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3D

anD
the
p
r
i
n
t
i
n
g
future
o f
manufacturing

Te c h n o l o g y
P ro g r a m

F al l
2 0 12

3D Printing and the Future of Manufacturing

a b o u t the L e aDing eDg e


f orum
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LEF TEc h n o Lo g y P ro g r a m
LEa d Ersh i P
W illiam K of

Vice P resident and Chief Technology


Ofcer, Ofce of Innovation

T he L E F works to spot key emerging business and

A leader in CSCs technology community, Bil l

tech-

Kof provides vision and direction to CSC and its

nology trends before others, and identify

specific prac- tices for exploiting these trends for


business advantage. T he L E F draws from a global
network

of

thought

lead-

ers

and

leading

clients on critical information technology trends,


technol- ogy innovation and s trategic
investments in leading edge technology. Bil l plays

practitioners, proven field practices, and a powerful

a key role in guiding CSC research, innovation,

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most press - ing technology is sues, examine s tateof-the-art

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technology

experts,

and

leverage

CSCs

alliance program and events.

T he reports and papers produced under the L E F


are

intended

marketplace
when

to

provoke

about

the

applying

conversations in

potential

technology

for
to

the

P a u l g u stafs on
Director, Leading E dge F orum Technology
P rogram
Paul
Gustafson
is
an
accomplished

innovation

technolo- gist and proven leader in emerging

advance

technologies, applied

r esearch

and

s trategy.

organizational performance. Visit csc.com/lef.

Paul brings vision and leadership to a portfolio

T he L E F E xecutive P rogramme is a premium, fee-

of L E F programs and directs

based program that helps CIOs and senior business

r esearch

executives develop into next-generation leaders by

technology

using technol- ogy for

business, Paul applies his insights to client

wholly

new

agenda,

competitive advantage in

ways. Members direct the research

interact

with

a network of world-class

experts, and access topical con- ferences, s tudy


tours,

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exchanges

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advi-

agenda.
t rends

s trategy,

CSC

technology

inter-relate
r esearch,

and

impact

leadership

development and innovation s t rategy.


pgustafs@csc.com
COVEr : T he Urbee from K Or
the worlds

fi rs t

3Dprinted

E coLogic is
car.

T he

In this ongoing series of r eports about

entire

tech- nology directions, the L E F looks at

S tratasys

the r ole of innovation in the marketplace

3D print the cars inte- rior. T he car is

both now and in the years to come. B y

designed

s tudying tech-

including

current

r ealities

and

anticipating

its

future shape, these r eports provide organizations


with

the

at r ecognizing how

sory

services. Visit lef.csc.com.

nologys

A stute

the necessary

balance

between

decision-making and s trategic planning.

tactical

could

car body

be

is

3Dprinted

using

printers, and there are plans to


to

highly

energy efcient,

manufacturing

processes, and

in

be

low-volume

2 0 14. www.urbee.net

production

by

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

conTEnTs

3D p r i n t i n g a n D t h e
future of
manufac tur i ng
2
5

Remaking Manufacturing
The Rise of 3D Printing

3D Printing at Work

14

3D Printing at Home

17

Democratization of Manufacturing

21

Impact on Commercial Manufacturing

24

Technology Advances On the Horizon

26

Platform for Innovation

29
Notes
Access this report via the L E F R S S feed (csc.com/lefpodca
32 or Appendix:
Further (csc.com/3dprinting)
Reading
st)
the L E F website
33

Acknowledgments

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

r emaki
ng
ma n u f a c t u r
ing
W ho

would

have

modern

manufacturing as we know it. T he E conomist calls

factory?

3D printing the third Industrial R evolution, following

Since the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing has

mecha- nization in the 19th century and assembly-line

been

mass pro- duction in the 20th century.1

manufacturing could

thought

be

synonymous

done

that

without

with factories, machine tools,

production lines and economies of scale. So


startling

to

think

about

it

is

manufacturing without

cLa ssic
d i s r u PTi o n

tooling, assembly lines or supply chains. However, this


is

exactly

what

is

happening

as

3D

printing

3D

printing

is

classic

disruptive

technology

reaches individuals, small businesses and corporate

accord- ing to the disruption pattern identified by

departments.
Today you can make parts, appliances and tools in a

Harvard

wide variety of materials right from your home or

Christensen.

workplace. Using a computer, simply create, modify

more

or download a digital 3D model of an object. Click

manufacturing technology. Current 3D printing tech-

print, just as you would

nology

for

a document, and

Busi- ness
2

It

is

convenient
is

good

School

professor

simpler, cheaper,
to

use

enough

to

than
serve

Clayton

smaller

and

tradi-

tional

markets

that

watch your physical 3D object take shape. No longer

previously had no manufacturing capability at

the s tuff of science fiction, 3D printing is a new

(e.g., small busi- nesses, hospitals, schools, DIYers).

all

However, the technol- ogy is not expected to flourish

reality.
W hile this new reality is exciting, it also poses

in traditional manufacturing markets for a number of

significant questions

years, so it is unlikely that an entire commercial

for

the

future

of

how

we

manufacture goods. F actories will not disappear, but

passenger airplane will be 3Dprinted any time soon.

the face of the manufac- turing industry will change

S till, traditional manufacturers need to take notice;

as new entrants, new prod- ucts and new materials

there

emerge, and mainstay processes like distribution

technologies

may no longer be needed. T odays

dominated

con- sumers

are

many

examples

that

eventually

their

of

good

enough

disrupted

and

industry, including transistor radios

and personal computers.

clamor for customized products and services and for

being used to economically create custom, improved

3 d pri nting c h a n g e s the


c al c ul us of
m a n u fa c t ur i n g b y
o p t i m i z i n g for b a tc h e s of
o n e.
All disruptive technologies s tart out inferior to

and sometimes even

domi- nant technology of the time. W hen the fi rs t

speed of delivery. Yet customization and immediacy


right here, right now are not economical with
tradi-

tional

manufacturing

processes,

which

are

optimized for large volumes of consistent output in a


factory
far away.
3D printing
changes the calculus of manufacturing
by optimizing for batches of one. 3D printers are
impossible-to-manufacture

the

products right where they will be used. A single

experimental 3D printers emerged 20 years ago,

printer

they were nowhere near the production quality of

can

produce

vast range

of

products,

sometimes already assembled. Its a factory without

traditional manufactur- ing processes. However, as

a factory floor and it has created a plat- form for

Christensen

innovation,

in

technologies find a market that is underserved by

uncommon areas and spawning a new generation of

the current technology (which is often focused on

do- it-yourself
players,

enabling manufacturing
(DIY)

with their

to flourish

manufacturers.
innovative

observed

in

his research,

the

new

T he

new

the higher end of the market). 3D printing found

processes

and

rapid prototyping, which was an extremely costly

technology, will disrupt


2

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

and

labor-intensive

manufacturcheap,

ing

process

techniques.

using

3D

high-quality, one-off

traditional

printing

prototypes

r elationships through collaboration with customers

enabled

that

to create products (co-creation).

sped

product development.

It is easy to dismiss the impact of 3D printing if you

As 3D printing technology evolved, it s tarted to be

focus only on the capabilities of todays 3D printers

used to

compared to

goods

directly
in

manufacture

niche

or

custom

automated

low volumes. According to Christensen, a

the

capabilities

facto- ries.

of

T oday,

modern,

and

for

highly

the

near

disruptive technol- ogy continues to evolve to the

future, 3D printing cannot produce entirely finished

point where it can serve the needs of the higher-

products on an industrial scale. However, to dismiss

end market at a lower cost, at which point it takes

3D printings impact is to ignore the impending

over the dominant players.

disruption, just like the minicomputer makers did

T his is

the path 3D printing is

printing

is

evolving

rapidly,

when personal computers appeared.

on today. 3D
with

practical

examples in numerous industries including defense,

F l e xibility to bui ld a
w i d e ra n g e of p roduc ts,
c o u pl e d with the fa c t
that 3 d pri nting c an b e
d o n e near the poi nt of
c onsumption, implies a
serious c h a n g e to
s u p p l y chai ns a n d
busi ne ss mode l s.

aerospace, automotive and healthcare. Although 3D


printing

has

been

applied

mainly

to

low-volume

production, the products can be far supe- rior (lighter,


s tronger,

customized,

already

assembled) and

cheaper than if created with traditional manufacturing processes. T hat is because 3D printing can
control exactly how materials are deposited (built
up),

making it possible to create s tructures that

cannot be produced using conventional means.


Another disruptive element of 3D printing is the fact
that a single machine can create vastly different
products. Com- pare this to traditional manufacturing
methods, where the production
customized

and

tailored

if

line

must

the product

line

be

T hat said, like the personal computer, the fi rst

is

transistor radios and other disruptive technologies,

changed, requiring expensive investment in tooling

3D printing will take time to evolve and challenge the

and

incumbents.

long

factory

down-time.

It

is

not

hard

to

Todays

technical

barriers

such

as

imagine a future factory that can manufacture tea

materials

cups, automotive components and bespoke medical

throughput capacity will need to be overcome. As well,

products all in the same facility via rows of 3D

business and economic barriers such as retooling an

printers.
Flexibility

products,

entire industry and redesigning business strategies,

can be

pro- cesses and roles will need to be addressed. (See

to

build

wide

r ange

coupled with

the fact that

done

the point of consumption, implies a

near

3D

of

printing

cost,

Figure 1.) then,


Initially,

quality,

3D

size

printing

limita-

will

focus

tions

on

and

new

serious change to sup- ply chains and business

rather than established markets. T here are already

models.

many examples of this, such as prosthetic limb

Many

s teps in

the sup-

ply chain can

potentially be eliminated, including distri- bution,

coverings and vintage replacement parts. Over time,

warehousing and r etail.


T he

economics

Manu- facturing
less
new

of
is

opportunities

manufacturing
less

labor

also

manufacturing will

change.

intensive,

that are

light

and

comple-

ment

emerge. T his

existing

may be through

leaner methods, hybrid machines, or changes to the

uses

supply chain or design process.

material, produces less waste, and can use


materials

to

s trong.

As

the

history

of

disruptive

technologies

has

Depending on the material used, products made

shown,

with

Competition will drive the market forward, and over

3D

printing

techniques

can

be

up to

65

percent lighter but just as s trong as traditionally


manufactured

products.3

Customization

time

becomes

3D printing
barriers

will

will
come

not

be

s topped.

down. History has also

shown that once a disruption starts, adop- tion occurs

very easy, triggering new product s trategies and

much faster than anyone imagines possible.

customer
3

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

F i g u r e 1. 3D PRINTING AT A
GLANCE
u n i q u E a d v a n Ta g E s

a r Ea s o F F u rTh Er
d E v E L o P mE n T

Affordable customization

Printing large volumes economically

Allows manufacture

Expanding the range of printable


materials

of more efcient
designs

R educing the cost of printable materials

lighter, stronger,

Using multiple materials in the same

less assembly

printer, including those for printing

required

electronics

One machine,

Printing very large objects

unlimited product

Improving durability and quality

lines
Very small objects
(nano)
Efcient use of raw
materials (less waste)
Pay by weight
complexity is free
Batches of one,
created on demand
Source:
Print at point of
CSC
assembly/consumptio
n
Manufacturing
3D printing
is providing a platform for collaboration
accessible to all
that is accelerating innovation
lower entry barriers

the

ing

and disruption in

technologies,

cutters,

material world, just as the Internet fostered

from

3-D

printers

to

laser

is democratizing innovation in atoms. You

think the last two decades were amazing? Just wait.4

New supply chain and

collaboration,
innova- tion and disruption in the digital
retail opportunities
world.

T his report focuses on the opportunities and potential


r evolution, Chris

of 3D printing. T raditional markets may not yet

Anderson, author and editor in chief of W ired, writes:

recognize or require the benefits of 3D printing, but

The idea of a factory is, in a word, changing. Just as

that is expected to change

the Web democ- ratized innovation in bits, a new

sector

class of rapid prototyp-

production method.

In

Makers: T he New Industrial

feels

the

impact

as

the

manufacturing

of this radically different

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

t he
r ise
o f 3D
pr i n t i n g

W hile experiments occurred as far back as the 1960s, it

nothing else, are required. Almost all everyday objects

was not until the mid 1980s when pioneers such as

are created in a similar (but usually even more

Charles Hull (founder of 3D S ystems) and Scott Crump

complex) manner.

