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INTRODUCTION

Ê The grammar- translation method of foreign


language teaching is one of the most
traditional methods.
Ê It was originally used to teach ͚dead͛
languages (and literatures) such as Latin and
Greek, involving little or no spoken
communication or listening comprehension.
Ê r focus on learning the rules of grammar and
their application in translation passages from
one language into the other
Ê Vocabulary in the target language is learned
through direct translation from the native
language. e.g.
the house = la casa
the mouse = el ratÓn
Ê Readings in the target language are translated
directly and then discussed in the native
language.
Ê Grammar is taught with extensive explanations
in the native language, and only later applied in
the production of sentences through translation
from one language to the other. e.g:
§  
    
 
  
    
   
OBJECTIVES
Ê Students be able to read literature written in
the target language

Ê Students be able to translate from one


language to another

Ê Helps students to develop reading and writing


skill
Ê To help students read and appreciate foreign
language literature
Ê Helping students read and appreciate foreign
language literature
Ê Students can become more familiar with the
grammar of their native language also write
and speak their native language better
Ê Helpful for mental exercise
ÆRINCIÆLES
Ê Literary language is superior to the spoken
language.
Ê Translating each language into each other is
an important goal for learners.
Ê The authority in the classroom is the teacher.
Ê To be able to communicate with the target
language͛s speakers is not among the goals
Ê The primary skills to be improved are
reading and writing.
Ê Its focus is on accuracy and not fluency.
Ê Error correction: If a student͛s answer of
a question is incorrect, the teacher
selects a different student to give the
correct answer or s/he replies
himself/herself.
TECHNIQUES
Ê M  
  

9 Students will be asked to read a literary passage


and then translate the target language into their
native language
9 Translation may be written or spoken
9 Translation made by the students can show that
they understand their meaning
Ê ë
 



9 Students answer these questions in the target
language
9 rnswers to the questions may be in the reading
text, or based on the understanding of the
students or studentsg own experiences related to
the text
Ê r   
9 Students were asked to find antonyms in the
reading passage or,
9 rsked the students to define a set of words based
on their understanding of them as they occur in
the reading passage
Ê Ú 

9 Recognize cognates by learning the spelling or
sound patterns that correspond between the
language
9 Students also asked to memorize words that look
like cognates but have meanings in the target
language that are different from those in the
native language
Ê §

   

9 It is important for students to learn about the


forms(grammar rules) of the target language
9 Grammar rules are presented with examples
9 Students are asked to apply the rules to examples
they are given
Ê •

9 Teacher give students sentences with word
missing
9 Students should fill in the blanks with the new
vocabulary or with a particular grammar type
Ê ¬
 
9 Students are asked to memorize new words,
grammatical rules, and verb conjugation
Ê Õ

 



9 Students are asked to make up sentences with
the new words they learn in the text
9 This technique can show whether students really
understand the new words
Ê Ú 
9 Students are asked to write a composition in the
target language
9 The topic is based on some aspect of the reading
passage
rDVrNTrGES
Ê rn effective way for application of grammar
and sentence structure

Ê Few demands on teachers

Ê Least stressful for students


DISrDVrNTrGES
Ê Wrong idea of what language is

Ê Less learners͛ motivation

Ê Create frustration for learners


M  M
M 
 Më§ÕÚM
Ê Its principles have been applied by language
teachers for many years.

Ê rs a method when the goal of instruction


became learning how to use a foreign
language to communicate
ëÕ

No Mër rM is
allowed!!!
ÆRINCIÆLES
Ê Teachers who use this method intend that
students learn how to communicate in the
target language. Students should learn to
think in the target language.

Ê The teacher and the students are more like


partners in the teaching and learning process.
Ê Students need to associate meaning and the
target language directly.

Ê The initiation of the interaction goes both


ways, from teacher to students and from
students to teacher, although the latter is
often teacher-directed.

Ê Language is primarily spoken, not written.


Ê Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.

Ê The students native language should not be


used in the classroom.

Ê Student are asked to use the language not to


demonstrate their knowledge about the
language.

Ê The teacher, employing various techniques,


tries to get students to self-correct whenever
possible.
MÚ Õ
Ê Reading aloud ʹ students take turn reading
sections of a passage etc out loud.

Ê Question and answer exercise ʹ Students are


asked questions and answer in full sentences
so that they practice with new words and
grammatical structure.
Ê Getting students to self correct ʹ has the
students to self correct by asking them to
make a choice between what they said and an
alternate answer he supplied.

Ê Conversation practice ʹ teacher give questions


that need students to understand to answer
correctly.
Ê Fill in the blank exercise ʹ no explicit grammar
rule would be applied

Ê Dictation ʹ three steps. 1) teacher reads it at a


normal speed, students just listen. 2) teacher
reads phrase by phrase, pausing long enough
to allow students to write down what they
have heard. 3) teacher reads at normal speed,
students check their work.
Ê ¬ap drawing ʹ The class included one
example of a technique used to give students
listening comprehension practice.

Ê Æaragraph writing ʹ Students write a


paragraph in their own words