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Sizing Of

Pressure Relief Valves

Must Consider The


One Worst Case Scenario
Blocked Discharge
External Fire
Thermal Expansion
Runaway Reaction
Tube Rupture In Heat Exchanger
2

Basic Sizing Procedure


Establish Set Pressure Of PRV
Determine Required Relief Capacity
Select PRV Size That Will Flow At Least
That Capacity

Orifice Area
AN = AREA OF DN
(NOZZLE DIAMETER),
OR
AC = CIRCUM. OF DN X
LIFT,

[CURTAIN
AREA]

WHICHEVER

DN
LIFT

IS SMALLER

Gas/Vapor Sizing
Sonic Flow - Generally When Set Pressure > 15 psig [1.03 barg]
=

Per API 520, Section 3.6.2.1


ENGLISH UNITS

V TZM
A=
6.32 CKdP1 Kb Kc
OR
W

METRIC UNITS

35,250 V TZM
A=
CKdP1 KbKc
OR
13,160 W

TZ

A=
CKdP1 KbKc

A=
CKdP1

K K

TZ
M

Formula Symbols
A
P1
V
W
Z
C
Kd
Kc

Calculated Orifice Area


Inlet Flowing Pressure [P1= Pset + Pover + Patm]
Volumetric Flow Rate
Mass Flow Rate
Compressibility Factor (if unknown, assume Z=1)
Gas Constant (if unknown, assume C=315)

T
M

Relieving Temperature
Molecular Weight

Coefficient Of Discharge

Combination Correction for installation with


rupture disc
[Kc = 0.90 with rupture disc , Kc = 1 w/o
rupture disc]
Kb
Back Pressure Factor

Units
ENGLISH

A
P1
V
W
Z
C
KD
K
T
M

in2
psia
SCFM
lb/hr

R = F + 460

METRIC

mm2
kPaa
Nm3/min
kg/hr

K = C + 273

Compressibility Factor, Natural Gas, 0.60


S.G.
1.2

(Example)

T = F [C]
500 [260]
400 [204]
300 [149]
200 [93]
100 [38]
0 [-18]

1.1
1.0

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

MW = 17.40
(0.6 sp gr)
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
[34] [69] [103] [138] [172] [207] [241] [276] [310] [345]

PRESSURE, psig [barg]


8

C = 520
400

k k+1

k+1

k-1

380
360

C
340
320
1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS, k =

CP
CV
9

Typical Properties of Gases


Molecular C k, Ratio Of
Weight FactorSpecific Heats

Gas
ACETYLENE
AIR
AMMONIA
..
..
N-BUTANE
NATURAL GAS (0.60)
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
PENTANE
PROPANE
PROPYLENE
STEAM

26
29
17

58
18.9
28
32
72
44
42
18

343
356
348

326
344
356
356
323
330
332
348

1.26
1.40
1.31

1.09
1.27
1.40
1.40
1.07
1.13
1.15
1.31

If Gas/Vapor Is Unknown, Use: C = 315


10

Effect Of Back Pressure On Lift


The manufacturer should be consulted for applicable
correction factor
100

Pilot Operated PRV

90

Kb
% Rated
Lift

Balanced Bellows
Spring Operated PRV

80
70

Conventional
Spring Operated
PRV

60
50

10

20

30

40

50

90

100
11

API 520 Effective Nozzle


Coefficient of Discharge
Use 0.975 for Gas Service (Kd =0.975)
Use API 526 Standard for Orifice Size
API Considers This PRELIMINARY Sizing

12

In 1962 The ASME Section VIII


Code Was Revised, Requiring
That K
Be Used In Sizing Calculations
(10% Safety Factor) Instead of
Kd
13

FOR SONIC GAS FLOW


W = CKAP

M
TZ

The NB Allows Published Deviations From K And A


Values In The Red Book. However - Advertised KA = ASME KA (Per NB Red Book)

[The NB Red Book is Pressure Relief Device Certifications Published


Bi-Annually By The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.]