(founder

of

B y contrast, a 3D printer can produce an adjustable

technologies now known as 3D printing. T heir work

wrench in a single operation, layer by layer. T he

was based on additive processes that created solid

wrench comes out of the printer fully assembled,

objects layer by layer.

including all its moving parts. (See Figure 3.) After

As the processes evolved, they became known as

some

additive manufacturing

baking, depending on the material, the wrench is ready

of

S tra-

tasys)

developed

(AM).

Because

range

many

AM

post-production

work

such

as cleaning and

methods were based on ink-jet printing technology, the

for use (though currently it is not as strong as its

term 3D printing (while sometimes misleading) has

drop-forged metal counterpart).

been broadly adopted by the industry and mass media


to refer to any AM process. F or simplicity this report
uses the term 3D printing to describe the creation of
physical objects, layer by layer, from data delivered
to a 3D printer. (See Figure 2).
T he difference between traditional manufacturing and
3D printing is how the objects are formed. T raditional
manufac- turing processes generally use a subtractive
approach

that

includes a combination of grinding,

forging, bending, mold- ing, cutting, welding, gluing and


assembling. Take the pro- duction of a seemingly
simple object such as an adjustable wrench. Production
involves forging components, grinding, milling and

F i g u r e 3.

assembling. Some of the raw material is wasted along

does not require assembly.

T his 3D-printed adjustable wrench

the way, and vast quantities of energy are expended in


heating

and reheating

the metal. Specialist

tools

Source:
CSC

and machines, optimized to produce wrenches of one


size and

F i g u r e 2.

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, builds objects layer by layer. T raditional

manufacturing typically uses a subtractive process, whereby materials are cut, ground or molded to create an
object.
Source: S tratasys
5

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

Admittedly, 3D printing isnt going to take over the

and

creation of wrenches at least not any time soon.

traditional processes. T his is opening the door to

T he industry is in its infancy and the technology

creativity, including beautiful works of art such as

rarely supports volumes larger than 1,0 0 0

units.

Geof Manns Attracted to Light, a piece that traces a

However, as the technology evolves, volumes will

moths erratic flight around a light source.7 Such an

increase.

object is simply not possible using a traditional

In the meantime, for low volumes, 3D printing already

manufacturing technique.

pro- vides significant value. Development cost and time

objects

that

cannot

be

built

with

c h o c o La TE, c E L L s, c o n c r ETE:
E x T r a o r d i n a r y P r o P E r T iE s F r o m
o r d i n a r y a n d n o T- s o - o r d i n a r y
ma T E r i a L s

can be cut by eliminating the need for tooling used


in

optimize

traditional manufacturing. Because 3D printing

enables precise control of the material being used,


the designer can recreate the internal structure of a

3D printing started with plastics, but today there

product for optimal effect. F or exam- ple, creating a

is

lattice or honeycomb interior instead of a solid block

materials that includes ceramics, food, glass and even

lightens the product without sacrificing strength. Being

human tissue.

able to 3D print the internal structure is a key feature.

Commercially available machines print in a range of

T here is

plastics or metals. T hese printers generally work in one

also reduced waste compared to some

an astounding and growing range of printable

traditional manufacturing processes, which can leave up

of two ways: a material (e.g., various plastics) is

to 90 percent of the raw material on the factory floor.

melted and extruded through a tiny nozzle onto the

T hogus Products, a custom plastic injection molder,

build area, where the mate- rial solidifies and builds

found that for a particular spe- cialty part, 3D printing

the object up layer by layer; or a bed of powdered

(the Fused Deposition Modeling or FDM method) reduced

material (e.g., plastic, various metals) is laid down,

the cost of manufacturing from $10,0 0 0 to

layer by layer, and selectively fused solid. Usually some


post-production work is required, such as cleaning

$600, the build time from 4 weeks to 24 hours, and the


weight of the object by 70-90 percent. (See Figure 4.)

the excess powder, baking to achieve strength or

Furthermore, as the wrench example shows, objects

hardness, or dissolving support structures in a solution.

can be

Researchers,

printed

control.

with

T his allows

high

movable

degree

of

spatial

components

and

modified

organizations

the

underlying

and

hobbyists

methods

to

have

dramatically

intricate internal struc- tures to be created in a single

broaden

print. However, more signifi- cantly, the added control

researchers at the University of E xeter modified a

frees

3D printer to print chocolate.8 (See Figure 5.) Cornell

designers

from the limits of

traditional

manufacturing, allowing people to create

the

range of

possibilities.

F or

example,

University, working with the F rench Culi- nary Institute


in New York, took the idea further by creating a range
of 3D-printed food items such as miniature space

HOW DOES FDM COMPA RE T O A LT ER N AT I V E

shuttles made of ground scallops and cheese.9

METHODS AT THOGUS?

pa r t /
f Dm t o o L
End of
arm robot

a Lt e r n a t i
Ve
methoD
$10,0 0
0
4
$50,0
weeks 0
0
8 weeks
$200
2
weeks

T he

principles

have

biological substances,

even

been

opening

the

applied
door

to
to

r esearch on a r ange of health applications:

$ 6 00
24
hours
Automated
$8,800
turntable
2
weeks
S teel
$20
plate
2
s
hours
F i g u r e 4 . T his table shows the benefits of

Washington S tate University has developed a bonelike material that provides support for new bone to
grow.10
Researchers from the University of Glasgow have
devel- oped

system

that

creates

organic

compounds

and inorganic clusters, which they

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printing

believe could have long- term potential for creating

compared to traditional manufacturing methods.

customized medicines.11
Organovo has created a range of human tissue using

Source:
S tratasys

human cells as material and has even printed a


human vein.12
6

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

rial. T wo examples of this are 3Dprinted wood that


does not warp,13 and the work underway to use living
cells to 3D print organs needed for transplants. (More
on that later.)
Researchers are working on a range of techniques
that can control the exact material properties of
printed com- ponents, even down to the microscopic
crystalline

struc-

tures

of

metals,14

essentially

changing how the materials underlying atoms and


molecules are arranged. F or exam- ple, 3D printing of
metal can result in more uniform micro- structures
due

to

rapid

solidification,

in

contrast

to

the

traditional metal casting and forging that require metal


F i g u r e 5.

3D-printed chocolate from

to cool from the outer surface to the core.15 T his

researchers at the University of E xeter

allows engi- neers to control the objects s trength,

illustrates custom shapes.

hardness, springi- ness, flexibility and ability to

Source: David Martin

support stress. T he result of this research will be


products

exhibiting

combinations

of

physical,

Most fascinating is research that shows how 3D

electrical and mechanical properties that are only

print- ing

of

dreamed
about today.
T
he University
of Illinois L ewis Research Group has

products. Just like laminated wood (plywood) has

created a number of custom inks (printing materials)

long been used as a lighter, stronger and more

with extremely small feature sizes. (See Figure 6.) T he

flexible

researchers

can

revolutionize

alternative

components can

to

the

properties

solid timber,

3Dprinted

have

dem-

onstrated

many

functional

properties that exceed the

materials for improved conductiv- ity, lighter-weight

capabilities of traditionally manufactured components,

structures and even self-healing polymers. F or example,

even if they are made from the same mate-

the team has created a reactive silver ink for

F i g u r e 6.

exhibit

CU ST OM INKS DESIGNED F OR 3D PRINTING

c o L L o i d a L in K s
in K s

F u g i T i v E in K s

n a n o Pa r T i c L E

P o Ly E L E c T r o Ly T E
in K s

s o L-gE L
in K s

20

200

Printing advanced

Printing fugitive

decreasing feature
size
Printing silver

Printing polyelectro-

Printing sol-gel inks

ceramic, metallic and

inks for 3D

nanopar- ticle ink that

lyte, silk and

for sensor,

polymer materials

microvascular

conducts electricity for

hydrogel inks for

photonics, catalyst

under ambient

networks for tissue

wearable electronics,

drug delivery,

supports and novel

conditions using

engineering, light-

improved solar cells

photonics,

electrodes for dye-

commercial 3D printers

weight structures,

and transpar- ent

membranes, tissue

sensitized solar

for prototyping and

selfhealing

conductive devices

engineering and 3D

cells, batteries and

digital manufacturing

materials and soft

cell culture

capacitors

Sample
Applications

25
0

250
nm

Source: Lewis r esearch Group,


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (http://colloids.matse.illinois.edu),
robotics
and CSC
7

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

high-performance electronics that is faster to make

and

(minutes to mix versus hours using particle-based

implications

inks) and can be printed in small amounts. T he ink can

replace

be stored longer than traditional ink and has a lower

significant.

processing temperature, allow- ing electronics to be

S till, the price of materials is a significant barrier to 3D

printed on low-cost materials such as flexible plastic,

print- ing. F or example, the cost of plastic feed

paper or fabric substrates. In another appli- cation, the

material

silver ink has been printed onto three-dimensional

$425/kilogram

surfaces

16

to

create

dilapidated

used

or

in 3D
(2.2

automated
destroyed

printing

T he

social

construction
dwellings

ranges

pounds), while

from

the

to
are

$60-

equivalent

amount of material used in traditional injection molding


is only $2.40-$3.30.2 0 Although the higher cost is not a

antenna designs. T hese antennas show potential for

problem for prototyping or small volumes, it is not

implantable

electronics.
Also
conducting
17

antennas,

research

materials is the

MIT

into

Media

antennas

using

concrete.19

that

wearable

electrical

of

formulated

perform an order-of-magnitude better than traditional


or

small

specially

sensors

and

economical for large volumes.

3D

printing

and

F or some materials, 3D printing is more than just a

Lab,

which

is

niche alter- native it is actually the ideal production

experimenting with printing large molds for concrete

method. T itanium is one example; it is light, stronger

structures using a spray poly- urethane foam. (See

than steel (for its density) and more corrosion resistant

Figure 7.) Printing with polyurethane offers benefits

than stainless steel. In fact, it is a near-perfect metal

in weight, cure time, control and stability compared

for many applications. Aside from its current cost, the

to concrete. It also serves as thermal insula- tion.

main drawback of titanium (and the reason its use is

Once printed, the mold can be filled with concrete or

limited to specialist applications in aerospace, medi- cal

another castable building material. MIT has printed

implants, jewelry and performance cars) is that it is

several prototype wall molds that are 5-6 feet tall as it

dif- cult to work with. It has a tendency to harden

explores the benefits of large-scale 3Dprinted molds

during cutting, which results in high tool wear, and when

including design, cost, efciency and safety.

being welded it is susceptible to contamination that

Contour Crafting proposes 3D


house, targeting
(after

low-cost

natu- ral

and

disaster,

weakens the welds if the proper precautions are not

printing an entire
emergency

for

adhered
to strictly.
T
his is where
3D printing comes in. Directly printing in

housing
T he

titanium is attractive because it eliminates the problems

company claims an entire 2,500-square-foot home

example).

of machining. Further, as the printing machines get

can be built in 20 hours (doors and windows added

bigger, entire assemblies can be printed, eliminating the

later) with extremely large 3D printers

need for welding.

18

To address the current high cost


of titanium metal (it is as much
as 50 times
than

more

steel),

developing

expensive

researchers

processes

to

are

create

powdered titanium at much lower


costs.

Currently

the

are

produced

powders

reducing titanium
fine,

printing

ingots

by
into

uniform powders (in a highly

energy-intensive process).
just

as

the

Bayer

reduced

the

F i g u r e 7. MIT is experimenting with 3D printing large forms

from

$1,200/kilogram

made from polyurethane (like the one seen in this rendering). T he

$ 0.60/kilo- gram at the end of the

forms would be filled with concrete and used in building

19th century, todays research is

construction.

looking

Source: Mediated Matter Group, MIT Media


L ab

for

at

of

aluminum
to

indus- trial processes

producing

powders

at

current cost.21
8

cost

But

pro- cess

titanium
a

fraction

printing
of

the

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

3D
pr i n t i n g
P rototyping

new

products

commercial application

for

is

3D

the

at
work

largest

printing

today,

estimated to be 70 percent of the 3D printing


market.2 2

P rototyping

gives designers (and their

customers) a way to touch and test products as


concepts or functional objects early in the design

dEFEns
E

cycle. T his avoids expensive changes later in the


process, saving significant time and money when

Components used in military equipment must be


T
oday 3D
printing
beingall,used
in many
areas can
for
strong,
durable
and, isabove
reliable,
as failure
bothlives
prototyping
directthe
digital
manufacturing.
put
at risk. and
Consider
mount
for camera

bring- ing new products to market.


