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MULTIPLE

EFFECT
EVAPORATOR
Ambal. Shaira B.
Mallari, Donna Joy R.
Mauhay, Romariz
Morquianos, Almira Belle
Nopre, Frederick
Group III
ChE-5102

Outline
Introduction
Multiple Effect Evaporator
Working Principle
Uses
Advantages and Disadvantages

Methods of Feeding
Forward Feed
Backward Feed
Mixed Feed
Parallel Feed

Capacity and Economy


Equipment Description
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator

Introduction
Evaporation is a unit operation that
consists of the elimination of water of
a fluid food by means of vaporization or
boiling.

Evaporation is used for concentration


of aqueous solutions, it involves removal
of water from solution by boiling the liquor
in suitable vessel called evaporator
and withdrawing the vapor

Evaporator
Evaporators are used to separate materials
based on differences in their boiling
temperatures.
An evaporator is essentially a heat
exchanger in which a liquid is boiled to give
a vapour, which also acts as a low pressure
steam generator.
An evaporator is hence treated as a low
pressure boiler, and the steam thus
produced is used for further heating in
another following evaporator called another
effect.

Evaporator
Vapor out

Vaccum for non


condensable
Coolant
In
Condensor Coolant
out
unit

Feed in

Vapor
Separat
or

Steam in
(Saturated
vapor)

Heat
Exchanger

Condensate
out
(Saturated
Liquid)
Product
out

Multiple Effect Evaporation


The energy consumption to
evaporate an aqueous solution is
fairly significant; therefore, in order
to reduce the energy cost, systems
such as multiple effect evaporation
and thermal vapour recompression
are often used. The steam
consumption of the evaporator unit
can be reduced by using the vapour
from the first chamber to heat the

MULTIPLE-EFFECT EVAPORATORS

A multiple-effect evaporator
is an apparatus for efficiently
using the heat from steam to
evaporate water. In a multipleeffect
evaporator,
water
is
boiled in a sequence of
vessels, each held at a lower
pressure than the last.

Multiple Effect Evaporator

The multiple-effect
evaporator was invented
by the African-American
engineer Norbert

Rillieux.

Norbert Rillieux Design

MULTIPLE-EFFECT EVAPORATORS
Equipment in which steam
from an outside source is
condensed in the heating
element of first effect. The
boiling temperature at which
the first effect operates is high
enough so that the evaporated
water can serve as the heating
medium for second effect. The
vapors so formed are then sent
to a condenser if it is a double
effect evaporator

Working Principle
Water is boiled in a sequence of vessels, each
held at a lower pressure than the last.
Connections are made so that the vapor from
one effect serves as the heating medium for
the next.
The first effect of a multiple-effect evaporator
is the effect to which the raw steam is fed
and in which the pressure in the vapor space
is the highest.
Generally the first vessel (at the highest
pressure) requires an external source of heat

Working Principle
Because the boiling point of water
decreases as pressure decreases, the
vapour boiled off in one vessel can
be used to heat the next.
The last effect is that in which the
vapor-space pressure is minimum.
The pressure in each effect is lower
than that of the effect to which it
supplies vapor.

Working Principle
Each effect acts as a single effect
evaporator, and each has a
temperature drop across its heating
surface corresponding to the
pressure drop in that effect.
The numbering of the effects is
independent of the order in which
the liquor is fed to them, they are
always numbered in the direction of
decreasing pressure.

Why do we need a multiple effect


evaporator?
Need
Reduces transportation cost
Storage costs
Prepare for the next Unit operation
drying,
crystallisation etc.
Reduces deteriorative chemical
reactions
Better microbiological stability
Recovery of solvent

METHODS OF FEEDING
A. FORWARD FEED

The usual method of feeding by pumping the thin


liquid into the first effect and send it turn through the
other effects.
The concentration of the liquid increases from the first
effect to the last.
This pattern of liquid flow is the simplest.

CHARACTERISTICS AND ADVANTAGES


Flows of process fluid and steam are parallel
No pumps are needed to move solution from effect to
effect
Most concentrated solution is subjected to the coolest
temperature which is helpful in preventing decomposition of
organics
DISADVANTAGES
All heating of cool feed is done on the first effect, so that
less vapor is generated here for each pound of steam,
resulting in lower economy
High viscosity in final effect sharply reduces coerfficient of
heat transfer

B. BACKWARD FEED

Another common method in which dilute liquid is feed to the


last effect and then pumped through the successive effects to
the first.
This method requires a pump between each pair of effects in
addition to the thick-liquor pump, since the flow is from low to
high pressure.
This method often gives a higher capacity than forward feed
when the thick liquor is viscous, but may give a lower economy
when the feed liquor is cold.

