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310 million
years ago
reptiles were
first vertebrates
to make the
transition to
an on
in competition
for food and space among

all the life-forms in aquatic


limited competition for

the insects and plants
that could be used as
food on the land

Adaptations to

Amniote Egg
an egg with a protective
membrane and a porous
shell enclosing the
developing embryo.
-It forms a nursery to
protect the embryo
- The egg derives its
name from the amnion,
the thin membrane
enclosing the salty fluid in
which the embryo floats.
They yolk sac encloses the
yolk, a protein rich food
supply for the developing

The allantois stores the nitrogenous wastes produced by the

embryo until the egg hatches

The chorion lines the outer shell

and thus encloses the embryo
and all the other membranes. It
regulates the exchange of
oxygen and carbon dioxide
between the egg and the outside
The entire amniote egg is
surrounded by a leathery shell
that may be hard in some
species because of the presence
of calcium carbonate.
-The egg is water proof,
however it allows gases to flow
between the environment and
the chorion.
The male places the sperm inside
the female before the shell is
formed. This is called internal
fertilization, makes water
transport of sperm unnecessary.

Waterproof Skin

dry body covering of

horny scales or plates
develops as surface
cells fill w/ keratin
- same stuff as bird
feathers and
prevent water loss
protect from wear
and tear associated
w/ living in rugged
unlike amphibians
who cant be far
from water or
theyll dry out

External Structural Adaptations

(for land)
some limbs have toes

w/ claws
permit to climb,
dig, and move in
various terrains
others have toes
modified into suctions
aid in climbing
absence of limbs
snakes use scaly
skin and highly
developed skeletal
and muscular

Well developed
lungs (not gills)
involved in
gas exchange
area located
inside body
- kept moist
in even

like amphibians have
double circulation
most have 3
chambered heart
partial division of
ventricle separates
oxygen-poor blood
flowing from the body
from the oxygen-rich
blood returning from
the lungs
alligators and
crocodiles have 4
chambered hearts
separation of
oxygenated and


conserve water by excreting nitrogenous

wastes in dry or pasty form as crystals of uric

Temperature Regulation

metabolism rate controlled

in part by body temperature
Ectothermic (cold-blooded)
body temp controlled by
not endothermic (warmblooded)
regulate their temp by
bask in sun to
speed up
hide in shade to
prevent overheating

Origin and

From the studies of fossils and comparative

anatomy, biologists infer that reptiles arose
from a group of ancestral reptiles called
cotylosaurs, which lived about 310 million
years ago.
- Fossils indicate that these four-legged,
sprawling vertebrates resembled small
lizards and had teeth used for eating insects
-The abundance of insects at the time
may have been one reason the cotylosaurs
during the Permian period these reptiles
began to adapt to other available
environments, giving rise to new forms of
- These groups included flying reptiles
called pterosaurs

- Two groups of marine reptiles: the

ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs

- And the thecodonts

The dominant land reptiles came from the

- The small lizard-like carnivores, many
of which walked on their hind legs.
The thecodonts were the first archosaurs
( ruling reptiles), a group that later
included the early crocodiles, the dinosaurs,
and the reptiles that evolved into birds.
The Mesozoic era is known as the Age of
- During this time reptiles , esp. the
dinosaurs, dominated all other forms of life.
- Dinosaur means terrible lizard
however many of the dinosaurs were small.
Yet the incredible size of some dinosaurs
distinguish the group from all other forms of
-One of the largest dinosaurs was the
brachiosaurus, 77,00 kg.
It was as long as a tennis court, as tall as a
four-story building, and heavier than

Over 300 genera of dinosaurs have been identified around the world.
-They were adapted to a wide range of environments.
Brachiosaurus and such related dinosaurs as Diplodocus and
Apatosaurus were herbivores, plant eaters.
- They probably used their long necks to reach the top of trees.
Tyrannosaurus and other carnivores, or meat eaters, walked on their
hind legs and used sharp teeth and huge claws to rip apart prey.
The scientist who studies dinosaurs are known as Paleontologists.