B y rapidly printing prototypes, manufacturers can

F
ollowing are
examples
f rom defense,
gun
sights
on the
M1 Abrams
tank andaerospace,
B radley
automotive
and healthcare.
fighting
vehicles.
T hese high-precision components

signif- icantly shorten the development lifecycle. One


example comes
manufacturer

from

of

Akaishi,

cor- rectional

Japanese

footwear

are mounted on the exter- nal body of the tanks,

and

massage devices. T he company found that by 3D

where they must survive incred- ibly harsh shock,

printing prototypes in-house, it could reduce lead

vibration

time of new products by 9 0 percent com- pared

Technology, a leading defense system design and

to its

development

T his

previously outsourced prototyping service.


allows

its

confidence in
ever

reaches

facilitates

designers
products

to

have 100

functionality

the customer.2 3

experimentation

before

and

it

company,

was

conditions.
able

3D

to

EOIR

manufacture

printer. W hats more, by switching to 3D

printing technology, the company

also

innovation.

environmental

mounts durable enough for use on the tanks using

percent

P rototyping

and

reduced

the

manufacturing costs from over

F or

example, using 3D printing, Bell Heli- copter can test

$100,0
0 per unit
to under
$ 4 0,0 0 0 for
.2 6 the military
In the 0future,
it may
be possible

new designs in days versus weeks using traditional

to print replacement parts on the battlefield instead

methods.
In
some 2 4industries, 3D printing has shifted from

of relying on limited spares or the supply chain. W hile

proto- types to direct part production, also known

this is still some time away, there are developments

as direct digital manufacturing. T he technology is

that suggest movement in the right direction. F or

being applied to short production runs and does

example, the T rainer Develop- ment Flight (TD F )

not

facility

require

tooling,

thus

allowing

flexibility,

manufacturing

costs

to

once

again

high

compete

development

company

based

in

Florida, told IndustryWeek, 3D printing is a terrific


win

for

American manufacturing.25

3De designs

specialized high-precision surgical sys tems, which are


then printed by a U.S.-based 3D

printing

service,

GPI. T here is no cost advantage in of-shoring the


production of 3D components, unlike tra- ditional
manufactured

components

that

are

cheaper

Air

F orce

Base

in Texas is

in the future, it m ay b e
p o ssible for the
military to print
re p l a ce m e n t parts o n
the b a ttlefi eld inste a d
of re l y i ng o n limite d
s p a re s or the s u p p l y
chain.

in

manufacturing. As Scott Hay, founder of 3De, a small


rapid product

Sheppard

using 3D printing to develop training aids for the

adaptability and speed to market. T his is enabling


countries with s trong intellectual capital but

at

to

manufacture overseas.
9

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

Air F orce and other U.S. Department of Defense

lons of fuel annually.3 2

branches.27 Given the highly specialized nature of the

aerospace giants GE and the Eu ropean Aeronautic

equipment, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),

Defence

and the low volumes required, using original parts or

Airbus, are conducting further research to optimize

even manufacturing rep- licas is a lengthy


expensive

exercise.

and

and Space group (EADS), maker of the

parts such as wing brackets. (See Figure 8.) F erra

using 3D printing in

Engineering, an Australian aerospace contractor (that

combination with traditional manufacturing techniques

supplies Boeing and Airbus), has a con- tract to 3D

has enabled the government to save over $3.8 million

print large two-meter-long titanium parts for the F -35

from 2004-20 0 9, not to mention provide improved

joint strike fighter, reducing machining time and

and

materials

timely

weapons

However,

Boeing, as well as other

training

systems,

in

areas

including

medical

avionics,

readiness

and

waste.3 3

Boeing

even

envisions

printing an entire airplane wing in the future.

3D

34

telecommunications sys- tems. More recently, student


interns working on a U.S. Army research

project

created and flew a 6.5-foot-wingspan plane (a UAV)


made entirely of 3Dprinted parts to help study the
28
feasibility
of usingmilitary
such planes.
A
quite different
application
of 3D printing is

the creation
better

of

intel-

topographical
ligence.

T he

models
U.S.

to

Army

provide
Corps

of

Engineers used this tech- nique when responding to


Hurricane

K atrina.

T he

Corps generated

and

regenerated models of New Orleans as the situation


evolved. T he models, which could be created in about
two hours, showed changing floodwater levels, buildings and other features of the area. T his aided in
situational understanding and helped guide the relief
effort as soldiers and civil authorities worked to save
people and property.2 9 T he 3D mapping was critical for
its visualization and speed; one can imagine it being
applied in other fields that require knowing the lay of
the land, from mining to archeology.
Like many industries, aerospace is leveraging 3D

F i g u r e 8.

printing to

wing bracket is lighter and s tronger than

a E r o s Pa c E
reducing

improve

the

performance

of

assets,

mainte- nance requirements, consolidating

T his 3Dprinted metal Airbus

the

components and sav- ing fuel costs with lighter parts.

conventional wing bracket in the


background that it could potentially r eplace.

Boeing, a pioneer in 3D printing, has printed 22,0 0 0

Source: EADS

com- ponents that are used in a variety of aircraft.3 0


F or example, Boeing
produce

has

used

3D

printing

to

environmental control ducting (ECD) for its

Another

benefit

is

the

use

of

distributed

new 787 aircraft. W ith tradi- tional techniques, the

manufacturing

ECD is created from up to 20 parts due

Components mass-produced in one part of the world

complex

internal

s tructure.

However,

to
with

its
3D

to

address

supply

chain

is sues.

can take weeks to arrive at an assembly factory.

printing, Boeing produces the ECD as one piece. T he

But

new component reduces inventory, does not require

shipping time, reduces friction in the supply chain

assem- bly and improves inspection and maintenance

and reduces inventory levels at the factory.

times.

An extreme example of a long supply chain is space

31

As the 3Dprinted parts weigh less, the

3D

printing

components

on

site eliminates

aircrafts operating weight decreases, resulting in fuel

explo- ration. Imagine if it were possible to print

savings. According to American Airlines, for every

products, tools or

pound

International Space S tation

of

weight

removed from its aircraft, the

company saves more than 11,0 0 0 gal-

1
0

replacement

parts

on

the

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

or even on Mars. T hat is exactly what groups like

Today,

Made in Space and Lunar Buildings are investigating.

(rover) includes about 70 3Dprinted parts; NAS A

Both organi- zations are developing tools, processes

engineers also 3D print prototypes to test parts before

and systems for directly manufacturing in space,

NAS As

next

space

exploration

vehicle

production.3 6

avoiding the costly and decade-long planning cycles

L ooking ahead, NAS A is exploring 3D printing as a

required

ser- vice (3DPaaS) for rapid pre-prototype work.

to

send

rocket into space with the

necessary replacement parts and tools. Made in Space

We

has a contract with NAS A and is currently conducting

Soderstrom, I T

chief technology ofcer at NAS A

zero gravity tests, with plans to trial 3D print- ing on

Jet

Laboratory. 3D printing makes it

are bullish
P ropulsion

on

3D

printing,

says

T om

the International Space S tation. T his would allow

easier to capture the imagination of the mission

astronauts to print tools and parts in space exactly

concepts. We can see what others are imag- ining.

when needed.3 5 (See Figure 9.)

Engineers could use 3DPaaS to rapidly obtain peer


reviews, additional design concepts and approval to
prototype. Initial prototyping and iterations would be
done using low-cost, fast-turnaround open source
CAD tools and 3D
source,

printers. We like the open

open design approach. It would allow us to

get outside ideas about the designs more easily and


to get s tarted much sooner, Soderstrom adds.
Once

the

design

is

deemed

ready

for

full-scale

prototyping, it would go to large-scale 3D printers to


build a version 1.0 object. T he result would be faster
build times, lower costs and more confidence in the
version 1.0 design.
F i g u r e 9 . T his Made in Space team is

Space is not the only ext reme environment for 3D

conducting 3D printing zero gravity tests for 3D

print- ing. Industrial designer Markus K ayser has

printing in space.

demonstrated a solar-powered 3D printer creating

Source: Made in Space

crude glass

out of sand in the Sahara desert. 37

(See Figure 10.) It isnt space, but it does show


that 3D printing can
done r esources in
withbebasic
ext remely
r emote environments.

a u To m oTi
vE
F or

years,

major

automotive

manu- facturers have been using


3D

printing

However,
industry

for
the

is

prototyping.
auto-

poised

motive
to

begin

applying the process to more


Take, for example, the Urbee, billed
than just prototypes of small
as the worlds fi rst printed car.
custom parts.
T he two- passenger
Urbee,
F i g u r e 10. Glass is printed in the Sahara desert with sand ink

created

and a solar powered 3D printer.

dismisses

by

KOR EcoLogic,
preconceptions about

limits to 3D printing sizes. To be


clear, not all parts are 3Dprinted

Source: Markus Kayser

just the shell of this hybrid


prototype car
11

components are

though

interior

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

F i g u r e 11. T he Urbee (urban electric) boasts the worlds first 3Dprinted car body, an ultra aerodynamic

design and high energy efciency. T he hybrid car uses renewable energy (wind, solar, hydro) and ethanol
(for long distances). T he car could be in low-volume production by 2014. Future plans include 3D printing
the interior (right).
Source: KOr EcoLogic

which could be in low-volume production by 2014,39

h E a LT h c a r
E

has planted the seed for mass customization of large-

T he most inspiring use of 3D printing is in the

scale car compo- nents. Watch for unique car styles,

healthcare

designs and shapes to appear in the near future.

potential to save lives or dramatically improve them.

planned to be 3D printed.38 (See Figure 11.) T he Urbee,

industry,

where

3D

printing

has

the

3D printing in healthcare still has some years to go


Indeed, the worlds first race car created largely

before mass adoption, but early devel- opments

with 3D printing competed on the track in the F ormula

create tissue, organs, bones and prosthetic devices

S tudent 2012 challenge in July 2012.4 0 T he car was

provide a glimpse of how lives may be improved.

created

Using

using

3D printing

technique called

a patients

own

cultured

cells

or

to

s tem

mammoth stereolithography (SL) from Materialise, a

cells, the Wake F orest Institute for R egenerative

rapid prototyping company.41 Mammoth S L is designed

Medicine has developed a 3D printing technique for

for printing large objects and has a build area of over

engineering tis- sue and organs. T he ultimate goal

6.5 feet (two meters).

is

42

to

help

solve

the shortage of donated organs

Engineers at BMW have leveraged 3D printing to

available for transplant. Sci- entists are working on a

create ergonomic,

variety of projects including ear, muscle and a long-

lighter

versions

of

their

assembly tools to increase worker productivity. B y

term effort to print a human kidney. (See

improving

12.) T he printer is designed to print organ and

the

design, workers are carrying 2.9


improved

tissue s tructures using data from medical scans,

engineer Gnter

such as CT or MRI. T he basic idea is to print living

pounds (1.3 kilograms) less and have


handling

and

balance.

As

BMW

Figure

Schmid says, This may not seem like much, but

cells

when a worker uses the tool hundreds of times in a

and the biomaterials that hold cells together

shift, it makes a big difference.4 3

into a 3D shape. T his organ or tissue s tructure

In addition to ergonomics, another area where 3D

would

printing can make a big difference is marketing.

would continue to develop. T he kidney project is

Imagine showing a full-scale 3D model instead of a

based on earlier work

CAD drawing as part of a bid proposal. One company

biomaterials to engineer a miniature kidney that

has done that with car interi- ors, showing front and

was
able to
produce
a urine-like
substance
when
In
addition,
there
are a growing
number
of applications
implanted
in a s teer.
for
3D printing
in surgery. F or example, the Walter

back with all the attachment points as

part

of

its

then be implanted into the body, where it

presentation. Pictures may tell a thousand words,

Reed Army Medical

but touch and feel make it real.

successfully implanted

12

that

Center

used

has

cells

created

and

and

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

over 6 0 titanium cranial plates.4 4 In June 2011 the


fi rst 3Dprinted jaw, also made of titanium, was
successfully implanted in an 83-year-old woman by
Dr. Jules Poukens of
implants
provide

perfectly
better

Hasselt
match a

fi xation,

University.4 5
patients

which

T hese

body

and

can reduce surgery

time and infection.4 6


Perfectly

matching

persons

body

is

key

for

prosthetic devices too. 3D printing is ideal for these


highly custom- ized, small production runs (quantities
of one) that demand strong but light-weight materials.
3D printing would enable those with limb loss to get
exactly what they want for look, feel, size and weight,
all for a fraction of the cost of a tradi- tionally-made
prosthetic. Bespoke Innovations, now owned by 3D
S ystems, uses 3D printing to make custom coverings
for artificial limbs and aims to 3D print the entire
prosthesis in the future.47 (See Figure 13.) A related
F i g u r e 12. T hese 3Dprinted structures

example is 2-year- old

kidney (top left), ear (top right) and finger

disease called arthrogrypo- sis, who wears 3Dprinted

Emma,

born

with

rare

could one day help address the organ shortage

magic arms that give her the strength to lift her real

and the need to repair if not replace damaged

arms and a whole new lease on life.4 8 T he magic

body parts.

arms can be reprinted as she grows and are light

Source: Wake F orest Institute for r egenerative


Medicine

enough for her 25-pound body. Another example are


3D-printed hearing aids that, though pricey, provide
excellent sound quality due to their custom fit.