CHARACTERISTICS AND ADVANTAGES


The process solution flows counter to the steam flow
The feed solution is heated as it enters each effect, which
usually results in better economy than the forward feed.
The viscosity is reduced because the concentrated solution
evaporates at the highest temperature
DISADVANTAGES
Pumps are required between effects
Organic materials tend to char and decompose in the final
effect which is the first effect

C. MIXED FEED

The dilute liquid enters an intermediate effect, flows in


forward feed to the end of the series, and is then pumped
back to the previous effect from where it is fed, undergoes
backward feed up to the first effect for final concentration.
Eliminates some of the pumps needed in backward feed
and yet permits the final evaporation to be done at the highest
temperature.

D. PARALLEL EFFECT

Used in crystallizing evaporators, where a slurry of


crystals and mother liquor is withdrawn, feed may be
admitted directly to each effect.
There is no transfer of liquid from one effect to another.

CAPACITY AND ECONOMY OF MULTIPLEEFFECT EVAPORATORS


The total capacity of a multiple effect evaporator is
usually no greater than that of a single-evaporator having a
heating surface equal to one of the effects and operating
under the same terminal conditions.
When the BPE is negligible
Ttotal = T1 + T2 + T3 ...
And the amount of water evaporated / unit area in an N-effect
multiple-effect evaporator is approximately equal to (1/N)th
that in the single effect.

ANALYSIS
If the heating load and the heat of dilution are neglected,
the capacity of an evaporator is directly proportional to the
rate of heat transfer.
In three effects,
q1 = A1U1T1

q12 = A2U2T2

q3 = A3U3T3

The total capacity is proportional to the total rate of the


heat transfer qT, found by adding these equations.
qT = q1 + q2 + q3 = A1U1T1 + A2U2T2 + A3U3T3
Assume that the surface area is A m2 in each effect and
the overall coefficient U is also the same in each effect.
qT = AU(T1 + T2 + T3)

Therefore,
qT = AUT
which is exactly the same equation as that for the multipleeffect evaporator. No matter how many effects are used,
provided that overall coefficients are the same, the capacity
will be no greater than that of a single effect having an area
equal to that of each effect in the multiple unit.
BPE tends to make the capacity of a multiple-effect
evaporator less than that of the corresponding single-effect
while changes in overall coefficients in the multiple-effect
evaporator offsets this.

For a triple-effect, U in the third effect = U in a singleeffect evaporator. But in the other effects, where
concentration of solution is lower, the coefficients would be
greater. Thus Uave for the triple-effect evaporator would be
greater than that for a single effect.
In this case, the capacity of a multiple-effect unit is
actually greater than that of a single-effect.
The economy of a multiple-effect evaporator depends on
heat-balance considerations and not on the rate of heat
transfer. The optimum number of effects must be found from
an economic balance between the savings in steam obtained
by multiple-effect operation and the added investment
required.

M U LT I P L E E F F E C T E V A P O R AT O R S

EQUIPMENT
DESCRIPTION

quipment description

(1) Thermal recompression unit, (2) Steam for heating (3) Feed in
(4) Calandria (5) Feed out(6) Vapor Separator (7) Pre-heater(8)
Condenser (9) Cooling water in, (10) Cooling water return

Thermal recompression unit

Uses a sonic nozzle jet and


high pressure steam to
recompress a lower pressure
steam/vapour.
In the live steam nozzle (1) the pressure of
the in-flowing steam is converted into
velocity. A jet is created which draws in the
low pressure vapour.
In the diffuser (2) a fast flowing mixture of
live steam and vapours is formed, the speed
of which is converted into pressure

Calandria evaporator

TheCalandria
Evaporatorhas a heat
exchanger (with tubes
usually less than six
feet long) integral with
the vapour body.

Calandria evaporator
The level is maintained in
the upper portion of the
tubes and the circulation
pattern is up through the
tubes and down through a
central pipe called a
"downcomer".
Circulation is created by the
difference in specific gravity
between the body liquor and
the heated liquor and vapor
generated inside the tubes,
plus a vapour lift effect.

apour-liquid separator

Gravity causes
the liquid to settle to
the bottom of the
vessel.
The vapour travels
upward at a design
velocity which
minimizes
theentrainment of any
liquid droplets in the
vapour as it exits the

e-heater
Pre-heater

is

a device for
preliminary heating of
a material,
substance, or fluid
that will undergo
further use or
treatment by heating.

Condenser

It is an apparatus in which vapour is


condensed within tubes that are
cooled by the evaporation of water
flowing over the outside of the
tubes.

