA:
STAINLE
SS
STEEL

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU

PUMPS FOR WATER


SUPPLY

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

29

What is a Pump?
In about 120 BC someone, probably the Greek
mathematician Ctesibius, invented the first force pump. It
had 2 cylinders with single acting pistons, connected to a
single beam so that they delivered an almost continuous
stream of water.
Pump is an equipment used to transfer fluid
from a region of low pressure to another region at
same or higher pressure. (PSME Code 1993)

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

30

Pump A device or machine that compresses


and/or transports fluids usually by pressure or
suction, or both; may be used to remove water
from a construction site or to convey water from
one elevation to another. (Harris, C.M.; Dictionary
of Architecture and Construction, 1975)

Classification of Pumps
as to Casing Design:
1. Horizontal Split Case
2. Vertical Split Case
3. Submerged

Classification of Pumps
as to Mounting:
1. Base Mounted
2. In line Mounted

Horizontal Split Case

Vertical Split Case

Submerged
Base Mounted

In line Mounted

32

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP CEBU

PROPER FLOW & PRESSURE REQUIRED DURING


FLOW FOR DIFFERENT FIXTURES
FIXTURE FITTING

FLOW
PRESSURE

FLOW

kPa

PSI

Gallon
per
minute

Liter
per
secon
d

Ordinary Lavatory
Faucet

55

2.00

0.13

Self-closing Lavatory
Faucet

83

12

2.50

0.16

Sink Faucet ( 9mm )

60

10

3.50

0.22

Sink Faucet ( 12mm )

35

4.50

0.28

Drinking Fountain Jet

55

0.75

0.06

Washing
Machine/Dishwasher

55

4.00

0.25

Laundry Faucet

35

5.00

0.32

Bathtub Faucet

35

5.00

0.32

Shower Head
( 12mm )

83

12

5.00

0.32

Ball Cock for Water


Closet (Flush Tank)

104

15

3.00

0.19

Flush Valve for water


Closet (19mm)

104

15

27.00

1.70

Flush Valve for Water


Closet (25mm)

172

25

35.00

2.21

104

15

15.00

0.95
33

Flush Valve for Urinal


Danilo V. Ravina,
NAMPAP CEBU
(19mm)