F i g u r e 13. T he 3D-printed metal lace cover on this prosthetic leg is delicate yet

strong and reflects the wearers individuality.


Source: Bespoke Innovations

13

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

3D
pr i n t i n g

at
home
g r o Wing sEr vicEs
ma r K E T

3D printers make it economical to create highly


3D
printers
havethat
created
a new
of DIY
unique
products
quench
the generation
rising thirst
for
manu- facturers. WThether
hese individuals
are using case
3D
personalization.
it is a smartphone
printing
services
online
or
their
own
low-cost
personalized with your name (see Figure 14), 3D
an
printers
to World
createof custom
that address
avatar
from
Warcraft products
or a self-designed
robot
unmet
needs.
toy, there are a range of services like F reshfiber,

F i g u r e 14. 3D printing services make

FigurePrints,

personalized products like this smartphone

My

Robot

Nation

and

Sculpteo at

ones disposal. T he consumer market is buzzing

case affordable.

with affordable

Source: Sculpteo

custom

products,

all

available

through the Internet using as a service techniques.


Expect to see 3D printing s tores in a shopping mall
neargrowing
you soon! population
A

of

DIY

designers is using these services


to create and upload products and
ideas to websites like Shapeways, a
start-up working to democratize
creation
more

by

making

accessible,

pro- duction

personal,

and

inspiring.4 9 (See Figure 15.)

Lo W -c o s T
PrinTing in
In 2008-0 9 the 3D printing
u n Ex PEc TEd
market took a major turn with
PLa c Es
the

availabil- ity of open source

manufacturing
$1,0 0 0 ,
derivatives

kits

priced

including
of

under
various

the RepRap open

source project (discussed later) and

F i g u r e 15. T he Shapeways 3D printing marketplace removes

the Cup- Cake CNC from MakerBot

barriers to manufacturing by providing 3D printing services via

Industries. T hese devices ushered


in a new group, hobbyists,

who

previously

their

couldnt afford

own

personal

all

technologies,

continued
the

to

the web and enabling people to share their designs.


Source: Shapeways

machines. And like


prices

fall; for

have

example,

14

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

F i g u r e 16. T HE L ONG-T ERM OPPORT U N I T Y F OR


INDIVIDUA L S

3D P R

IDEA/
DESIGN

PROTOTYPE

MANUFACTURE

A SSEMBLY

transport

IN

TING

DISTRIBUTION

transport

transport

END USER

RETAIL

WAREHOUSE

transport

transport

L ow-cost 3D printing enables anyone with a digital design to bypass the traditional supply chain and
manufacture a product themselves. W hat are the implications for companies operating in the supply chain?
Source: CSC

Printrbot LC launched in 2012 for $549.5 0

T he

W hats

more, with their roots in open source,

availability of low-cost 3D printers has spurred many

many 3D printers are evolving rapidly and can now

to manufacture at home, bypassing numerous steps.

compete with some commercial printers. (See Figure

(See Figure 16.)

17.) F or those that


need
higher
quality
products,
a
ety of
online
printing
bureaus
variallow prints in different materials
(metals, plastics and glass).
To get an idea of what these DIY
man- ufacturers are printing, take
a

look

website
for

at T hingiverse.com,
with

3D

self- created

printing.

files

Created by

MakerBot Industries, the website


has

large

community

of

individuals who have shared over


25,0 0 0
toys

mod- els ranging from

and gadgets to replacement

parts.51

All

are

available

downloading

and

printing

anyone.

Recently,

one

of

for
by
our

researchers faced the prospect of a


14-hour

flight

holding an

ebook

reader, with no time to buy a


reader stand before leaving for
the flight.

After

a few

minutes

F i g u r e 17. T he MakerBot Replicator 2 comes fully assembled,

searching on T hingiverse.com, he

unlike its predecessor, and is designed for high-quality DIY

was able to down- load a foldable

manufacturing.

stand
design, print
it in 45 minutes,
In
addition
to homes,
low-cost
and use
themade
flight their
that night.
printersit on
have
way

Source: MakerBot Industries

(See Figure
18.)
into
other unexpected
places. F or
example, at
15

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

Outside of ordinary replacements, there are some


parts and objects that are simply no longer in s tock.
F or exam- ple, due to the scarcity of replacement dials
for a vintage boombox, someone created a printable
alternative.5 5
T hat is the beauty of 3D printing: creating functional, if
not obscure, parts.

One of the most

high-profile

examples comes from American comedian Jay L eno. In


an article in Popular Mechanics, L eno discusses his use
of 3D printing to re-manu- facture parts for his rare and
vintage vehicle collection: Any antique car part can be
reproduced with these machines
pieces of trim, elaborately etched and even scrolled
door handles. If you have an original, you can copy it. Or
you can design a replacement on the computer, and the
F i g u r e 18. T his e-reader stand was 3D

3D printer makes it for you.5 6 He goes on to explain

printed by our researcher in less than an hour.

how his 1907 W hite S teamer is back on the street due

T he design is available on T hingiverse by

to the use of 3D printing to recreate an incredibly rare

designer Billy Carr (uni stand by

slide valve
(D-valve).
Using
3D printing,
L eno can create functional parts for

codemanusa).

test- ing (i.e., to see if the part is the right size and

Source:
CSC

shape before using


process),

create molds

traditional

CNC

milling

to cast a part in aluminum,

Southview Middle School in E dina, Minnesota, the

and even replace metal parts with plastic. He explains:

indus- trial technology teacher uses a 3D printer so

My E coJet supercar needed air-condi- tioning ducts. We

students can experience their designs and concepts

used plastic parts we designed, right out of the 3D

as

local

copier. We didnt have to make these scoops out of

municipality has created a 3D printing lab in a

aluminum plastic is what they use in a real car. And

library

the finished ones look like factory production pieces.57

physical
so

mod- els.
the

52

In

community

Australia,
can

play

with and

understand the technology.53

Fix- It to take control of their appliances. E xamples of

a l though it is hard to
p re di c t w h e re 3 d
printing a t h o m e will
lead, it is a s a fe be t that
c o nsu m e r s w ont use
these printers to
re c re ate w h at they c a n
a d yis b u
y in sto
3D alre
printing
breaking
downres.
barriers

replace- ment parts emerging in

manufactur- ing. Although it

It is important to note that libraries, schools and


homes

have

different

quality

requirements

than

factories. Con- sumers, who have never had such


manufacturing powers before, are quite forgiving of
faults in 3D-printed objects they
themselves,
required

as

long

function.

as

the

have

created

object serves

Consumers

may

not

be

its
so

forgiving of such flaws in products they purchase.

ma K i n g T h i n g s
Wo r K

W hile not for everyone, 3D printers allow the Mr. or Ms.

library
keyboard
battery

include

a wheel

support
door.

stand

Some

of

the T hingiverse

for

and

a portable

these

dishwasher,
parts

is

to

hard to predict

where 3D printing at home will lead, it is a safe bet

camera

that consumers wont use

have had

r ecreate

what

they

can

these

printers

already buy

in

to

s tores.

significant downloads. F or example, a touch screen sty-

T hey will be creating things you simply cant buy,

lus for the Nintendo DS has over 3 0 0 downloads;5 4

such as irr eplaceable parts and personalized objects

clearly, a lost stylus is a common problem with a

and gadgets.

simple solution.
16

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

Democratizat
ion
3D

printing

at

work

or

o f
ma n u f a c t u r i n g

at

home signifies

the

B ypassing the modeling effort altogether, a r ange

democrati- zation of manufacturing. ( T he very name

of affordable

3D printing instead of additive manufacturing is a

objects

3D

scanners

enables

physical

to be digitized, modified (within limits)

nod to a broader audience.) Until now, the creation of

and

high-quality physical products or prototypes required

Interestingly, several software products are blurring

very expensive machin- ery

the distinction between scanning and modeling. B y

tooling

and

investments

in

and sophisticated CAD/ CAM software. T his

reproduced directly

by

3D

printer.

automating much of the 3D modeling experience,

posed a barrier, preventing many good ideas from ever

they allow almost anyone to r apidly gener- ate

being built (even to a prototype stage), as most people

sophisticated models. Check out Continuum F ash-

lacked the skills and financial resources to design,

ion 5 8

and

F aceGen.5 9

Both

services

one for

let alone manufacture or distribute, a product.

fashion, the other for facial modeling hide the

However, in the last decade these traditional barriers

back-end 3D modeling effort from the individual,

have been stripped away.

who

simply

Autodesk

wants the

launched

output.

More

cloud service

recently,

that

allows

the heart of the DIY

people to create 3D models with a few s wipes on

production process, there have been developments

their iPad or by uploading photos of an object from

in

60
multiple angles.
Another
example
of the democratization of design

W hile 3D
all

printing

is

at

elements of the DIY manufacturing lifecycle

including free or low- cost

3D

modeling

and

comes from 3D

software house Digital F orming,

scanning tools (for design), shar- ing websites (for

which provides software that enables companies to

marketing and distribution), investment websites (for

share product design with

funding), and a new open design ethos (industry


collaboration).

T hese

elements

now

allow

their

customers.

T he

software lets consumers tweak dimensions of the

almost

desired product, whether it is the per- fect lamp or a

anyone to become a manufacturer or contribute to

custom

the manufacturing process.

cuf

link.

Consumers

can

adjust shape,

surface design, color and material (within limits).


T his

s o P h i s T i c a T E d mo d E L i n g ma d E
s imP L E

closer

relationship

between

consumer

and

manufac- turer will spur a greater expectation for

3D modeling and visualization play a crucial role

customization.
Although 3D printing

in the early phases of product development. However,

hardware and objects produced, a key part of the magic

in the past, software was often expensive and required

of 3D print- ing is the software. F ormlabs made

extremely pow- erful machines, making personal use

software

impractical. Today this has changed. Now, most home

ease-of-use

sophisticated

makes

3D

one

think

cornerstone

printer

of

of

(discussed

the

its
later).

PCs can run some of the worlds most sophisticated

Elsewhere, a team of researchers has created soft-

software such as Creo 2.0 or

ware that examines the geometry of the CAD model

more,

there

are

number

SolidWorks.
of

W hats

free or low-cost

and determines where to add joints, so elbows and

modeling tools, such as 3DT in, SketchUp and Blender,


that

contain powerful

design

knees get hinges, for example.61

capabilities but are

T he software

optimizes for full movement and no collisions with

simple enough for anyone to use. F or something even

other joints or possible movements.

sim- pler, there is T inkercad, which is free and lets

then allows the whole model, including its joints and

people play with the basics of 3D modeling.

moving

parts,

to

be

materialized

Sophisticated modeling made simple.

17

3D
all

printing
at

once.

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

d j v u : T h E in T E L L E c T u a L P r o P E r T y
d E b aTE
Despite the allure of 3D printing

over

and the

manufactur-

democratization

manufactur- ing,

3D

of

printing

the

world.

ing

Previously,

begun

posed a barrier

because the model could

not

to

appear.