Page

14

Since 1962, Most PRV Manufacturers


Have Overstated Their K Values
And Understated Their A Values.

Page

15

API vs ASME Orifice Areas


AGC JOS-E Series
API
Designation

API [in2 ]

ASME / NB
cert. [in2 ]

API
Designation

API [in2 ]

0.110

0.124

1.287

0.196

0.221

1.838

0.307

0.347

2.853

3.221

0.503

0.567

3.600

4.065

0.785

0.887

4.340

4.900

Page

ASME / NB
cert. [in2 ]
1.453
2.076

16

Example: Gas Service


J ORIFICE (API = 1.287 in2)
[8.303 cm2]
NATIONAL BOARD

CATALOG

A, in2 [cm2]

KA

A, in2 [cm2]

KA

FARRIS
POPRV

0.859

1.430
[9.226]

1.228
[7.925]

0.953

1.287
[8.303]

1.226
[7.910]

CONSOLID.
DSOPRV

0.855

1.496
[9.652]

1.279
[8.252]

0.95

1.287
[8.303]

1.223
[7.888]

AG/C
POPRV
(MARK II)

0.877

1.496
[9.652]

1.312
[8.464]

0.975

1.287
[8.303]

1.255
[8.095]

Page

17

Sizing Information
When selecting orifice areas and nozzle coefficients,
either select the ASME area and nozzle coefficient, or
the equivalent API area and nozzle coefficient.
Mixing ASME and API values is incorrect and may
result in a dangerous sizing error.

Page

18

PRV With Rupture Disc At Its Inlet


Do PRV Calculation,
Then
Apply The Combination Factor For That Model
PRV And That Model And Material Of RD * As
Established By National Board Testing.

Or
De-rate PRV Capacity By 10%.
*

(As Listed In Back Of The National Board Red Book)

19

Subsonic Flow for Gas/Vapor


P1 < 15 psig (1.03 barg) - Non ASME Coded
Valve
ENGLISH UNITS

A=

ZTM

4645 FKdKc P1 (P1

METRIC UNITS

A=

P2) OR

FKDKc

ZTM

P1(P1-P2)

OR

W
A=

47.95 V

ZT

735 FKDKc

MP1(P1-P2)

17.9 W
A=

FKD Kc

ZT

MP1(P1-P2)

20

Subsonic Flow for Gas/Vapor


F = Subsonic flow factor

F=

k
k-1

) [P( ) P - ( )
P2
1

2
k

P2
1

k+1
k

Where :
K = Ratio of Specific Heats
P1 = Inlet Flowing Pressure [P1 = Pset + Pover Ploss +
Patm ]
P2 = Pressure at Valve outlet [P2 = Pback + Patm ]

21

0.55

F Factor

0.50

AG/C
Series 90
And 9000

0.45

k = 1.90
k = 1.40
k = 1.00

0.40

0.35

0.30
0.25
0.20

0.15
0.10
1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

P2
= Absolute Pressure Ratio
P1

22

Sonic Flow - Steam


Per API 520 Section 3.7.1

ENGLISH UNITS

W
A=
51.5 P1Kd KSH KN Kb Kc

METRIC UNITS [

190.4 W
A=
P1Kd KSH KN Kb Kc

= Orifice Area, in2 [mm2]

W = Flow Rate lbs/hr [kg/hr]


Kd = Coefficient Discharge
K = Superheat Correction Factor
SH

KN = High Pressure Correction Factor


(over 1600 psig [110 barg])
= Back Pressure Factor
Kb
= Rupture Disc Combination Correction
Kc
Set + Overpressure + Atmospheric P, psia [k
=
P1
23

KSH Superheat Correction Factor


Set Sat.
(ENGLISH)
Total Steam Temperature, oF
Pres. Steam
o
psig
F 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520
15
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
350
400
450
500

