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CHAPTER 2 PART I

pages :

The Derivative
Faculty of Science & Technology

OUTLINE
The Tangent Line
Definition of The Derivative
Rules for Finding Derivatives
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
The Chain Rule
Higher-Order Derivatives
Implicit Differentiation
Applications of The Derivative
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Tangent Definition
From geometry
a line in the plane of a circle
intersects in exactly one point

We wish to enlarge on the idea to include


tangency to any function, f(x)

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Slope of Line Tangent to a Curve


Approximated by secants
two points of intersection

Let second point get closer and closer to


desired point of tangency

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Animated Secant Line

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Animated Tangent

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Slope of Line Tangent to a Curve


Recall the concept of a limit from
previous chapter
Use the limit in this context

f ( x0 x) f ( x0 )
m lim
x 0
x
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The Slope Is a Limit


Consider f(x) = x3. Find the tangent at
x 0= 2
f (2 x) f (2)
m lim
x 0
x
(2 x)3 23
m lim
x 0
x
8 12x 6(x) 2 (x)3 8
m lim
x 0
x
Now finish
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Definition of Derivative
The derivative is the formula which
gives the slope of the tangent line at
any point x for f(x)

f ( x0 h) f ( x0 )
f '( x) lim
h 0
h

Note: the limit must exist


no hole
no jump
no pole
no sharp corner
KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

AAderivative
derivativeisisaa limit
limit !!
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Derivative Notation
For the function y = f(x)
Derivative may be expressed as

f '( x) "f prime of x"


dy
"the derivative of y with respect to x"
dx

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Find f (x) using definition.


f ( x) sin x 1
[sin( x h) 1] [sin x 1]
f '( x) lim
h 0
h
sin( x) cos(h) cos( x) sin( h) 1 sin x 1
lim
h 0
h
sin( x)(cos(h) 1) cos( x) sin( h)
lim
h 0
h
(cos(h) 1)
sin( h)

sin( x) lim
cos( x ) lim

0
h

0
h
h

cos( x)
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Differentiability implies continuity.


If the graph of a function has a tangent at
point c, then there is no jump on the
graph at that point, thus is continuous
there.

If f ' c , then f is continuous at c

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A Derivative is a Limit
Therefore, the rules for limits,
essentially become the rules for
derivatives.
Derivative of a sum/difference is the
sum/difference of the derivatives.
Derivative of a product/quotient is the
product/quotient of the derivatives.
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Basic Derivatives
Constant Function
Given f(x) = k
Then f(x) = 0

Power Function
Given f(x) = x n
n 1
f
'(
x
)

x
Then

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d
(k ) 0
dx

d n
x n x n 1
dx

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Basic Derivatives
Identity Function
Given f(x) = x
Then f(x) = 1

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d
( x) 1
dx

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Basic Rules
Constant multiple
Rule

d
d
c

f
(
x
)

f ( x )
dx
dx

Sum Rule

d
d
d
f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )
dx
dx
dx

Difference
Rule

d
d
d
f
(
x
)

g
(
x
)

f
(
x
)


g( x )
dx
dx
dx

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Try It Out
Determine the following

y t 2t 3
y ' 2t 2
2

h( x )

h '( x)
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f ( x) 3 5 x
f '( x) 3

p( x) x
14
11 3
x

p '( x) 3 x

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Product Rule
Consider the product of two functions

f ( x) h( x) k ( x)
It can be shown that

f '( x) h( x) k '( x) k ( x) h '( x)

In words:

The first function times the derivative of the second


plus the second function times the derivative of the
first
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Quotient Rule

When our function is the quotient of two other


functions
p( x)

f ( x)

q( x)

The quotient rule specifies the derivative


f '( x)

In words:

q ( x) p '( x) p ( x) q '( x)

q ( x)

The denominator times the derivative of the numerator


minus the numerator times the derivative of the
denominator, all divided by the square of the denominator

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Just Checking . . .
Find the derivatives of the given functions

p x 2 x3 3 6 3x 2

p ' x 2 x3 3 6 x 6 3 x 2 3 x 2
7x 4
q( x)
5 x2

q ( x)

