Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

Reproductive Hormones

Reproductive Hormones
Sex hormones are synthesized from
cholesterol (a fatty acid) and secreted
throughout a person's lifetime at different
levels.
Male gonads (testes) produce sperm.
Female gonads (ovaries) produce egg.
Fusion of egg and sperm occur via
fertilization to produce a zygote.
The zygote undergoes division to become
an embryo, which eventually becomes a
fetus.

Male Reproductive System

Male Reproductive System

Sex hormones: androsterone and testosterone.


Functions of Testosterone:
Testosterone is a male hormone which is produced by
the testes.once a boy reaches puberty. It triggers the
changes in a boy's body which turn him from a boy to
a man.
* Functions of androsterone:
The function of the androsterone receptor protein is
to stimulate transcription of certain genes in
response to a hormone signal.

Male Reproductive System


Hypothalamus and pituitary gland control
production of sperm and sex hormones in the
testes.
Anterior pituitary produces and stores:
The anterior pituitary produces six major
hormones, and the posterior pituitary stores
two hormones originating in the hypothalamus.
The pituitary's target endocrine glands are the
thyroid, adrenal gland, and the gonads.
Through these glands it Controls on the
development of sexual organs and Physical
properties that distinguish men from women
sound and body shape and size.

Male Reproductive System


At puberty, hypothalamus secretes
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
GnRH activates anterior pituitary to release
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and
Luteinizing hormone (LH).
LH stimulates the development of the
testes.
FSH activates the testes' sperm-forming cells"

Once high levels of testosterone are


detected by the hypothalamus, a negative
feedback system is activated.
Testosterone inhibits LH production by the
pituitary by deactivating the hypothalamus.

Male Reproductive System

Negative Feedback for


FSH and LH.

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

Sex hormones:
Estrogen
Progesterone

Female Reproductive System


Oogenesis and Ovulation
Ovaries contain fibrous CT and groups of
cells called follicles.
Follicles: Primary oocyte (undergoes
meiosis to form ovum) and granulosa
cells (provides nutrition for oocyte).
Each ovary contains 400 000 follicles at
pubertymany develop during each cycle,
but only one reaches maturity.

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

FSH & LH released.


FSH stimulates growth of an ovarian body
LH also promotes growth of the corpus luteum (a yellow,
progesterone-secreting mass of cells that forms from an
ovarian follicle after the release of a mature egg) as the
ovary prepares to release the egg into the uterus.
Granulosa cells divide.
Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I to form a secondary
oocyte and polar body.
As granulosa cells grow around the secondary oocyte, a
fluid-filled cavity forms (antrum).
Secondary oocyte presses against and eventually
ruptures the ovarian wall.

Female Reproductive System


Secondary oocyte released from ovary
and enters fallopian tubes.
Remaining follicle cells form the corpus
luteum.
If pregnancy does not occur within 10
days, the corpus luteum degenerates and
leaves a scar (corpus albicans).

Female Reproductive System


After ovulation, the secondary oocyte
begins meiosis II.
Unequal division occurs to form an egg
(ovum) and a polar body.
Overallone primary oocyte becomes 1
ovum and 3 polar bodies (discarded).

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System


Menstrual Cycle
28 days.
4 phases:

menstruation
follicular
ovulation
luteal

Female Reproductive System


Flow Phase (days 1 to 5)
Shedding of endometrium (menstruation).
Used to mark beginning of menstrual
cycle.

Female Reproductive System


Follicular Phase (days 6 to 13)
Development of follicles in ovary.
Estrogen secreted.
Triggers

thickening of endometrium.

Female Reproductive System


Ovulatory Phase (day 14)
Secondary oocyte released from ovary.
Corpus luteum develops.

Female Reproductive System


Luteal Phase (days 15 to 28)
Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and
progesterone.
Progesterone

continues to stimulate growth of


endometrium and prepares uterus for an
embryo.

Female Reproductive System


If fertilization of ovum does not occur,
concentration of estrogen and
progesterone decreases.
Weak uterine contractions cause
endometrium to pull away from uterine
wall.
The shedding of the endometrium marks
the beginning of the next cycle.

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive
System

FSH & LH regulate control


of estrogen and
progesterone.
Estrogen and progesterone
control the FSH & LH.

*Males and females both have male and


female sex hormones, but in varying
levels.

::





: .