Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 53

Geotechnical Investigation

of

Western Region Campus


Area

Geotechnical engineering

The branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering


behavior of earth materials
Very important but isnt practiced considerably in Nepal
Implementation of Nepal National Building Code is fruitful to
some extent
In WRC area, important because it can helps in further
developmental works.

Literature Review
Some lab and field tests were done.
Lab tests include
Soil gradation

Soil classification

Atterbergs limit
Specific gravity of soil
Water content

Laboratory compaction

Constant head permeability

California bearing ratio

Direct shear test

Triaxial compression test

Field tests Include:

Field Dry Density

Standard Penetration Test

Soil Classification

Soil gradation
Sieve Analysis
Related Standards for sieve analysis:

IS: 2720 (Part 4)-1985

JIS 1204

ASTM D-421

AASHTO T-87, T-88

Unified Soil Classification System adopted


Most popular standard for this system is ASTM
D-2487.

Hydrometer analysis
Related Standards for hydrometer analysis:
ASTM D422 - 63(2007)

Atterbergs Limit
JIS-A-1205, one of the adopted standards.
Liquid Limit
Plastic Limit
For liquid limit some standard are: IS 2720 (Part 5)
1985 , AASHTO T-89, ASTM D-4318,
For plastic limit some standards are: IS 2720 :( part
5)-1985, AASHTO T-90, ASTM D-4318

Specific Gravity of soils


Related Standards for describing procedures
of determining specific gravity of soils are
ASTM D854-10 Standards.
ASTM C127 for soils retained on 4.75mm
sieve
JIS-1202

Water content
Some standards for this test are:
IS:2720 (Part 2) 1973
AASHTO T-265
ASTM D-2216
JIS-A-1203

Laboratory Compaction Test


Related standards for this test are: IS: 2720 (Part 8) 1983, AASHTO T-99, ASTM D-698,
California Test 216

Constant Head Permeability Test


Procedures for this test mentioned in

BS 1377: PART 5: 1990

ASTM D 2434

JIS-A-1218

Direct Shear
Test
Related Standards are:
ASTM D 3080
BS 1377-7:1990

California Bearing Ratio test


Procedures for this test mentioned in
IS: 9669, IS: 2720 (Part 16)
BS 1377: PART 4:1990
JIS-A-1211

Triaxial compression test


Some Standards for triaxial test are:
ASTM D4767-11 , ASTM D2850-03a , B.S 1377-8:1990 Part 8

Field tests

Field dry density: related standards are IS: 2720-Part28-1974] , AASHTO T-191 , ASTM D-1556

Standard Penetration Test: related standards are BS


EN ISO 22476-3, ASTM D1586 , AS 1289.6.3.1

Soil gradation

Done as per IS:2720 (Part 4)-1985

Sampling:

1 kg of Sample, dried in an oo
oven at 600 for 24 hours

HYDROMETER ANALYSIS

Used for soil gradation


Carried out if particle size is too small for sieve
analysis
Based on stroke's law
To calculate particles size distribution

Methodology
(water content determination)

Oven dry method:Done as per IS:2720


(Part2 )-1973

Sampling:

CBR TEST

Used for determining the relative bearing ratio


Used extensively for the selection of material and
control of sub grades
Load carrying capacity in the field
Soil sieved through 37.5mm used

Atterbergs limits

Liquid and plastic limits (Done as per


IS:2720 (Part 5)-1985)
Sampling:
100gm of sample passing 425IS
seive was mixed with water and left for 24 hrs.

Specific Gravity
Determination

Pycnometer method :As per IS 2720


(part3/sec-3)-1980

Sampling:
Sample was pulverized and passed
through 2mm IS sieve

compaction test(Proctor method)

Sampling:
5kg of air dried sample was taken
Sieved through 4.75mm is sieve
Sample mixed thoroughly with 5% by
mass

Dry density

sand replacement method :As per


IS:2720(Part 28)-1974
Calibration, calculation of dry density
of sand
Dry density of soil calculation

standard penetration test

Conducted in the field according as IS: 21311981

Objective: bearing capacity calculation of


undisturbed soil sample

Equipment used: Monkey hammer(63.5kg,75cm


free fall), Drilling equipment (100 to 150 mm
diameter), Split spoon sampler, Driving rods,
Lifting bails, ropes and other SPT accessories.

Methodology

Field assembly of the SPT equipments

Split spoon sampler was attached to the drilling rod

Drilling rod was marked and the ground level was noted to
calculate the penetrated depth.

Hammering from 75cm fall and noticing depth for each


15,15 and 15cm penetration

STANDS

MONKEY HAMMER
DRILLING RODS

Field assembly of
SPT in WRC

Sampling..

After finishing 45cm, sample taken.