Intellectual

Ventures, run by former Microsoft

be

CTO Nathan Myhrvold, has been

poses serious ques- tions about

created and distributed readily like

granted a pat- ent for managing

intellectual property. To be clear,

this; if you wanted that toy, you had

object production rights

this issue is not unique to 3D

to purchase it. However, with 3D

printing;

copyright

printers it is possible to simply

exclusively); it remains to be seen

debated

patent

infringement

and

has

been

printing

print the toy yourself. W hile the

to

individual

technique

by the advent of Internet piracy, and

manufacturer

will con- tinue to be fought for

significant

years
to come. 3D
Nonetheless,

manufacturing
and marketing.
Some are fearful
that 3D printing

T hey Dont

will

Printing,

sup- porting
anyone

printing

tools

to

and

allow almost

intentionally

or

the

loses

out on its

investment

cripple

in

lik-

ening it

what

extent

this

for

patented

preventing

unauthor- ized object copying will

design,

62
be his
used.
In
paper
It Will Be Awesome if

traditional

manufacturers,

3D

specifically (though not

for decades, stoked more recently

benefits,

for

Screw

it

Up:

Intel- lectual

3D

Property,

and the Fight Over the Next Great

to

Internet piracy in the music and

Disruptive

Technology,

existing product design, distrib- ute

movie industries. W hile those in

Weinberg,

that design, and manufacture the

the

advocacy

product. Although technically this

illegal

was possible decades ago, todays

severely, oth- ers

digital designs and 3D printers,

industry

and

current

linked by

and needed to reinvent its dated

legislative issues across

multiple

significantly
Armed
with easier.
a low-cost 3D scanner

business

intellectual property dimensions.63

and 3D printer, you can buy a

piracywith
is a heated
As
music issue.
and

product of the shelf such as a toy,

digital rights

unintentionally

recre-

ate

an

the Internet, make it

scan that object or its parts, and


distribute the design all

music

industry

downloads
was

argue

have

hurt

believe

already in

model.

that

at

Public
concerns

but also compre- hensively breaks


down

trouble
way,

arguments

He highlights both the threats and

movies,

management

attorney

group

Knowledge, agrees with

it

the

Either

staff

Michael

oppor- tunities of 3D printing. An

(DRM)

important reminder from Weinberg

discus- sions for manufacturing

is that prog- ress, and those who

designs have

are inspired, should not be stopped

s h a r E Th E dEsign, s hiP Th E
dEsign
After

producing

product

on

3D

T he
been

a leader

consumers

printer,

by those whogiant
fear.
e-commerce

Chinese

for

some

and small

time

businesses

in

connecting

to

large-scale

manufacturers,

years ago, if fund- ing was scarce, the creator would

manufacturing. T his consumer-to- business

initially manufacture and market a low volume of

encourages

product for a specialist application. Over time, if the

ideally suited for the micro-entrepreneur of the DIY

product was successful, further investment would be

movement.6 5

made so

But Alibaba was about shipping products, whereas

small,

ing

has

creators turn to marketing and distribution. Several

larger volumes could be marketed and

break-

Alibaba

custom

down

barriers

to

model

transactions and is

distributed around the world. It was only at this point

3D printing is about shipping designs, continuing the

that the product could reach a broader customer base.

evolu- tion of the digitization of things. Being able

Now,

to ship and print the design means that printing

thanks

to

online

marketplaces

like

T hingiverse, Shapeways and Sculpteo, the marketing

can be done on demand, whether through a service

and distribution problem

bureau, a companys own 3D printing capability or

reduced.
nearly

As

7,0 0 0

of

has

August 2012,
shops

and

been

significantly

Shapeways

even

had

options

over 160,0 0 0 members

who had printed over one million prod-

the end consumer. T hese innovative printing


will

distribution

ucts.6 4

drive
and

the

next

pose

major

manufacturers,

whose

gen-

Shapeways enables designers to get paid for their

ditional

products and also handles distribution, so products

around shipping products, not designs.

can be purchased and delivered anywhere in the world.


18

eration

upheaval
businesses

of

for

tra-

revolve

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

c ro WdFu n din g

oPEn
dEsign

Although low-cost 3D printers and accessible CAD

Open

software lower barriers to entry for bringing new

associated with freely-available software like Linux,

products to market, some capital is still required. T his

Android and Apache. T he philosophy

is where pioneering initia- tives like Kickstarter come

source is that information should be shared freely

in. Kickstarter, a crowd-funding website for creative

by

projects, allows anyone with a good idea to advertise for

improve the product and contribute their work back to

seed funding, usually provided by large num- bers of

the community for free use. T he power of this phi-

small investors. T he rewards for the investor are set by

losophy is demonstrated by Wikipedia, which, through

the entrepreneur and typically range from thank-you

the contributions of millions of people, has become the

certifi- cates for small donations to free copies of the

premier reference encyclopedia in dozens of languages

product being sponsored. Most projects raise less than

and is freely available, while its closed competitors

$10,0 0 0 though the highest funding to date for a single

(like Encyclopedia Britannica) have become obsolete.

project
wasan
$10
million.
F
ormlabs,
MIT
Media Lab spin-off, achieved its 30-

Similarly, the term open design has come to be

day funding goal of $100,0 0 0 in less than three

applied to the design of physical products, machines and

hours

and reached over $1.5 million in one week.

components through public sharing and contribution.

all the excitement about? F ormlabs provides

L ow-cost 3D print- ers and availability of software for

an affordable high- resolution 3D printer (still in

creating and sharing print- able designs are enabling the

testing)

necessary conditions for sharing designs of physical

66

W hats

for

hobbyists.

designers,
T he

neers

and

printer

serious

best

community

of

known

as

the

term

behind open

contributors, who work to

ste-

components. T he concept of open design is starting to


take off with products like VIA OpenBook (an open

thus bringing

source laptop) and RepRap (an open source 3D printer).

and

the

professional-quality

T he democratization

of

uses

is

reolithography, the method used in high-end printers,


individuals.

F orm

engi-

source

printing

to

manufacturing

democratiza- tion of investing go hand-in-

hand.

T h E r epr ap s To r y o P E n s o u r c E
ma n u F a c T u r i n g
T he year 2 00 8

was a turning

One of the aims of the RepRap

Because

point for

manufacturing

is to enable individuals or small

available, anyone

enter- prises, especially in poorer

manufacture and

because

DIY

a new product called the

RepRap was released. T he RepRap

parts

sell

the

individuals and small compa- nies

themselves

is

products

with

for

virtually

no

In

manufacture

this
and

way, many
sell

R epRaps

capital investment (a RepRap kit

online, either in kit form or as

manufactured and distributed.

costs about $500).

fully assembled and tested models.

In

Inspired

May

2008,

RepRap printer
W ithin
on, it

designed,

freely

download,

complex

build

is

is

can

R epRap.

is truly unique about the R epRap


it

design

of the world, to be able to

is a low-cost 3D printer, but what


how

the

the

was

second

assembled.

min- utes of being turned


had started printing

the

by

means

the

(hardware,

RepRap, and so on. Today, it is

software)

estimated

any patents

over

2 0,0 0 0

source

As

R epRap

innovation of the R epRap and its

the

design is also open source. T his

components to build the third


that

open

software models,

entire
not
and

modify

and

components manufactured by other

improvements

RepRaps67

a neat example that

make

gets closer to the vision of self-

whole

replicating machines.

enthusiastic

them

faster

equivalent commercial 3D

printers. In the future, open


source

approaches

anyone

can

applied

to

available).

users

all

may
sorts

be
of

manufactured products, leading to


superior prod- ucts that are more
A

of

reliable and func- tional because a


global

actively

innovate

19

of

and

community
to

rate

by

(provided they

improve the design.

the

protected
contribute

freely

result,

derivatives is accelerating
than

electronics
is

RepRaps exist, most of them using

participates

design

and

community

improves them.

continually

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

As

well

as

fostering

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

small-scale

DIY

product

is sued

the

Experimental

Crowd-derived

Combat-

innovation by interested communities, open design

support Vehicle (XC2V) Design Challenge, conducted

can

in partner- ship

provide a frame- work for developing advanced

with

open

design

automobile

technology projects that are beyond the resources of

manufacturer L ocal Motors. 6 8 In a s tunning display of

any single company or even country.

the power and enthusi- asm of the open design

In

2 011,

the

U.S.

Defense

Advanced

community, L ocal Motors turned the winning design

R esearch

P rojects Agency (DARPA) turned to the public for

into

inspiration to design a replacement for the iconic

about

working

Humvee. DARPA

industry average.6 9 (See Figure 19.)

one-fifth

prototype
the

time

in

just
of

14 weeks

the

F i g u r e 19. T his potential Humvee replacement was created by an open design community, which built a

working prototype in just 14 weeks.


Source: Local Motors

20

automobile

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

i mpa c t
on
c ommerciaL

ma n u f a c t u r
ing

W hile it is difcult to say with certainty how 3D

be challenged by 3D printers providing just-in-time

printing in its various forms (e.g., desktop, large-scale)

manu- facturing near the point of sale or point of

will impact tra- ditional manufacturing, emerging trends

assembly. Sup- ply chains will be re-optimized to

indicate that a fun- damental paradigm shift has already

factor in the advantages of just-in-time, particularly

started. As 3D printing evolves, the new world of

for low-volume or highly spe- cialized components.

manufacturing looks like this:

Conversely,

T i m e- to - m a r ket
will be due, in

for

p ro d u c t s

part,

to

shrinks.

faster

design
and

will

be

able to minimize

T his

costs by using low-cost, high-volume compo- nents

and

wherever possible, connected with specialized justin-time

prototyping cycles as a result of 3D printing, but


also to the elimination of tool- ing

designers

components

produced

at

the

point

of

assembly.
Amidst
this new world of manufacturing, traditional

factory

setup times for new products. Being agile will

manu- facturing processes must evolve or die. (See

no longer be a competitive advantage but a basic

sidebar.) In a recent report, L E F researcher Simon

necessity to stay in business.

Wardley noted that when an activity, in this case

P ro d u c ts

h av e

superior

capabilities.

manufacturing,

T he

becomes

a commodity,

traditional

lowered,

practices must evolve to embrace the new, though

bringing new competi- tors with new ideas. At the

highly disruptive, business processes. He states that

same time, products incor- porating

3D-printed

the 3D printing disruption will almost certainly be led

components will exhibit superior features such

by new entrants whose practices will be radically

barriers

as

for

being

manufacturing

will

smaller,

lighter,

complex

and

be

stronger,

different from those of existing players.7 0 T herefore,

less

maintain.

in pre- paring for this change, traditional manufacturers

competitive

must keep abreast of evolving 3D printing practices

advantage.
o
pen design is here to stay. Communities of

and be aware of their own internal barriers (e.g.,

mechanically
T hese

products

end users will


product

will

easier

hold

to

distinct

increasingly

be

responsible

culture, organization) that could prevent them from

for

taking advantage of the change.

designs, which will be available to anyone

a s m o re
o rg a n i z a tions a n d
indivi duals b e co m e
m a n u fac turers, the
lines
betw e en m a n u fa c turer
As amore
individuals
n d corganizations
u sto m e rand
will
bl ur.

with the necessary skills and tools who wants to


design and then manufacture. T hese open-design
products will be superior to propri- etary products.
Manufacturers

will

compete

on

how

well

they

implement the designs and their build quality, which


will be mercilessly rated by end users on the
Internet.
c
u sto m i z ation
innovative

is

the

com- panies

new
use

3D

normal.

As

printing

and

other rapid techniques to offer customization at


no

additional

cost,

consumers will

come

to

expect customization as the norm. T he per-unit

become

manufac- turers, the lines between manufacturer and

manufacturing costs of small production runs (even

customer will blur. W hen there is

batches of one) will approach those of long runs as

between, those lines will blur too. Manufacturing will

technology barriers fall.

move into retailing. Consum- ers and new entrants

T he e conomics o f of -shore change. T he price

will

move

into

manufacturing.

a retailer in

W ill traditional

advantage associated with mass production in low-

manufacturing be dead in 10 years? No, but it will

cost regions will

look very different.


21

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

h y Po Th ETi c a L c a s E s Tu dy :
3d P r i n T i n g b Lu r s r E T a i L a n d
ma n u F a c T u r i n g
Gordon F uller,
CSC
Retro

T he

results

of

persuade Retro

Company

is

specialty

this

that

analysis
intellectual

property pro- tection

cannot

since

the

company

would

be

selling 3D printer files along with

be

manufac-

retailer selling reproduction home

enforced

since Retro itself takes

website

furnishings (door handles, cabinet

photographs of his- torical artifacts

choices

pulls, lanterns) in mall stores and

for its reproductions. T his makes

tured

would

items.

of

offer

material,

compatible

T he

need to

printers

identify

based

on

to

the materials, and provide other

alternate designs from competitors

options. T his new sales channel

stores.

or home enthusiasts. L egal input

would

also

from

sug- gests that Retro can alter its

services

and

those stores, U.S.-based Retro is

warranty

enhance
As
thecustomer
impact loyalty.
of customer

considering expanding

depending on the source

online.