250 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
259 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
287
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
308
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.94
324
1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95
338
1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95
350
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95
361
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95
371
1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96
380
1.00 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.96
388
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96
395
1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97
403
1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97
409
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.97
416
1.00 0.99 0.98
422
1.00 1.00 0.99
436
1.00 0.99
448
1.00
460
1.00
470

0.9
3
0.9
3
0.9
3
0.9
3
0.9
3
0.9
4
0.9
4
0.9
4
0.9
4
0.9
5
0.9
5
0.9
5
0.9

0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.99

24

KSH Superheat Correction Factor


SET
SAT.
PRES. STEAM
o
barg
C 138
1.03 121 1.00
1.38 126 1.00
2.76 142
4.14 153
5.52 162
6.90 170
8.27 177
9.65 183
11.0 188
12.4 193
13.8 198
15.2 202
16.6 206
17.9 210
19.3 213
20.7 217
24.1 225
27.6 231
31.0 238
34.5 243

TOTAL STEAM TEMPERATURE, oC


149
1.00
1.00
1.00

160
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

171
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

182
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00

193
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

205
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

216
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

227
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00

238
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00

[METRIC]
249
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00

260
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
0.99

271
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.99

25

Liquid Flow
Per API 520 Sec 3.8.1

ENGLISH UNITS

11.78 Q

A=
38 Kd KW KCKV

METRIC UNITS

P 1 - P2

A=
K d K W K CK V

P 1 - P2

A = Orifice Area, in2 [mm2]


Q = Reqd Capacity, USGPM [liters/min]
KW = Backpressure Correction Factor
Kc =
=
KV
=
P1
=
P2

Rupture Disc Combination Factor


Viscosity Correction Factor (Assume 1.0)

Set + Overpressure - Inlet Pressure Loss, psig [


Back Pressure, psig [kPag]
26

Determining
Kv Viscosity Correction Factor
WHERE:
ENGLISH UNITS R = Reynolds Number
2800 G Q
A = Next Larger Orifice Area Than
R=
A
12,700 Q
R=

U A

Calculated, Assuming Kv = 1.0, in2 [mm

G = Specific Gravity

Q = Required Capacity, USGPM [liters/min]


= Absolute Viscosity (Centipoises)

METRIC UNITS
31,313 G Q
R=
A

U = Viscosity (Saybolt Seconds Universal)

27

Kv Viscosity Correction Factor


1.0
0.9
0.8

KV 0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
100

1,000

Reynolds's Number

10,000

100,000
28

If Kv = 1.0, Calculation is
complete
If Kv < 1.0, Repeat calculation
until Kv
does not change

29

API 520 Effective Nozzle


Coefficient of Discharge
Use 0.65 for Liquid Service
Use API 526 Standard for Orifice Size
API Considers This PRELIMINARY Sizing

30

Liquid Thermal Expansion Relief


BH
GPM =
500 G C
GPM = Flow Rate (gal./min.)
B = Cubicle Expansion Coefficient Per F
H = Total Heat Transfer Rate (btu/hr)
G = Specific Gravity
C = Specific Heat (btu/lb/F)
Per API 521, Section 3.14

31

Fire Sizing
The Procedure Used In Fire Sizing Depends On The Codes
And Engineering Practices Applied At Each Installation.
Some Procedures That May Be Used For Fire Sizing:

API RP 521, PART Recommended


1
Practices For The Design
And Installation Of Pressure Relieving
=
Systems In Refineries. (SET
15 psig [1.03 ba
>
API 2000Venting Atmospheric And Low Pressure
Storage Tanks (SET < 15 psig [1.03 barg])

32

API 521(Fire) Unwetted Vessels


F AS
A=
P1

GAS

(SET

=
15 psig [1.03 barg])
>

F = Environment /Operating Factor


0.042 (Conservative; Relates To Bare
Vessel Metal Temperature At Relief)
As = Total Exposed Surface Area Of Vessel,