MULTIPLE-EFFECT CALCULATIONS
For triple-effect evaporator. Seven equations may be
written:
enthalphy balance for each effect
capacity equation for each effect
total evaporation (difference between thin- and thick-liquor
rates)
If the amount of heating surface is assumed to be the
same in each effect, seven unknowns are present in these
equations:
rate of steam flow to the first effect
rate of flow from each effect
boiling temperature in the first and second effects
heating surface effect

It is possible to solve these equations for the seven


unknowns but the method of calculation is done by
computer.
Another method of calculation is as follows:
1. Assume values for the boiling temperatures in the first
and second effects.
2. From enthalpy balances find the rates of steam flow and
of liquor from effect to effect.
3. Calculate the heating surface needed in each effect from
the capacity equation.
4. If the heating areas are not nearly equal, estimate new
values for the boiling temperatures and repeat items 2
and 3 until heating surfaces are equal.

Sample Problem:
16.2 A triple-effect evaporator is concentrating a liquid that
has no appreciable elevation in boiling point. The
temperature of the steam to the first effect is 1080C, and
the boiling point of the solution in the last effect is 52 0C.
The overall heat transfer coefficients, in W/m 20C, are 2,500
in the first effect, 2,000 in the second effect, and 1,500 in
the third effect. (As the solution becomes more
concentrated, the viscosity increases and the overall
coefficient is reduced.) At what temperatures will the liquid
boil in the first and second effects?
Ans: 93.70C and 75.80C

16.3 A triple-effect forced-circulation evaporator is to be fed


with 60,000 lb/h (27,215 kg/h) of 10% caustic soda solution
at a temperature 1800F (82.20C). The concentrated liquor is
to be 50% NaOH. Saturated steam at 50lbf/in2 (3.43 atm)
abs is to be used, and the condensing temperature of vapor
from the third effect is to be 1000F (37.80C). The feed order
is II, III, I. Radiation and undercooling of condensate may be
neglected. Estimated overall coefficients corrected for
boiling-point elevation are given in Table 16.2. Calculate (a)
the heating surface required in each effect, assuming equal
surfaces in each, (b) the steam consumption, and (c) the
steam economy.

Solution
The total rate of evaporation is calculated from an overall
material balance, assuming that the solids go through the
evaporator without loss (Table 16.3).
Repeated calculations lead to the temperatures,
enthalpies, and flow rates shown in Table 16.4. Note that the
steam fed to I becomes the condensate from I, the vapor
from I becomes the condensate from II, and the vapor from II
becomes the condensate from III. From these results the
answers to the problems are found to be
(a) Area per effect: 719 ft2 (66.8 m2)
(b) Steam consumption: 19,370 lb/h (8,786 kg/h)
(c) Economy: 48,000/19,370 = 2.48

TABLE 16.2
Effect

Overall Coefficient
Btu/ft2h0F

W/m20C

700

3,970

II

1,000

5,680

III

800

4,540

TABLE 16.3
Material

Flow rate, lb/h


Total

Solid

Water

Feed Solution

60,000

6,000

54,000

Thick Liquor

12,000

6,000

6,000

Water Evaporated

48,000

48,000

TABLE 16.4
Temperatures, enthalpies, and flow rates for Problem 16.3
Stream

Temperature
0
F

Saturation
Temperature
0
F

Steam

281

281

Feed to I

113

Vapor from I

245

Condensate from I

281

Thick Liquor from I

246

Raw feed to II

180

Vapor from II

149

Liquid from II

149

Cindensate from II

170

Vapor from III

114

Concentration,
weight fraction

Enthalpy,
Btu/lb

Flow rate, lb/h

1,174

19,370

68

26,300

1,170

14,300

249

19,370

0.50

249

12,000

0.10

135

60,000

1,126

16,340

101

43,660

138

14,300

1,111

17,360

0.228
170

142
0.137

100

VAPOR RECOMPRESSION
TYPES OF VAPOR RECOMPRESSION
1. MECHANICAL RECOMPRESSION
2. THERMAL RECOMPRESSION
MECHANICAL RECOMPRESSION

- cold feed is preheated almost to its boiling point


- pumped through a heater in a conventional forced-circulation
evaporator
- the vapor evolved is compressed to a somewhat higher pressure
by a positive displacement or centrifugal compressor
- becomes the steam which is fed to the heater
- heat flows from the vapor to the solution, generating more vapor
- optimum temperature drop is 50C
- energy utilization is very good

APPLICATIONS
- production of distilled water from seawater
- evaporation of black liquor in the paper industry
- evaporation of heat-sensitive materials such as
fruit juices
- crystallization of salts having inverted solubility
curves
- falling-film evaporation

THERMAL RECOMPRESSION
-vapor is compressed by acting on it with high-pressure
steam in a jet ejector
- more steam production for boiling solution
- better suited for vacuum evaporation
- jets are cheaper and easier to maintain than blowers and
compressors

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