Modern Reptiles
Reptiles are classified into 16 orders, 12 that are extinct.
- 4 surviving-6, 000 species
Reptiles occur worldwide except in coldest regions
- Human intervention-major impact
4 living orders of Class Reptilia:
- 1. Rhynchocephalia,
- 2. Chelonia,
- 3. Crocodilia,
- 4. Squamata

Only living speciesSphenodon punctatus- the
- Inhibit islands of coast
of New Zealand
- Resembles a large lizard
about 60 cm long
- Has an inconspicuous
third eye on top of its
head- parietal eyefunctions as a thermostatprotects from overheating
- Active at low
temperatures and feed at
night on insects, worms
and small animals

Order consists of about 265
species of turtles and tortoises
- Tortoise are terrestrial
Chelonia (Galapagos tortoises)
- Turtles- chelonians that live
in water
- Body covered by a shell
made of hard plates- 2 parts- a
carapace and plastron
- Shape is modified for variety
of ecological demands
- retract heads, swimming
- Forelimbs of a marine turtle
have evolved into flippers and
freshwater turtles have webbed
- Migratory behavior of sea
and river turtles
-return to land to lay eggs


Order composed of 20 species

of large lizard-shaped reptilescrocodiles, alligators, caimans
and gavials
-Descendants of archosaurs
Crocodilians live in or near
water in tropical/ subtropical
regions of the world

- Crocodiles- nocturnal
animals; Africa, Asia and

- Alligators - China and

southern U.S.
- Caimans- Central Americasome in Florida
- Gavials- eat fish; long and
slender snout- live only in
Burma and India

Carnivorous- hunt by
stealth- features adapted
for this behavior
- Eyes on head, nostrils
on top of snout
-see and breathe
while in water
- Valve to prevent water
from entering air passage
- Parental care- both
parents care for young by
carrying in jaws until

Order consists of 5,640 species
of lizards and snakes
-Loosely jointed upper jaw and
paired reproductive organs in
- Structurally diverse
Lizards- presence of limbs
- Common lizards- iguanas,
chameleons, skinks and geckos
- Live everywhere except
-Special adaptations- agility
and camouflage
- 2 species are venomous- Gila
monster (SW U.S.) and beaded
lizard (western Mexico)
- Most prey on insects or small

- Blend with background

- chameleons- remain inconspicuous
and fend off enemies
- Horned lizards- spiked armor,
when disturbed they inflate
themselves, gape, hiss and squirt
blood from eyes
- Skinks and geckos- lose their tails
and regenerate- autotomy- escape
from predators
- Most lizards are small- .3m in
length; iguanas- 1m in length
- Largest lizards- monitorsKomodo dragon (Indonesia) 3m
(9.8 ft) in length, 140 kg (308.6 lbs)
-Thought to be related to snakes
- have a forked tongue for sense
-Consume prey whole and use tail
as defense weapon

Adaptations of Snakes

Snakes probably evolved from

lizards that lived above ground
found during the Cretaceous period.

A snake has a backbone
of 100 to 400 vertebrae,
each of which has a pair
of ribs attached.
- Providing the
framework for thousands
of muscles
The interaction of bones,
muscles, and skin enables
asnake to move in one of
three basic ways:
1. Lateral undulation
2. rectilinear
3. side winding.

Movement cont.
Most commonly move by
lateral undulation.
- moving forward in an S
shaped path.
In rectilinear movement,
the snake applies
muscular force on its
belly, not its sides.
- Scutes are scales on its
belly that catch on bark
orother rough surfaces
(like a caterpillar).
Some desert-dwellers
snakes progress by sidewinding.

Snakes eat animals, but lack structural
adaptations common to other carnivores.
Snakes do not see or hear well, and have no
limbs, and their teethand small mouth cannot
rip and grind flesh.

Locating Prey
Snakes evolved a sense
of smell which they use
to locate their prey.
- By flicking its forked
tongue , a snake gathers
chemicals from the
The tongue transfers
these chemicals to two
pits in the roof of the
mouth called the
Jacobsons organ where
the nerves are highly
sensitive to the

Locating Prey Cont.

Some snakes inject their prey
withToxic venom
most bite down their fangs
and inject the poison into
their prey.
Venom is chemically complex.
- The hemotoxins are
proteins that attack the
circulator system, destroy red
blood cells and disrupt the
clotting power of blood.
- The neurotoxins work on the
nervous system, by
disrupting the nerve
pathways which is dangerous
to respiratory and heart

Swallowing and Digesting

A snakes upper and lower
jaws are hingedand
move independently.
when unhinged, the jaws
stretch to allow the
mouth to open extremely
While swallowing it whole
the snake thrusts its
windpipeinto the throat,
allowingthe snake to
- the process of can take
several hours.