T he

com-

pany

is

evaluating a five-year strategic plan


to

open

To

200

support

at

its

additional

the

two

demand

production

fac- tories in North

America and increasing its sourcing

the

company

and

vulnerable

return

policies
of

the

product, but the com- pany does

divisions within

alert its lobbyist in Wash- ington,

enforcement

D.C.

from Asia. However, the company

to

monitor

legislation

property

regarding at-home
Although
the manufacturing.
costs
of

fiercely

may be compatible with 3D print-

manufactur- ing,

retain

ing, a potential game-changer for

distribution

so

it

incorporates

inventory

dramatically

over the next few

the technology intothe


its planning.
After
analyzing
materials

years by using 3D print- ing,

needed for its products, expected

unknown

use

customers

and durability,

printing

and

future

capa- bilities,

determines

that

Retro

3D printing is

selves

impact

on

print

means

analysis

and

are expected to fall

is

the

sales when

designs
a

them-

cost-benefit

impossible

at

possible, not only by Retro but by

early stage. T he company

its

estimate,

this

does

additional
tunities

to

choice becomes evident to more

also realizes that its product line

its business,

require
oppor-

company,
intellectual

protection
debated

market

is

as

share.

design store
and

the

of

for

again
way

Hosting

R etro

enthusiasts

possible competitors

cannibalize

to

may

sales even

concludes

more.

that more

customers would be alienated by


restrictions than would be retained
by

rights

management

and

reafrms its s trategy to remain

dives further into analysis for the

percent of its customers will have

open
its designs
and
R
etros with
manufacturing
s trategy
website.
is
also revised. W ith the drop in

fol- lowing questions:

the capability to print their own

physi- cal goods sold as people

products after eight years.

purchase

customers.

T he

company

Since much of its

inventory

is reproductions of American
colonial and
objects,

other

historic

does Retro own the

intellectual

property

of

these

however,

that

60

b uild or
b u y?

Retro turns to finding ways


improve sales
retention

and

to

to respond to this at-

home manufactur- ing

protect it?

T he

company

analyzes its store

and

website

demographics to

customers

products

print

themselves,

the
can

the

determine

customer

profiles

to decrease. T he com- pany

and

sourcing

is

additional

s till

needed

from

Asia, but decides to reduce the


length of its
from

fi xed-term

contract

eight to four years and

instead purchase options for years


five

through

seven.

However,

to

guarantee?

opportuni- ties 3D printing would

R etro

offer

vulnerable to 3D printing as well,

the

company

safety issues

when

liable
it

not control manufacturing?

for
does

for

product

customization

that

company offer any warranty or


Is

identify

market.

designs,

volumes are projected

determines

customer

designs and can the com- pany


If

digital

production

both customers
designers.

and

It

also

realizes

the customer

buy categories. A complete rede-

companies; if

sign

suppliers

the

website

would

be

suppliers are

and due diligence is required on

segments customers into build or


of

its

mix
too

many

22

those
of

its

other customers are

impacted by 3D print-

required

of

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

h y Po Th ETi c a L c a s E s Tu dy :
3 d P r i n T i n g b L u r s r E T a i L a n d ma n u F a c T u r i n g
(c o n t i n u e d )
ing, then the supplier could

shareholders,

collapse, leaving R etro without

temptation is

and

the

until the preliminary analysis from

inventory.

from the exist- ing stores before

to squeeze profit

the pilot program is ready.

the paradigm has shifted. R etro

Retro knows it is breaking new

for the planned 2 0 0 retail stores.

is also wary about sig- naling its

ground in the 3D printing arena,

F ocus

intentions to the market and losing

but

customers would still patronize a

competitors or new entrants. T he

showroom

companys board determines that

T his

ties

into

the

groups

calculations

suggest

to

that

handle

the

competitive

merchandise, especially if any item

its fiduciary

from

sharehold-

the

catalog

could

be

printed on site as a sample. New


break-even numbers are estimated

preserving
approves

advantage.
responsibility

to

ers

outweighs

the

status quo. It

confidential

plans

is

so

ahead

seeing the

of
lines

between manufacturing and retail


blur as customers take on manu-

to

sell digital designs, not physical

convert

is

of-

by

inven- tory into 3D printer files,

entire

contingency

plans

to

more

as well as ensure that all new

response, one strate- gic option

product designs are

being considered is whether a new

add

d igital
inv en to r y

3D

files

from

entire

facturing themselves and retailers

vulnerability

printers to stores if needed.

companys

retailer

do

for retail oper- ations, and supplier


set

the

T he

wants to

created

as

the beginning.

products. As

Retro

expects

its

business model to shift in

company should be formed as a

Work begins on the web- site

pure

volume from retail operations to

redesign as well as a pilot store

decides not to do this for the fi rst

an online design catalog will be

program for the new retail sales

two years, preferring to evaluate its

a surprise to

con- cepts.

strategy

T he

dramatic

shift

in

sales

plans

S tore

expansion

move ahead, though

planned locations for


two years are reduced

23

the

the

fi rst

3D

and

enterprise.

personnel

Retro

to

determine if they are suf- ficiently


agile to make the switch.

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

t e c h n o Lo g y
a D Va n c e s

on the
horizon
Like all technology, 3D

printing will continue to

evolve. In addition to cost reductions (particularly in


the

consumer space) and eventual miniaturization,

researchers are break- ing new ground in terms of


print size, material integration and speed. T here are
even systems being developed that combine

the

benefits of the traditional subtractive pro- cesses


(e.g., CNC machining) with 3D printing (additive processes). T hese hybrid approaches perform 3D printing
and machining at the same time, eliminating postprocessing. F or example, most metallic objects created
by 3D printing require human intervention for either
finish-machining or polishing. However, a Japanese
heavy machinery manu- facturing company, Matsuura
Machinery Corporation, has developed a system that

F i g u r e 2 0 . T he Vienna University of

combines 3D printing (laser sin- tering technology)

Technologys 3Dprinted race car, approximately

with high-speed milling that mills edges of the printed

285 microns long, was printed in four minutes,

71
object
five-layer increments.
T
hese indevelopments
are creating
new, unimagined

demonstrating that high- speed ultra-precise 3D

solu- tions to existing problems, opening the door to

printing is possible, opening doors for innovation

new mar- ket entrants and paving the way for a

in areas such as medicine.

constant stream of worlds firsts.

Source: Vienna University of


Technology

Researchers at the Vienna University of Technology


have 3D
cre-objects only microns in size using a technique
ated
called two-photon

lithography.72

T he

ing is that the materials are all printed in one job run.

researchers

Instead of being printed as separate components and

breakthrough has been to speed the technique, making

attached one at a

it more feasible for industry. W hereas printing speeds


used to be measured in millimeters per second, they

(the

human

hair

is

4 0 -120

microns

fused

together

such as a mobile phone that includes plastic cover,

in

metal, electronics and glass screen.

diameter), has 100 layers that were printed in four

Although such a S tar T rek-type replicator is still years

minutes.73 W hile the structure is already miniscule, it is

from being mainstream, another device that is similar

expected that printers will one day produce even

to the rep- licator for its recycling capabilities may be

smaller objects, opening new possibilities for innovation

closer to reality. T he Filabot is a desktop device that

inreakthroughs
areas such as in
medicine.
B
multi-material printing are enabling

can recycle a range of plastics, including milk jugs and

more complex products. T he current leading multimaterial

are

complete product or device could be printed as one,

Figure 20, approximately 285 microns long

average

they

combine various properties in one model. One day a

are now measured in meters per second. T he race


car in

time,

simultaneously.74 Multi- material printing lets creators

soda bottles, into spools of plastic filament for 3D

3D printer is the Objet Connex500, which

printers.75 (See Figure 21.) Funded and launched through

allows up to 14 plastic- like materials to be printed at

Kickstarter, the Filabot has moved from concept to

the same time. T his could be a rubber-like plastic or a

prototype in a matter of months and contains some

more rigid ABS plastic. W hat is amaz-

3Dprinted parts itself.76


24

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

the fi rst printed plane (3.2-foot wingspan) that


has actually taken flight, by engineers at the
University of Southampton in the U.K.8 0
the fi rst artificial insect with 3D-printed wings that
has sustained untethered hovering flight for 85
seconds, by researchers at Cornell University 81 (see
Figure 23)

F i g u r e 21. T he Filabot lets people recycle

plastic in a desktop environment to create their


own plastic filament for a 3D printer. T he Filabot
extends the DIY of 3D printing to the raw
materials themselves.
Source: T yler McNaney
Photo credit: Whitney
Trudo

It is clear that traditional industry players will compete


with new

entrants

previously
Consider

offering

not possible,
Align

alternative

thus

disrupting

Technol- ogy,

introduced clear teeth

which

aligners

F i g u r e 22.

solutions

nylon and developed by the European Aerospace

markets.

in

and Defence group, is strong enough to replace its

1999

steel and aluminum counterpart. T he bike is a

under the Invisalign

technology demonstrator that lays the groundwork

brand that compete directly with wire dental braces.

for bike manufacturers to one day be able to 3D

Costing slightly more than braces, the aligners incre-

print a bike to fit the riders exact size.

mentally shift teeth until they are straight, without the


dis- comfort or look of wire braces. T he aligners are
made

with

customization

3D

printers,77

necessary

enabling

to

create

the

T he first 3Dprinted bike, made from

Source:
EADS

mass

cost-effective

customized dental devices. In the past, creating such


high-quality molds of individual mouths had not been
economically feasible. T his early use of 3D print- ing
enabled an industry first invisible orthodontics and
injected to
competition
into an
staid market.
Expect
see a number
of otherwise
other industry
fi rsts over
the next few years. T hey will join a lis t that includes:
the fi rst fully printed shoe, created by a Dutch
research institute,
and

TNO

Science

and

Industry,

concept design fi rm Sjors Bergmans Concept

Design 78
the first printed bike, made from nylon and as strong

F i g u r e 23.

R esearchers at Cornell University

as its steel and aluminum counterpart, developed by

created the fi rst artificial insect with 3D-printed

the Euro- pean Aerospace and Defence group79 (see

wings that sustained untethered hovering.

Figure 22)
Source: Charles r ichter and Hod
Lipson

25

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

pLat f o r m
for

i n n o Va t i
on

Given the deep roots of traditional manufacturing

In the short term 3D printing will not go head-to-

and the challenges the nascent 3D printing movement

head with

poses, will

but

the

low-volume items.

3D

printing

really

disrupt

the

manufacturing indus- try? In short: yes. A s T he


Industrial

R evolution,

large-scale

manufacturing

will increasingly be used for prototyping, tooling

of tradition- ally manufactured items, and the direct


manufacture of highly custom or technically complex

E conomist reported, we may be on the verge of


third

traditional

and like all

revolutions, the impacts run wide and deep. (See

A s the limits on object si z e and printing speed

Figure

decrease and the price of printing materials falls,

24.)