Undisturbed sample from split spoon
sampler
UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
Natural water content was obtained

Permeability test

Performed test: constant head permeameter method


(as per IS: 2720 (part 17)-1996)

Objective:determination of coefficient of permeability(k)

Equipment used : permeameter,reservoir,weighing


balance,thermometer,stopwatch

Methodology

Sampling: 2.5kg of soil taken ,poured into the permeameter cell


(2/3), both sides protected with porous stones
Procedure
Length and CSA (L ,A) was measured
sample was connected to the constant head reservoir
Air was removed from cell and sample was made saturated
Water collected on the base outlet was measured at certain time
interval for same time
The difference of head (h) in levels between constant head
reservoir and outlet in the base was measured.

Methodology

Lab arrangement of apparatus:

Direct shear test

Carried out according to [IS: 2720(part 13)1986].

Objective: determine shear strength


parameters (c and )

Equipment s: shear test machine ,porous


stones
weighing balance, dial gauge(0.01mm)

Methodology

Sampling:
performed for
cohesionless,grann
ular soil, disturbed
sample placed in
the shear box with
light compaction in
between porous
stones

Methodology

Procedure:
Shear box dimension and sample weight taken

Proving ring and dial gauges adjusted

With constant normal stress horizontal strain


was given until strain reaches 20%.

Consolidated undrained triaxial test.

Performed according to IS: 2720 (part 11)1971.

Objectives: determination of shear strength


parameters(c and )

Equipments: triaxial assembly , membrane,


O-ring ,water, pressure system, proving
ring , dial gauges

Methodology

Sampling:

compaction, moulding
and excluding

Inserted in the
membrane with top
and bottom platen and
tightly overwrapped.

..METHODOLOGY

Sample is placed in the


triaxial cell
Sample is made
saturated and
hydrostatic pressure 3
Measurement: pore
water pressure, dial
gauge and proving ring
reading

General discussion
ASSEMBLY

NOTIFICATION

a= triaxial cell

b= load cell

c=load cell display

e= water pressure line

Methodology

Value of effective major and minor principle stress


calculated
1 , 3
Mohrs circle is plotted and failure plane is noticed.

Values of shear parameters (c, ) are obtained.

Shear strength :s=c + * tan

Examples of mohr circle

Data analysis and Presentation


Sieve Results
70
60

40

% Gravel
% Coarse Sand
% Medium sand

30

% Fine sand

50

20

% Silt clay

10
0

0.5 m depth

1 m depth

1.5 m depth

Specific Gravity
2.64
2.62
2.6
2.58
2.56
2.54
2.52
2.5
2.48

Bulk density
29
28
27
26
25
24
23

Hydrometer results

Soil activity = 0.13<o.75


90

Inactive

80
70
60
50

No shrinkage and swelling


Percent
finer,%
40
30
20
10
0
0.1000

0.0100
Diameter , mm

0.0010

Soil Classification(As per USCS)

At 0.5 m depth

R200 =92%>50%(Coarse grained)


R =22%<0.5R
4
200 (Sandy)
C =13.36>6
u
C =0.05<1
c
% Gravel fraction(GF)=22%>15%
Plasticity Index = 0.55<4
As per table of USCS
The soil sample is
Poorly graded gravel with silt and sand
Group symbol: GP-GM

Soil Classification(Cont)

At 1.0 m depth

R200 =93%>50%(Coarse grained)

R4 =42%<0.5R200 (Sandy)
C =38.46>6
u
C =0.21<1
c

% Gravel fraction(GF)=42%>15%
Plasticity Index = 0.73<4
As per table of USCS
The soil sample is
Poorly graded gravel with silt and sand
Group symbol: GP-GM

Soil Classification(Cont)
At 1.5 m depth

R200 =99.82%>50% (Coarse grained)


R =63%>0.5R
4
200 (Gravelly)
C =14.57>6
u
C =1.28(1<C <3)
c
c

% Gravel fraction(GF)=63%>15%
Plasticity Index = 0.73<4
As per table of USCS
The soil sample is
Well graded gravel with sand
Group symbol: GW

Atterberg limits
Liquid limit(0.5 m)

Liquid limit(1 m)

Atterberg limits(cont)
Plastic limit(0.5 m)

Plastic limit(1 m)

Atterberg Limits(cont)
Plasticity Index(0.5 )

LL-PL= 0.55

Means?????

Plasticity index(1 m)

LL PL =0.27

Means???
?

Low Plastic

Low
Plastic

Lab and field dry density


result

Lab and field dry density result(cont..)

Constant head permeability


test

K=0.048
Well graded sandy and gravelly
soil(ASTM)

California bearing ratio test

Soaked sample used


CBR = 4.4%
fair
1000

900
800

700
600

500
stress, kpa
400
300
200
100
0
0

penetration, mm

10

12

Standard penetration test


N = 32+33=65
N corr = 87>50
41
(Terzaghi and Peck)

Bearing capacity computaion

Terzaghi equation is used.


Safe bearing capacity = 1320 KN/m3

Thank you
Presenters
Anisha Lamsal(066/BCE/02)
Manu kumar Poudel(066/BCE/19)
Sanjay kumar Yadav(066/BCE/33)
Shankar Khanal(066/BCE/39)