Natural selectionresulted in modifications for defense.
Camouflage is beneficialfor both seeking prey and
hiding from predators.
- many snakes are green and blend with foliage
- others are brown and hide against the bark of trees

Defense Cont.
Some snakes defend
themselves by signaling
their presence.
Some ward off danger
by rapidly changing
body shape
- extending a hood like
Some hiss
Others make
mechanical noises
- such as the rattle of
the rattlesnake.

Most male snakes rely
on the scent of female
snakes of heir own
Before mating, a male
and female snake may
glide alongside by side,
with the male stroking
the female with his
chin and flicking his
tongue over her body.
Fertilization is internal.

Reproduction cont.
Most snakes are oviparous
- female lays eggs that
hatch outside her body.
- To break out a hatchling
uses a special tooth which is
lost soon after.
Other snakes are
- the female carries the
eggs in her body
the young are born live.
- All newborns must fend for
themselves, relying on their
many specialized
adaptations for survival on

Las Aves
Phylum Chordata
Captulo 27

Contribuciones biolgicas
Incremento de fuerza y disminucin de peso

Patas delanteras modificadas como alas

Huesos huecos
Pico queratinizado
Tasa metablica alta
Corazones grandes y alta presin
Sistema respiratorio sumamente eficiente
Visin aguda
Coordinacin neuromuscular excelente

Caractersticas de las aves

Cuerpo usualmente en forma de huso:
cabeza, cuello, tronco, rabo
Cuello desproporcionalmente largo
Apndices pareados, los delanteros
usualmente modificados para volar
Pie con 4 dgitos (en algunos 2 3)

Las aves - integumento

Integumento delgado
Pocas glndulas epidermales
Algunas con glndula uropigial en la
base del rabo
Cuerpo cubierto de plumas; las patas
con escamas
Las plumas se mudan

Las aves - integumento


homlogas a las escamas de los reptiles

se originan del stratum corneum
con msculos en la pared de los folculos
cinco tipos bsicos
contorno (revisten el cuerpo y le dan forma; plumas del vuelo)
plumn (debajo de las de contorno, conservan calor)
cerda (parecidas a pelos; cerca de boca, ojos,y nares; funcin

filopluma (esparcidas por la superficie, funcin desconocida)

Las aves - esqueleto

Esqueleto completamente
osificado con cavidades
de aire (neumatizados)
Esqueleto fuerte pero

Las aves - esqueleto

Cada quijada con un pico
formado por alargamiento de huesos
premaxilar y dentario
cubierta queratinizada
sin dientes

Las aves - esqueleto

Crneo dipsido, usualmente cintico
Huesos del crneo delgados y fusionados; con 1
cndilo occipital
Quijada superior articula con el crneo
Costillas con procesos uncinados
cervicales, torcicas, lumbares, sacrales y caudales
muchas estn fusionadas (no las cervicales)
Pigostilo: fusin de las ltimas 4 a 7 caudales
Sinsacrum: fusin de las ltimas torcicas, las 2 sacrales y las

Las aves - esqueleto

Rabo corto
1 slo hueso en el odo medio
Esternn osificado bien desarrollado
Con quilla: carinado
Sin quilla: rtita

Frcula (clavculas fusionadas) en muchas aves

carinadas; otras con clavculas rudimentarias
o ausentes

Las aves - esqueleto

Apndices con reduccin y fusin de
3 carpos + 3 metacarpos = carpometacarpo
3 dgitos con nmero de falanges reducido

Tibia + tarsos proximales = tibiotarso
Metatarsos + tarsos distales = tarsometatarso

Caractersticas de las aves

Sistema nervioso bien desarrollado, con
cerebro y 12 pares de nervios craneales
Visin ms aguda de todos los vertebrados
Audicin bien desarrollada; sin pina
Olfato pobre
Pocas papilas gustativas

Caractersticas de las aves

Corazn tetracameral: circuito
pulmonar completamente separado del
Eritrocitos nucleados y biconvexos

Caractersticas de las aves

Siringe (caja de voz) cerca de la unin de
la trquea con los bronquios
Respiracin por pulmones levemente
Con sacos delgados de aire entre las
vsceras y el esqueleto

Las aves - digestivo

Las aves vivientes no tienen dientes
Lengua no-muscular, corta, estrecha y triangular
Algunas con buche