T he

question

for

manufacturers

anywhere in the supply chain is how they will need

the

to change not disappear to adapt to 3D printing.

dramatically in favor of 3D

F i g u r e 24 .
IMPACTS

AUTOMOTIVE

HEALTHCARE

manufacturing

LIKELY
DEVELOPMENTS

will

change

Weight reduction on
aircraft

Printing
entire aircraft
wings

Niche, low
volume
parts
Design and
prototypin
g

Application in
space
exploration

Novelty
items

Printing
entire aircraft
Self-healing
military
vehicles

Printing on the
battlefield
After-market
customization,
vehicle
restoration

P rosthetics,
dental & bone
implants

FUTURE
SCENARIOS

Medical
instrument
s

Light-weight & specialist


components in some
vehicles

T issue & simple printed


organs used in
transplants

Customize
d products

New in-store
experiences
& innovative marketing

Innovative vehicles
enabled by 3D
printing

Crowd-sourced
vehicle design &
manufacture
Nano-scale medicine

Complex
printed organs

Pharmaceuticals production

CONSUMER
& RETAIL

of

3D PRINTING

NOW & IMMEDIATE


FUTURE
DEFENSE &
AEROSPACE

economics

Co-creation with
customers

Grandparents
buy 3D printers
for themselves

Popularity of DIY & Maker


communities

GENERAL
MANUFACTURING
SUPPLY
CHAIN

COMMERCIAL

Rapid
prototyping &
product design

L ow-volume
specialist
manufacturing

Printing
bureaus
servicing niche
markets

New innovative products


appearing with printed
components

Printed
electronics
embedded in parts

R ecycling used
for feed materials
Rising demand for powdered
titanium & other feed
materials

Intellectual
property issues
debated

Boom of start-ups
enabled by 3D printing
technology

Crowd-funding models perfected

Source:
CSC

26

R etooling &
reskilling

R ows of 3D
printers on
factory
floors

3D printing coexisting
with traditional
manufacturing
Of-shoring modes
begin to be challenged

R eorganization
of business
models

Direct supply: Ship the design, not the


product
R eallocation of capital to new
industries
Adjustment of commodity values as
a result of changing demand
patterns

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

printing. T his is especially the case when considering

example of this is part of a broader s trategy by

the end-to-end

James Rinaldi,

cost

of

designing,

manufacturing,

CIO

of

NAS A

Jet

P ropulsion

assem- bling, transporting, distributing and operating

Laboratory,

a product. People

information technol- ogy to innovate together.8 2

that

contain

will

increasingly

3D printed

use

products

components

(or

to change what IT s tood for from

are

entirely 3D printed), from cars and airplanes to

Gabriel Rangel, solutions engineer in J P Ls Ofce of

consumer electronic devices and kitchen appliances.

the CIO, innovated together with the fabrication


group at

Because

of

the

superior

characteristics

of

3D

capital, commu- nities can profitably sell 3D printers

3 d pri nting is a digital


te c h n o l o g y, not just a
m a n u fa c t ur i n g
te c h n o l o g y. W ith its
o p e n a n d d e m o c ratic
p roperties, 3 d printing
sets the st a g e for
J P Linnov
to create a
itstion.
3DPaaS model. T he key innovation is

for as little as $ 6 0 0 and build prototype military

the consumerization

vehicles in 14 weeks. T hese guys are already beating

many inno- vations flourish by using desktop 3D

large-scale corporations hands- down in niche areas.

printing

printed products,
desirable.

these

S tart- up

products

manufacturers

will

be

will

more

flourish

with new and innovative ideas, and they will have


the

means

to

rapidly

scale

up production with

minimal capital investment. T hese s tart- ups,

with

their agility and incredibly short time-to-mar- ket,


will be the competitors of tomorrow.
Anyone doubting the new sources of competition
need only look at the capability of the hobbyists
and open design community today. W ithout access to
large facto- ries, teams of industrial designers or big

of

in-house for

3D

printing,

which

pre-prototyping.

Later,

lets
the

printing of fewer, more expensive, more refined 3D


F or large-scale corporations that design and build

designs can be automatically outsourced as a service.

things, 3D printing is

T he result is that by partnering with scientists,

an opportunity for I T

to

forge new rela- tionships with manufacturing and

engineers and the shop floor to re-think processes

with

aided by new design tools and 3D print- ers

those

who

need to visualize designs,

like

the IT group has accelerated J P Ls ability to print

scientists and engineers. One

physical designs early in the product development


cycle that can be shared, modified and re-printed,

F o r larg e - s c a l e
c o r p o ra t i o n s th a t
design and build
t h i n g s , 3 d p r i n t i n g is
a n o p p o r t u n i t y fo r i T
to fo rg e n ew
re l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h
m a n u fa c t u r i n g a n d
with those w h o need
to v i s u a l i z e d e s i g n s ,
lik e s c i e n t i st s a n d
e n g i n e e r s.

over and over, long before a prototype is built. T his,


in turn, means higher confidence in the final design
that is prototyped and, ultimately, produced.
3D

printing is a digital technology, not just a

manufac- turing

technology.

W ith

its

open

and

democratic prop- erties, 3D printing sets the s tage


for innovation. It has lowered the barrier to entry
for

manufacturing,

igniting the creativity of the

masses. 3D printing is creating new products


services,

supporting

greater

levels

of

and
col-

laboration, and fostering disruptive market entrants.


Manufacturers need to prepare for these disruptions
and can begin by asking some key questions that
challenge current assumptions. (See sidebar.)

27

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

q u E s T i o n s F o r ma n u F a c T u r i n g
Fi r m s
To help manufacturing fi rms grasp
the future

opportunities

and

In a world of 3D printing, will

can

customers

challenges of 3D printing, here are

need

large

10 questions to consider. Some

E ven if it is more cost-effective

customer

may have already been answered

for

of

and some may be uncomfortable

manufacture

or difcult to answer, but all are

will

relevant.

more frequent

W hen

products

can

be

manufac- tured with the same


ease as walking down the hall to

production

your
your

company
large

of

changed?
5 Is
your

online buying

runs?

customization

to

your

product

factory

going

become

than a manu-

facturer?

model relevant?

hybrid?

effect will this

W hat

are

the

business

have

W hat

on

implica- tions of delivering a

duction

digital design rather

direction,

physical

product

customers?
tomers

to your

W hen

do

than
your

cus-

manufacturing

instead of you, what are the

your

for

printing

to

future
9

recall)

and

intel-

lectual

protection?
3 property
How can
your company use
3D printing
your

to

include

con-

components

solidating
to

maintenance,
lighter- weight
leveraging

reduce

creating
products
new

and

and engineers? How can I T use

materials

such

creation

with

your

printing

(or

support)

for

example, operating
resource allo- cation,
model,

mix,
culture

and how will you address them?


10

as
and

3D

adop- tion of 3D printing

financial

to
enable
7 3D
W hereprinting
are the opportunities
manufacturing,
not overtake
it?
for
driving greater
customer
customization

of

on-shore/of-shore

manufacturing? Between I T and

intimacy,
and

research.
T he

IT

areas

model,

product design- ers, scientists

improve

end product? Possibilities

high

deliv- ery close

could prevent

new

relationship between

(low cost,

W hat organizational factors

reflect

your

the

for

including

research pose a threat?

is

prepare

your exis ting product line? Do

those alterations?
6 W hat

design

length,

implications for product quality,


product safety (e.g., a product

open

you

customization,

storage, etc.? How


change

to

Is

industry

to point of use) chal- lenge

will your inbound logis- tics


processes

this?

or

pro-

workstations,

stafng,

enable

are

the cur- rent benefits of 3D

rather

existing

lines

W hat types

platforms

new entrants and DIYers? Do

keep your companys business

assembler

meet

new competitors,

to

print paper copies, how will you

an

to

8 trends?
How will

mass

to

needs?

susceptible

expected

integrate

and

your company

and

the

best

technology

required

demand

changes

Has

you

to

quantities,

customers

upgrades?
lifetime

continue

How

your

W here should your company


make

capital

investments

today?

W hat

education

investments
W hat

training

and

are

co-

required?

investments

end

should your company avoid?

customer?

changes

surrounding

3D

printing

are

manufacturing

will

one

day

be

as

common

as

significant; we are only scratching the surface of

desktop printing. W hen that happens, and factories

what

without fac- tory floors are the norm, it will be

the

ultimate impact will be. T he glimpses of

disruption seen today sug- gest wholesale change in

hard to imagine how companies and consumers once

the future. Customized, no-ship

lived without 3D printing.

28

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

note
s
1
2

A third industrial revolution, T he E conomist, 21 April 20 12. http://www.economist.com/node/


21552 901
Clayton M. Christensen, T he Innovators Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Fir ms to F ail
(Boston: Harvard Business School P ress, 1997).

The future of manufacturing...on two wheels, EADS press release, 7 March


2 011. http://www.eads.com/eads/int/en/news/press.20110307_eads_airbike
.html

Chris Anderson, Makers: T he New Industrial r evolution (New York: Crown


Business, 2 012), p. 14.

3D printing breaks out of its mold, Physics Today, October 2 0 11. http://w
ww.physicstoday.org/resource/1/phtoad/v64/i10/p25_s1?bypassSSO=1

61-Year-Old Company R einvents Itself W ith FDM, S tratasys Case S tudy,


2 011.
http://www.stratasys.com/Resources/Case-Studies/Commercial-Pr
oducts-FDM-Technology-Case-Studies/Thogus-Products.aspx

S tudio*Mrmann, Attracted to Light, http://www.mrmann.co.uk/long-exposur


e-series-attracted-to-light

Printer produces personalised 3D chocolate, BBC News, 5 July 2 0 11.


http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-1403072 0

Printing F ood W ith 3D Printers, T echCrunch, 1 March 2 0 11.


http://techcrunch.com/2011/03/01/printing-food-with-3d-print
ers/

10 Researchers use a 3D printer to make bone-like material, UA Magazine, 3 0 November 2 0 11. http://ww
w.united-academics.org/magazine/2865/researchers-use-a-3d-printer-to-make-bone-like-material/
11 3D printers could create customised drugs on demand, BBC News, 18 April 2 0 12, http://www.bbc
.co.uk/news/technology-1776 0 0 8 5; and The chemputer that could print out any drug,
Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, 26 July 2 012, http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-chemputer-that-c
ould-print-out-any-drug
12 Scientists Use 3D Printer to Create Fi r s t Printed Human Vein, Inhabitat, 22 March
2 010. http://inhabitat.com/scientists-use-3d-printer-to-create-first-printed-human-v
ein/
13 Makers will love to 3D Print with Wood, 3D Printing News and T rends, Howard Smith blog, 27
September 2 0 12. http://3dprintingreviews.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/3d-printing-wood-grain.html
14 3D printing breaks out of its mold, Physics Today, October 2 0 11. http://w
ww.physicstoday.org/resource/1/phtoad/v64/i10/p25_s1?bypassSSO=1
15 W ohlers Report 2011: Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry,
p. 130. http://www.wohlersassociates.com/2011contents.htm
16 Particle-free silver ink prints small, high-performance electronics, University of Illinois press release, 12
January 2 0 12. http://news.illinois.edu/news/12/0112ink_JenniferLewis.html
17 3-D printing method advances electrically small antenna design, College of
Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, press release, 16 March
2 011.
http://engineering.illinois.edu/news/2011/03/15/3d-printing-method-advanc
es-electrically-small-antenna-design
18 Contour Crafting, http://www.contourcrafting.org/
19 Giant 3D Printer Builds Homes in 2 0 Hours, Toms Hardware, 8 August 2 012, http://
www.tomshardware.co.uk/3D-Printer-Homes-housing-printing,news-393 80.html; and
A Huge 3D Printer Can Build A Custom, Enviro-Friendly House In 2 0 Hrs, T HE9 BILLIO N, 15 August
2 012, http://www.the9billion.com/2012/0 8/15/a-huge-3d-printer-can-build-a-custom-enviro-friendly
-house-in-20-hrs/
29
20 W ohlers Report 2011: Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry, p.