P1 = Set Pressure + Allowable Overpressur


(21%) + 14.7, psia
A = Calculated PRV Orifice Area, in2
Reference API 521, Section 3.15
33

API RP521, Part 1 F Operating Factor


700
600

k = 1.001

F Gas

500
400
300

k = 1.4
Conservative

200
100
0
0.005

0.015

0.025

0.035

0.045

0.055

Operating Factor, F
34

API RP521 (Fire) Wetted Vessels


Q = 21,000 F(Awet)0.82
Q = Total Heat Input To Wetted
Surface Of Vessel, btu/hr

LIQUID

F = 1.0 (Assumes No Vessel Insulation)


A = Total Vessel Wetted Surface, ft2
(Up To 25 Ft. Above Ground Level
Or, In The Case Of A Sphere, To The
Elevation Of Largest Diameter Whichever Is Greatest)
Reference API 521, Section 3.15
35

Total Vessel Wetted Surface, ft2, Up To 25 ft. Above


Ground Level Or, In The Case Of A Sphere, To The Elevation
Of Largest Diameter, Whichever Is Greater.
Sphere

Vertical
Vessel
Horizontal
Vessel

Max.
Dia.

25 ft.

Ground
36

API 521 (Fire) Wetted Vessels


W=

Q
Hvap

W = Required Valve Capacity, lb/hr


Q = Total Heat Input to Wetted Surface, BTU/hr
Hvap = Latent Heat of Vaporization, BTU/lb
Examples : Ammonia
Butane
CO2
Methane
Water

589
150
219
970

166

37

Api 521 (Fire) Wetted Vessels


Use Vapor Equations to Calculate Required Orifice Area
Use the Boiling Temperature of the Liquid (Flash to Vapor)
If known , we suggest using 200oF [93oC]

ENGLISH UNITS

13,160 W

TZ

A=
CKdP1Kb Kc

METRIC UNITS

TZ

A=
CKdP1 KbKc

38

API 2000(Fire) - Surface Area <


2
2800
SCFM ft
SCFM

A, ft2

AIR

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
200
250
300

352
527
702
878
1053
1228
1403
1580
1780
2100
2450
2800
3167
3517
2983
4417

A, ft2

AIR

350
4800
400
5200
500
5900
600
6533
700
7133
800
7700
900
8217
1000
8733
1200
9283
1400
9783
1600
10,233
1800
10,650
2000
11,033
2400
11,733
2800
12,367
over 2800use formula

Using the calculated, required,


relief valve capacity and set
pressure, use air capacity tabl
(10% overpressure) in catalogs
to select orifice area and
valve size. For set pressures
15 psig and below, be sure
to use the actual KD

KD =ASME K
0.90

Reference: API 2000, Sections


1.5.2 and 2.3

39

ASME Sec. VIII

UG-125(c1), UG-134(a)

Set Pressure Blowdown Operating Gap


Multiple Valves

Single Valve

Max Accumulation

16%
Max Accumulation

10%
Max Set

5%

(Blowdown)

MAWP
95%

7%

10% Operating Gap

10%

90%
25%

85%
80%
75%

General

Mfg.
Prov.
Cert.

5%

All Other
Cert. Testing

Compressible Fluid

Max Operating

Set Pressure Tolerance:


< 70 psi, + 2 psi
>70 psi, + 3%

Non-Compressible
Fluid

40

ASME Sec. VIII UG-125 (c2), UG-134 (b)


Set Pressure Blowdown Operating Gap
Multiple Valves

External Fire

Max Accumulation

Max Accumulation

21%
10%

Single Valve

Max Set

(Blowdown)

MAWP
10% Operating Gap

10%

90%

Comp.
Fluid

85%
80%
75%

25%

Max Operating

Non-Comp.
Fluid

Set Pressure Tolerance:


< 70 psi, + 2 psi
>70 psi, + 3%

41