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5.

5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Summary

Technologies
Radio Network Planning Process
Radio Media & Model Tuning
Network Dimensioning
Transmission Planning
Parameter Planning &
Optimisation
Network Capacity Evolution
Planning Tools

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Planning
EXPLAIN CHAPTER 5

Transmission Planning (3)


Network Topologies (2)
Microwave Links (8)
Leased Lines (3)
Cross Connects (3)
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

Transmission Techniques (4)

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Planning
Basics

Cost for transmission lines accounts for a


great portion of network operational
costs per year
design a network that meets the
design criteria with minimum overall
costs!
Radio part design
BTS

Fixed part design


BTS

BSS

MSC

BSS
BSC Hub

BTS

BTS

BTS
BTS

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

BTS

BTS

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Planning

Differences of RNP and TNP Viewpoints

Transmission capacity must be


planned for the final phase of the
network, not phase by phase.
Suitability of a site for transmission
can change from ideal to useless
when choosing between two
neighbouring candidates
Site changes can cause major
changes in the transmission
network topology

No LOS in the new candidate


change topology
Interference problems re-planning of
MW frequencies

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Planning
Input Data

Customer input
Allowed unavailability and performance figures
Transmission media requirements: own
network / leased line
Blocking probabilities
Protection level and type
Existing transmission infrastructure
Growth estimate and/or required spare
capacity

Radio Network Planning input


Number of BTSs
Number of TRXs / BTS
Nominal site locations

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Network Topologies
Basics

Transmission topologies are chosen


based on availability and protection
requirements and availability of existing
lines
Costs vs. fail safety (redundancy)
Real networks usually hybrid solutions

POINT-TO-POINT

MULTIDROP CHAIN
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

STAR (CONCENTRATION POINTS)

LOOP

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Network Topologies
Different Philosophies

High Transmission
costs
BSC used as a
transmission
concentrator
Small BSCs
TRS capacity gain on
A-ter
Transmission costs
gain

Low Transmission
costs
BSC used as a
transmission
concentrator has a
low influence on
total cost
High capacity BSCs

BTS

MSC

BTS
BSC
BTS
BTS

BTS

BSC/ MSC

BTS
BTS
BTS

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
Basics

The preferred media when building new


access network links
High capacity transmission links
from 2x2Mbps to 16x2Mbps, 34Mbps and
STM-1 (155 Mbps)
Pro:
low operating costs
easy to install
flexible
quick & reliable solution

Contra:
needs frequency license
environment dependant
link quality (e.g. rainfall)
LOS not always available

Repeater
station
Terminal
station A
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

Terminal
station B

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
Types of MW

Long Haul Radios: ~ 30 - 80 km


2 GHz, 7 GHz
Medium Haul Radios: ~ 25 - 45 km
10 GHz, 13 GHz, 15 GHz
Short Haul Radios: ~ 5 - 30 km
18 GHz, 23 GHz, 26 GHz, 38 GHz,
Nokia Metrohopper: < 1 km
57 GHz
(uses oxygen absorption in air to
limit range)

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
Modulation Methods

PSK - Phase Shift Keying


there are several levels of PSK (2-PSK, 4PSK, )

FSK - Frequency Shift Keying


fixed frequency for 0s and another one
for 1s

QAM - Quadrature Amplitude


Modulation
a mixture of phase and amplitude
modulation

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links

Radio Link Availability


Microwave outages
equipment failures
use protected equipment
hot / warm / cold -standby

caused by nature

temporary failures
self-recovery
use protected connections

Examples of natural outages:


heavy rainfall zones:

most severe in upper bands (2..3dB/km)


significant above 10 GHz

multipath fading

problem with lower bands

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
How to Avoid Interference

Use the highest available frequency


band
Attenuate the Tx power to a minimum
just to meet the required availability
Locate dishes as low as possible with
maintaining the required LOS
Use big dishes
Use different polarisation
Select your channel(s) carefully
Maintain High-Low -rule on hub sites
Try to get similar received signal
levels at hub sites

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
High End & Low End

LowEnd

HighEnd
f1 > f2
Tx Freq.=
f1

Tx Freq.=
f2

Rx Freq.=
f2

Rx Freq.=
f1

HI

LO

HI

HI
LO

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

Simple rule:
keep all links
in a site
"high" or
"low"

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
LOS Check

To verify LOS between two planned sites


possibility to use a microwave link

Input

site locations
planned antenna height
direction to the other end of link
restrictions to cherry-picker, etc.

Output

LOS/NLOS
minimum antenna height
exact antenna location (rooftop)
panorama picture with
landmarks and their directions
extra observations
(forests,building sites etc.)