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

note
s

23 FDM reduces tooling costs by 99% and prototyping costs by 73%, S tratasys case s tudy, 2 0 10. http://www.
stratasys.com/Resources/Case-Studies/Consumer-Product-FDM-Technology-Case-Studies/Akaishi.aspx
24 FDM Helps Bell Helicopter Build Quality P rototypes, S tratasys case study, 2 0 0 9 . http://www.stratasys.c
om/Resources/Case-Studies/Aerospace-FDM-Technology-Case-Studies/Bell-Helicopter.aspx
25 Additive Manufacturing Goes Mainstream, IndustryWeek, 10 March 2 0 12. http://www.industryweek.c
om/articles/additive_manufacturing_goes_mainstream_26805.aspx?ShowAll=1
26 Tough Enough for Armored Tanks, S tratasys case s tudy, 2 0 0 2.
http://www.stratasys.com/Resources/Case-Studies/Military-FDM-Technology-Case-Studies/Case-Study
.aspx
27 FDM Direct Digital Manufacturing Saves $ 8 0 0,0 0 0 and T hree Years Development T ime Over F our-Year
Period, S tratasys case s tudy, 2 0 0 9 .
http://www.stratasys.com/Resources/Case-Studies/Military-FDM-Technology-Case-Studies/Sheppard-Air-For
ce-base.aspx
28 Student Engineers Design, Build, Fl y Printed Airplane, UVA Today, 5 October
2 012. http://news.virginia.edu/content/student-engineers-design-build-fly-print
ed-airplane
29 U.S. Military Better Visualizes Unfamiliar Settings W ith 3D Printing, 3D S ystems.
http://www.zcorp.com/en/Solutions/Geospatial/U.S.-Military-Better-Visualizes/spage.as
px
30 3-D printing could remake U.S. manufacturing, U SA Today, 10 July 2 0 12. http://www.usatoday.com/mone
y/industries/manufacturing/story/2012-07-10/digital-manufacturing/56135298/1
31 Additive Manufacturing Technology R oadmap for Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial R esearch
Organisation, March 2 011, p. 22. http://www.enterpriseconnect.gov.au/media/Documents/Publications/Additive%20Manu
facturing%20Tech%20Roadmap.pdf
32 Fuel Smart Celebrates its 5th Anniversary, American Airlines, http://www.aa.com/i18n/aboutUs/environmental/
article2.jsp
33 Local fi rm leads with 3D manufacturing, T he Australian Financial R eview, 10 September
2 012. http://www.afr.com/p/national/local_firm_leads_with_manufacturing_cdMd7rMhCh9CalD
DxrRorI
34 Next 3-D F rontier: Printed Plane Parts, W S J.com, 14 July 2 0 12. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB 10 001424 05270230
393 3 4 0 45775 0 5 0 80296858896.html?KEYWORDS=boeing+3D+printing
35 Made-in-Space Parts Could Become Space T ravels New Norm, Space.com, 19 July 2 0 12, http://www.spa
ce.com/16656-space-manufacturing-3d-printing.html; and 3D printings s tellar, amazing year,
Make Parts F ast, 25 December 2 0 11, http://www.makepartsfast.com/2011/12/3 007/3d-printings-st
ellar-amazing-year/
36 NAS As human-supporting rover has FDM parts, S tratasys case study, 2 0 12. http://www.stratasys.
com/Resources/Case-Studies/Aerospace-FDM-Technology-Case-Studies/NASA.aspx
37 3D Printer Harnesses the Sun to T ransform E gyptian Sand Into Glass, Gizmodo, 26 June
2 011. http://gizmodo.com/5815588/3d-printer-harnesses-the-sun-to-transf
orm-egyptian-sand-into-glass
38 Jim Kor, URBEE: Designing with Digital Manufacturing in Mind, 2 0 12, p. 8.
39 Urbee Hybrid B reaks Cover in Manitoba, E dmunds Inside Line, 23 September 2 011,
http://www.insideline.com/car-news/urbee-hybrid-breaks-cover-in-manitoba.html; and Local electric/ethanol car
definitely a labour of love, W innipeg F ree P ress, 6 September 2 0 12,
http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/business /Local-electricethanol-car-definitely-a-labour-of-love-168764056.html
40 The A reion by F ormula Group T : T he Worlds Fir s t 3Dprinted Race Car, Materialise. http://www
.materialise.com/cases/the-areion-by-formula-group-t-the-world-s-fi rst-3d-printed-race-car
41 Mammoth S tereolithography, 3D Printing News and T rends, Howard Smith blog, 3 0 August
2 012.
30
http://3dprintingreviews.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

note
s

44 W ohlers Report 2011: Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry, p. 164 (see
graphic). http://www.wohlersassociates.com/2011contents.htm
45 Transplant jaw made by 3D printer claimed as fi rst, BBC News, 6 F ebruary
20 12. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-16907104
46 High tech implants resist infection, E E T imes, 31 July 2 012. http://www.eetimes.com/
design/medical-design/4391426/High-tech-implants-resist-infection
47 3D Printed P rosthetics Company Bespoke Acquired B y 3D S ystems, Singularity Hub, 8 June 2 0 12.
http://singularityhub.com/2012/06/0 8/3d-printed-prosthetics-company-bespoke-acquired-by-3d-syst
ems/
48 3D-printed exoskeleton gives a little girl use of her arms (video), 3 August
20 12. http://venturebeat.com/2012/0 8/03/3d-printer-little-girl-magic-arms/
49 Shapeways, About Us, http://www.shapeways.com/about/
50 Printrbot L C, http://printrbot.com/shop/printrbot-lc/
51 T hingiverse, http://www.thingiverse.com/newest

Data as of November 2 012.

52 Southview Middle School Gets a Grip on Design with Dimension 3D Printing, S tratasys. http://www.dimensionprinting.c
om/successstories/successstoryview.aspx?view=57&title=Southview+Middle+School+Gets+a+Gri
p+on+Design+with+Dimension+3D+Printing
53 Forum F renzy: Public Library (in Adelaide) Offering F ree 3D Printing R esources, Core77, 13 September 2 0 12. http://ww
w.core77.com/blog/digital_fabrication/forum_frenzy_public_library_in_adelaide_offering_free_3d_printing_resources_23417.asp
54 Touch Screen S tylus, http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:49 9
55 Volume Knob, http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:6008
56 Jay L eno, Jay L enos 3D Printer R eplaces Rusty Old Parts, Popular Mechanics, 8 June
2 0 0 9 . http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/jay-leno/technology/4 3 20759
57 Ibid.
58 http://www.continuumfashion.com/
59 http://www.facegen.com/
60 Autodesk bringing 3D modeling to the masses, CNET News, 3 November 2 0 11. http://news.
cnet.com/8301-13772_3-57318231-52/autodesk-bringing-3d-modeling-to-the-masses/
61 3D Printing? Its the Software S tupid!, 3D Printing News and T rends, Howard Smith blog, 3 0 August 2 012.
http://3dprintingreviews.blogspot.co.uk/2012/0 8/3d-printing-its-software-stupid.html E xample is from this
blog post.
62 Nathan Myhrvolds Cunning Plan to P revent 3-D Printer Piracy, Technology R eview, 11 October
20 12. http://www.technologyreview.com/view/429566/nathan-myhrvolds-cunning-plan-to-prev
ent-3-d/
63 Michael Weinberg, It Will Be Awesome if T hey Dont Screw it Up: 3D Printing, Intellectual Property, and the Fight Over the
Next Great Dis- ruptive Technology, Public Knowledge, November 2010. http://www.publicknowledge.org/it-will-be-aw
esome-if-they-dont-screw-it-up
64 Communication with Shapeways 3 0 August 2 0 12.
65 Chris Anderson, Makers: T he New Industrial r evolution (New York: Crown Business, 2 0 12), p. 210.
66 FormLabs Day 2 646 backers, $924,858, 10 times target, 28 days to go, 3D Printing News and T rends,
Howard Smith blog, 28 September 2012. http://3dprintingreviews.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/formlabs-day-2-646-backers-92
4858-10.html See also: F ORM 1: An affordable, professional 3D printer, Kickstarter,
http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/formlabs/form-1-an-affordable-professional3d-printer F ormlabs rased a total of $2.9 million on Kickstarter.
67 RepRap: T he 3D printer thats heading for your home, TechRepublic, 7 March 2 0 12. http://www.techrepublic
.com/blog/european-technology/reprap-the-3d-printer-thats-heading-for-your-home/229
31

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C LE A DIN G E D G E F O R U M

note
s

68 Experimental Crowd-derived Combat-support Vehicle (XC2V) Design Challenge, Challenge.gov. http://


challenge.gov/DoD/129-experimental-crowd-derived-combat-support-vehicle-xc2v-design-challenge
69 Local Motors Builds Crowd-Sourced XC2V Flypmode Combat Vehicle, E dmunds Inside Line, 28 June
20 11. http://www.insideline.com/car-news/local-motors-builds-crowd-sourced-xc2v-flypmode-combat-v
ehicle.html
70 Simon Wardley, Learning from Web 2.0 E xecutive Summary, L eading E dge F orum E xecutive P rogramme, January
20 12, p.4. http://lef.csc.com/assets/3535
71 K.P. K arunakaran et al., Hybrid Rapid Manufacturing of Metallic Objects, 14mes A ssises Europennes du
P rototypage & F abrication Rapide, 24-25 June 2 0 0 9 , p.6. http://code80.net/afpr/content/assises/2 0 09/actes_aepr200
9/papiers/s3_2.pdf
72 3D Printer with Nano-Precision: Ultra-high-resolution 3D Printer B reaks Speed-Records at Vienna University of
Technology, Vienna University of T echnology, 12 March 2 0 12, http://www.tuwien.ac.at/en/news/news_detail/article/74 4
4/;
and Small but perfectly formed: Scientists use worlds fastest 3D printer to create amazingly detailed F1 car (... that
measures just 0 .3MM), Mail Online, 13 March 2 0 12,
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2114497/Scientists-use-worlds-fastest-3D-printer-create-amazingly
-detailed-F1-car.html
73

Ibid.

74

Objet Connex500, http://objet.com/3d-printers/connex/objet-connex500

75

Filabot Personal Filament Maker for 3D Printers, http://filabot.com/

76

Filabot: Plastic Filament Maker, http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/rocknail/filabot-plastic-filament-maker

77

W ohlers Report 2011: Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry, p.
237. http://www.wohlersassociates.com/2011contents.htm

78 Footwear Customization 3.0: T he Fi r s t Rapid Manufactured Shoe, Mass


Customization & Open Innovation News,
24 October 2006. http://mass-customization.blogs.com/mass_customization_open_i/
2 0 06/10/footwear_custom.html
79 3D-Printed Airbike Is As S trong As Your Aluminium Bike, Gizmodo Australia, 8 March
20 11. http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2011/03/3d-printed-airbike-is-as-strong-as-y
our-aluminium-bike/
All figures used with
80 First 3D Printed Plane Takes Flight, Daily Bits, 1 August 2 0 11. http://www.dailybits.c
permission.
om/fi rst-3d-printed-plane-takes-flight/
81 3D Printed Hovering Ornithopters, Cornell Creative Machines Lab, http://creativemachines.
cornell.edu/ornithopter

a ppenDix: f u r t h e r
r e a Di n g

82 NAS As New Innovation Mission, CIO.com, 27 July 2 0 12. http://www.cio.com/article/7114


37/NASA_s_New_Innovation_Mission

F or those interested in keeping up with the latest developments in the 3D printing world, the following provide
great reading.
3D Printer: http://www.3dprinter.net/author/
mark
3D Printer Blogs: http://3dprinterblogs.c
om/
3D Printing News and Trends (Howard Smith,

F abbaloo: http://fabbaloo.com/
Its a 3D World: http://blog.objet.c
om/
Singularity Hub: http://singularityhub.c
om/
Makers: T he New Industrial r evolution, by Chris
Anderson

CSC): http://3dprintingreviews.blogspot.com

32

3D Printing and the Future of


Manufacturing

C S C L E A D ING E D G E F O R U M

a c k n o w LeDg m
e n ts

and

operations

across

Asia

Pacific

as

well

as

management of the local researchers and associates. A


3D printer hobbyist, he designed a cycling GPS holder
and printed the e-reader stand shown in Figure 18. v
srinivasan@csc.com
j arro d is a senior consultant specializing in the mining
and metals industry. He works with tier-one global
companies to
technology

develop
solutions

innovative
that

business

directly

and

improve

the

productivity, efciency and safety of their operations.


Jarrod recognizes the potential for 3D printing to one
v ive k

s riniva s a n

(left)

and

j arro d

day

b a ss a n

solve

the

supply

and

logistics

prob- lems

(right) con- ducted the research for 3D Printing.

related to maintaining complex mining equipment in

T his work has fur- thered their understanding of

extremely remote locations. He has an interest in

the potential opportuni- ties of this new technology

robotics and has previously competed in international

and how it can be leveraged across industries.

competitions with

a team of autonomous

soccer-

playing robots, which in part spurred his interest in 3D


v iv e k is a regional manager for CSCs L eading E dge

printing. jbassan@csc.com
Combining
their passion

F orum Executive Programme, a global research and

emerging technologies and their experience in the

advisory

mining

service

that

explores

new

thinking

and

for

the

application

of

industry, Vivek and Jarrod have co-authored

develops next practice road- maps that address the

past works such as Th e Augmented Mine Worker

major challenges at the intersection of business, IT and

Applications

management.

Vivek works with clients to use recent

day in the life of a mine worker in 2025 for the

research in resolving their most pressing business

Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Vivek

issues.

and Jarrod are based in Melbourne, Australia.

Vivek

is

also

responsible

for

business

of

Augmented r eality in Mining and A

development
T he L E F thanks the many others who contributed to 3D Printing. Special thanks go to g o r d o n F u L L E r
for his manufacturing expertise and business perspective, and to L i s a b r a u n for her writing and
editorial work.

Nigel B rockbank, r MIT University


Bob Hayward, CSC
Bruce Jackson, 3D Printing
S ystems

Dermid McKinley, Tasman


Machinery
David Moschella, CSC

S teven Keating, MIT Media L ab

Dominic Parsonson, Tasman


Machinery

Jim Kor, KOr E coLogic

Gabriel Rangel, NAS A Jet

Jennifer L ewis, University of


Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

P ropulsion L aboratory
Jon Schreiber, CSC

33

Howard Smith, CSC


Tom Soderstrom, NAS A
Jet P ropulsion
L aboratory
Simon Wardley, CSC
Terry Wohlers, Wohlers
Associates, Inc.

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