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5 x 2 7 7 x 4 2 x

5 x

2 2
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Derivatives of Trigonometric
Functions

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Find the derivative of the following


sec x cot x
y
x
2
x(sec x tan x csc x) (sec x cot x)(1)
y'
2
x
2
x sec x tan x x csc x sec x cot x
y'
2
x
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The Chain Rule

Solution: The Chain Rule


Given y = f (u) and u = g (x)
That is y = f(u) = f ( g(x) )

Then

dy dy du

dx du dx

In words:
The derivative of y with respect to x is
the derivative of y with respect to u times
the derivative of u with respect to x
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Chain Rule

2 3

Example given y 8 x 3x
4
2
3
Then y f (u ) u and u 8 x 3 x

f '( x) 3 8 x 3 x
4

32 x

2 3

6 x

dy dy du

dx du dx
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Other Example
Given:
y = (6x3 4x + 7)3
Then u(x) = 6x3 4x + 7
and f(u) = u3
Thus
f(x) = 3(6x3 4x + 7)2(18x2 4)
dy
du
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du
dx
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Find the derivative


Note this is the composition of 3 functions,
therefore there will be 3 pieces to the chain.
3

y sin[( x csc x) ]
y ' cos[( x csc x) ]
3

[5( x csc x) ]
2

(3 x csc x cot x)
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Derivatives of Exponential Functions


Conclusion

Dx a x a x ln(a )

dy dy du

dx du dx
ln a a g ( x ) g '( x)

When y = ag(x)
Use chain rule

Similarly for y = eg(x)

Dx e

g ( x)

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g ( x)

g '( x)
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Derivative of the Log Function


For the natural logarithm ln(x)

1
Dx ln x
x

For the log of a different base log a(x)

1
Dx log a x
ln a x

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What About ln(-x) ?


Consider it a compound function

f ( x) ln( x)
g ( x) x
y f ( g ( x))
Apply the chain rule

1 d ( x) 1
1
Dx ln( x)

1
x dx
x
x
Thus we see
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Dx ln( x) Dx ln( x)
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Differentiate each of the following


functions.

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Higher-Order Derivatives
f = 2nd derivative
f = 3rd derivative
f = 4th derivative, etc
The 2nd derivative is the derivative of
the 1st derivative.
The 3rd derivative is the derivative of
the 2nd derivative, etc
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Alternate Notation
There is some alternate notation for higher
order derivatives as well.
Recall that there was a fractional notation
for the first derivative.
We can extend this to higher order
derivatives :
etc.

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Example :
Find the first four derivatives for each of
the following.

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Solutions :
(a)

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(b)

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Implicit Differentiation
Consider an equation involving both x and y:

x y 49
2

This equation implicitly defines a function in x


It could be defined explicitly

y x 49
2

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( where x 7)
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Differentiate
Differentiate both sides of the equation
each term
one at a time
use the chain rule for terms containing y

For x y 49 we get
2

dy
2x 2 y
0
dx
Now solve for dy/dx
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dy x

dx y
37

Differentiate cont.
dy
Then 2 x 2 y 0
dx

gives us

dy 2 x x

dx 2 y y
We can replace the y in the results with the
explicit value of y as needed
dy
x
This gives us

2
the slope on the
dx
x 49
curve for any
legal value of x
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Second Derivative
Given x2 y2 = 49

x
y'
y

y =??

Substitute

d y y x y '
y =

2
2
dx
y
2

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Find the derivative


sin( xy ) tan( y ) 2 x
dy
dy
2
cos( xy ) ( x y 1) sec
( y ) 2
dx
dx
dy
dy
2
cos( xy ) x y cos( xy ) sec ( y ) 2
dx
dx
dy
( x cos( xy ) sec 2 y ) 2 y cos( xy )
dx
dy
2 y cos( xy )

dx x cos( xy ) sec 2 y
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Applications Of
The Derivative
Refer pages 151-214 : Chapter 3