Muchas con estmago dividido

proventrculo secreta jugos gstricos
molleja - tritura


Caractersticas de las aves

Riones metanfricos
Urteres abren a la cloaca; sin vejiga
Orina semislida; cido rico
Algunas marinas con glndulas de sal

Glndulas de sal en ave marina

Caractersticas de las aves

Testculos pareados; vas deferens
desembocan en la cloaca
Algunos con rgano copulador
Hembras con ovario y oviducto izquierdo
Sexo determinado por las hembras; hembras

Sistema reproductor femenino

Caractersticas de las aves

Estrategias reproductivas
Poligamia: poliginia y poliandria

Huevo amnitico con mucho vitelo y cascarn

Fecundacin interna
Incubacin externa

Aves copulando

Desarrollo temprano de un
embrin de un ave

Origen del vuelo

Desde el suelo
Ancestro cursor que viva en tierra

Desde los rboles

Ancestro arbreo

Las aves msculos del vuelo

Extrnsecos (se originan fuera de la parte sobre la cual actan)
25% de la masa del cuerpo
empuja el ala hacia abajo y hacia arriba

eleva el ala

Intrnsecos (se originan en la parte sobre la cual actan)

Musculatura de las alas reducida

Msculos del vuelo en las aves

Tipos bsicos de alas

Clasificacin de las aves

Clase Aves
Subclase Archaeornithes
Subclase Neornithes
Superorden Paleognatha
Superorden Neognatha

Subclase Archaeornithes
Con caractersticas primitivas

Archaeopteryx lithographica

Subclase Neornithes
Extintas y vivas
Esternn bien desarrollado; usualmente
con quilla
Rabo reducido
Metacarpos y algunos carpos

Subclase Neornithes
Superorden Paleognathae
Aves modernas con paladar primitivo
Rtitas o carinadas
Orden Struthioniformes avestruz
Orden Casuariiformes - em
Orden Apteryformes - kiwi

Subclase Neornithes
Superorden Neognathae
Aves modernas con
paladar flexible
Orden Sphenisciformes
Orden Pelecaniformes

Subclase Neornithes
Superorden Neognathae
Orden Ciconiiformes- flamingo, buitre
Orden Anseriformes- ganso, cisne, pato
Orden Falconiformes- guila, falcn,
Orden Galliformes- pavo, faisn
Orden Columbiformes- palomas
Orden Psittaciformes- pericos y cotorras

Subclase Neornithes
Superorden Neognathae
Orden Strigiformes- bho
Orden Apodiformes- picaflor
Orden Piciformes- carpintero, tucn
Orden Passeriformes- 60% de las aves

Siringe desarrollada
Adaptados para posar en ramas
Cra altricia
Ms de 5 mil especies


Los REPTILES son animales vertebrados, son ovparos, respiran por pulmones y
tienen el cuerpo cubierto de escamas.
- El cuerpo de los reptiles se divide en: cabeza, tronco, extremidades y cola.
- Los reptiles se desplazan de maneras muy diferentes, las serpientes no tienen
extremidades y reptan, las tortugas marinas nadan y los lagartos, andan.

Los ANFIBIOS son animales vertebrados y ovparos, y tienen la piel desnuda.

- El cuerpo de los anfibios se divide en: cabeza, tronco y extremidades. Algunos,
como las ranas no tienen cola; otros, como la salamandra s la tienen.
- Cuando las cras nacen de los huevos, son muy diferentes de sus padres.
Los cambios que sufren hasta convertirse en adultos se llaman metamorfosis.

Los PECES son animales vertebrados, ovparos, respiran por branquias y tienen el
cuerpo cubierto de escamas.
- El cuerpo de los peces se divide en: cabeza, tronco, cola y varias aletas para nadar.
- Gracias a las branquias pueden respirar bajo el agua, tomando el oxgeno que hay
disuelto en ella.


La Rana






Caractersticas de
de la
la Rana
Su pies es desnuda, hmeda y escurridiza.
Tienen cuatro patas de tipo mano.
Son de sangre fra y tienen sueo invernal.
Al principio su respiracin es branquial, despus
pulmonar y cutnea.
Tienen circulacin doble e incompleta.
Se reproducen por huevos, normalmente con fecundacin
externa y al crecer sufren metamorfosis.

Metamorfosis de la Rana

El huevo se

El huevo se
a en un

Nace el
cola y

Cuando se convierte
en adulto, le salen
patas y cola.
Respiran 77
pulmones y por

Metamorfosis de la Rana


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