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Microwave Links
Fresnel Zone

Line-of-sight path needed between both nodes


of
a microwave link
Keep 1st Fresnel zone clear of obstacles
nth Fresnel zone: Ellipse around direct path,
where path difference to direct line is n*/2.
1st Fresnel zone
2nd
3rd

d
b

b 274
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

d [km]
f [ MHz ]

[ m]

Radius for n-th zone = b * sqrt(n)

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Leased Lines

Transmission lines rented from a 3rd party operator


Leased line provider is usually also a competitor

Contra

Pro
no implementation
effort for buyer
no extra infrastructure
to buy
long distances are
uncritical

high operating costs


unpredictable lead times
(installation)
difficult to deploy (may
include digging,
groundwork..)
no control over the physical
route or the quality of the link

Analyse cost structure of Leased Line


tariffs to decide
whether LL or microwave links are more
economical
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Leased Lines
Cost Examples

Leased Line Tariffs (Europe)

Leased Line Tariff


30000

2000

28000
26000
24000
USD per month

ECU per month

1500

1000

500

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Portugal

Norway

Netherlands

Italy

Ireland

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Belgium

Austria

UK

300km
30km
3km

22000
20000

3km

18000

30km

16000

300km

14000
12000
10000
0

50

100

150

200

km length

Leased Line costs vary greatly


depending on country, link length,
capacity, LL provider and the customer

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

250

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Leased Lines

2 Mbit Frame Allocation (Abis)


BTS1

bits

A
Interface

Ater
Interface

Air
Interface

Abis
Interface

Ater
Interface

MSC
TC

BSC

SM

BTS2

BTS 1
1+1+
1

BTS 2
1+1+
1

BTS
3
2+2+
2

Max 12 TRX per 2 Mbit frame


GENERAL RULE for TS
allocation
0 : Synchronization
1 - 24 : TCH
25 - 30 : TRX/BCF SIG
31 : Loop control
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

TS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Synchronisation
BTS 1
TRX 1
BTS 1
TRX 2
BTS 1
TRX 3
BTS 2
TRX 1
BTS 2
TRX 2
BTS 2
TRX 3
BTS 3
TRX 1
BTS 3
TRX 2
BTS 3
TRX 3
BTS 3
TRX 4
BTS 3
TRX 5
BTS 3
TRX 6
BTS 1 TRX1 SIG

BTS 1 BCF SIG

BTS 1 TRX2 SIG

BTS 1 TRX3 SIG

BTS 2 TRX1 SIG

BTS 2 TRX2 SIG

BTS 2 TRX3 SIG

BTS 3 TRX1 SIG

BTS 3 BCF SIG

BTS 3 TRX2 SIG

BTS 3 TRX3 SIG

BTS 3 TRX4 SIG

BTS 3 TRX5 SIG

BTS 3 TRX6 SIG

Loop bits / LCB / MCB

BTS 2 BCF SIG

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Cross-Connects

Transmission equipment to branch


data streams between different
link sets
Non-blocking stage

each input stream is routed to an


output stream

Tasks

switching between link sets


switching between timeslots of a PCM
trunk
dropping & inserting timeslots

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Cross-Connects
Concentration

64 kbit/s
channels
n
3 x 2 Mbit/s
m
links

i < n+m+k
BSC

Total Traffic (Erl)


Blocking Prob.

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

1 x 2 Mbit/s
link
i = number of channels

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Cross-Connects
Grooming

BSC
full 2 Mbit/s frames

not
full
2
Mbit/s
frame
s

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Techniques
Transmission methods
CATV

ISDN
PCM

ATM
HDSL

Transmission techniques
PDH

SDH

Transmission media
Fibre
Coaxial cable

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

Copper cable
Microwave radio
Terrestrial/satellite

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Techniques
Multiplexing

ITU- Standard:

8000 samples per sec @ 8bit = 64


kbit/s
32 * 64 kbit/s = 2 Mbit/s line

Lines can be de-/ multiplexed into


lines of higher data rates
8Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140Mbit/s etc...

1 sec

2 Mbit/s
.... MUX
32 * 64 kbit/s
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

1 sec

1 sec
MUX/
deMUX 8 Mbit/s

MUX/
deMUX

2 Mbit/s
MUX ....
32 * 64 kbit/s

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Techniques
PDH

PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)


voice spectrum ~ 4kHz
sampling rate 8 kHz
8 bits per sample
divided into 32 TS (TDM)
USA : 24 timeslots

Europe : 2.048 Mb/s


USA : 1.554 Mb/s

Higher Order PDH Bitrates

140
M

M
U
X

34
M
34
M
34
M
34
M

8M
8M

8M

8M

2M
M

2M

2M

X
EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

2 M

5.
5.Transmission
TransmissionPlanning
Planning

Transmission Techniques
SDH

SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)

all network elements are synchronized to


Primary Rate Clock (PRC)
worldwide standard : interfacing to USA possible

Europe

STM- 1c
STM- 1
STM- 4
STM-16
STM-64

USA

(51.7 Mb/s)
= STS-1
(155.52 Mb/s) = STS-3
(622.08 Mb/s) = STS-12
(2488.32 Mb/s)
= STS-48
(9953.28 Mb/s)
= STS-192

STM4

EXPLAIN v3.0 - Nokia 2001 DVassena

STM1
STM1
STM1
STM1