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Speaking skills: Two basic

aspects.

Motor-receptive skills.

Interaction skills

Speaking skills

speaking skills are best developed


when learners learn eventually to take
control of their own performance from
an insider perspective, rather than
being constantly dictated to by outsider
manipulation. (p.375)

many coursebooks activities composed


according to the writers own assumptions often
do not work well in the real classroom (p. 376).

Methodological Trends

Is there any relationship between


Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and
materials development for speaking skills?

What can you say about structural approach and communicative


approach in relation to syllabus design and teaching?

Methodological Trends
Structural
Approach

Linguistic system
(mid 1960s)
Mechanical

Communicative
Approach

Effective and
meaningful
activities

Combined
Approach

Communicativ
e criteria &
systematic
practice.

I. Mechanical Rehearsal.
Describe this livingroom
There is (isnt)/There are (arent) sofa, TV, armchair, cushion(s),
coffe table, lamp, window.

II. Exchange of factual information.


Picture description
Students work in pairs. Each student is given a picture (A
or B) and they ask each other questions.

Picture A

Picture B

III. Personal opinions.


Picture Description
What can you say about the picture? (Location, actions,
characters, story behind, etc)

A Proposed Framework for


Developing Materials for
Spoken Language

1. Conceptualizing learner needs.

2. Identifying subject matter and


communications situations.

3. Identifying verbal communication


strategies.

4. Utilizing verbal sources from real life.

5. Designing skill-acquiring activities.

1. Conceptualizing
Learner Needs

Involving learners

in the process of
developing
materials and giving
them a voice in their
materials p. 382

2. Identifying Subject
Matter and
Communication
Situations

The more learners


state their needs,
the more
appropriately the
subject matter can
be established
p.382. Similarly, the
learners imply,
directly or indirectly,
the type of
environment where
the language is
learnt.

3A. Identifying Verbal


Communication
Strategies

Conversational
strategies must be
incorporated in
teaching materials
because they are
essential tools to
serve the
communication of
meanings p. 382.
At the same, we
must realize that
spoken language is
flexible and
temporary and that
imperfection can be
tolerated as part of
the interactive
process.

3B. Identifying Verbal


Communication
Strategies

Bygate (1987)
suggests five
devices:

Using less complex


syntax
Making do with
short phrases and
incomplete
sentences.
Employing fixed
conversational
phrases.
Adding filler words
to gain time to
speak.
Correcting or
improving what one

4. Utilizing Verbal
Sources from Real Life

Implementing and
modifying materials
helps bridge the gap
between plans and
effects p.383.
Besides, many
verbal interactions
taken from real life
can be utilized in the
classroom.

5. Designing skillacquiring activities

..the decisive step


is to create relevant
tasks that help
learners in three
essential aspects: to
acquire new
language, to learn
rules of interaction
and to experience
communication of
meanings. P. 383

A Rationale for effective


materials for speaking
skills

Focus on both sharing and processing


information

Respect for learner control of meanings

Potential for a range of learner choices

Concern for learner affectivity

Utilization of individual knowledge

Utilization of ellipsis in spoken language

Aspects that deserve


more attention

The need for reflexion of learner identity

The need for cultural localization of materials