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Cost-Volume-Profit

Analysis

Introduction:

CVP analysis is a technique that may be used by a

management accountant to evaluate how costs and profits are
affected by changes in the volume of business activities.
Managers are often faced with decision situations involving
sales level, sales mix, selling prices and the right combination
of these factors that will produce acceptable profits.

CVP analysis is a systematic method of examining the

relationship between change in volume (or output) and
changes in sales prices and expenses on the profit of the firm.
It helps in identifying the effect on profit of a specified level of
activity or turnover changes. It enables the management to
change the key variables in CPV relationships and quickly see
the effects on the profit figure.

Techniques of CVP Analysis

The key elements in the CVP analysis are selling prices, sales
volume, variable cost per unit, total fixed costs and the sales
mix (if the firm is dealing with more than one product at a
time).

1.

2.

The Break-Even Analysis

1.Contribution margin
analysis

CM Ratio= selling price-variable cost

100

selling price

As the selling price p.u and the variable cost p.u are assumed to
be constant, the CM p.u also remains constant. Ex: selling price is
Rs.50 and variable cost is Rs.30. So, the CM is Rs.20 p.u. Each unit
sold by the firm generates a contribution of Rs.20, which is
available to recover fixed costs and after they are covered, to
contribute to the profit of the firm.

CM Ratio= 50-30

100

=40%

50

CM Ratio is also known as Profit-Volume Ratio (PV ratio) or

Contribution to sales ratio.

Suppose in the above case, the firm is selling 1000 units and the
fixed cost of operations is Rs.12,000. the contribution margin and
the net profit will be:
CM=Sales*CM Ratio
= (1,000*50)*40%
=Rs.20,000

Net Profit= CM-Fixed Cost

= 20,000-12,000
= Rs.8,000
Now if sales increases by 100 units or Rs.5,000, then the CM as
well as NP both will increase by 40% of Rs.5000 i.e. Rs.2,000.
Verification : CM= sales *CM ratio
=55,000*40%
=Rs.22,000
Net Profit= 22,000-12,000
=Rs.10,000

The CM is the difference btw sales and variable cost.

CM=Sales-VC

Or

VC=sales-CM
Now if sales is 100% and the CM ratio is 40%, the VC Ratio is
(100-40)=60%. So if that sales are increasing by Rs.5,000 then
the VC will also increase by 60% of Rs.5,000 i.e. Rs.3,000. The
existing VC Rs.30,000( 1,000*30) and the new VC will be
Rs.33,000 (1,100*30). So, VC Ratio is defined as :
VC Ratio =100% - CM Ratio

In case, the sales volume is expressed in no. of units, the CM

per unit (called Unit Contribution Margin) is relevant to find out
the total CM.
Total CM = No. of units sold * CM per unit

If sales are given in total money value, the CM Ratio is

relevant.
Total CM= Total sales *CM Ratio

2.Is the
Break
even
analysis
fundamental technique of CVP Analysis. The BE point is the

sales level at which the contribution margin is just equal to the

fixed cost, and the firm has no profit no loss.

Any sales level below the BE Level will therefore result in loss and
sales level above the BE Level will bring profit to the firm.

Net Profit (NP)=

Sales(S)-Variable cost(VC)- fixed cost (F)

or S =

VC+F+NP

No. of units sold (U) *S.P =(no. of units sold*VC p.u) +F+NP
U*S.P

= U*VC+F+NP

written as:
U*S.P= U*VC+F
U(S.P-VC)=F
U

= F
S.P-VC

U=
F
Contribution
p.u

illustration 1:

R Ltd. is selling at present, 8,000 units of a product at a selling

price of Rs. 20 p.u. The variable cost is Rs. 10 p.u and the fixed
costs are Rs.60,000 p.a. The firm can use the BE equation to

i.

What is the BE sales level for the firm?

ii.

How many units the firm must sell to earn a profit of Rs.40,000

iii.

What will be the profit if the fixed costs are reduced by

Rs.10,000 and the variable costs are reduced by 10%.

iv.

What selling price will give a profit of Rs. 40,000 at a sales of

8,000 units.

v.

How much extra sales must be made to meet the extra fixed
cost of Rs.5,000

Solution : i. 6,000 units or Rs.1,20,000; ii. U=10,000; iii. NP=

Rs.38,000;
iv. S.P = Rs. 22.50; v. U=6,500

Margin of safety

A firm may be interested in evaluating and measuring the risk

involved in operating at different volumes. An important measure of
risk, known as Margin Of Safety, is an integral part of CVP Analysis.
The Margin Of Safety is the difference between actual sales (or the
budgeted sales) and the BE sales for a given period. So, the margin
of safety indicates by how much the sales can decrease before the
firm incurs the loss.

In case of R Ltd., the BE sales level was 6,000 units. If the firm is
operating at 6,000 units only, the margin of safety is zero and
decline of even a single unit in sales volume will inflict a loss on the
firm. If the firm expects a sales level of 8,000 units, then it has a
margin of safety of 2,000 (8,000-6,000). The margin of safety can
be presented as a % of sales or as an amount as follows:
Margin of safety =S.P *( actual sales- BE sales)
= Rs.20* (8,000-6,000)
=Rs.40,000

Or margin of safety= expected sales- BE sales

expected sales
=(8,000*20)- (6,000*20)
(8,000*20)

=25%

A firm having large margin of safety is naturally less vulnerable to risk

as compared to a firm having low margin of safety. The general rule
is : the greater the margin of safety, lower the risk and vice versa.

Illustration 2: Two firms A and B Ltd. the sales and cost information
for these 2 firms are given as follows:

A Ltd.

B Ltd.

10,000

10,000

Rs. 20

Rs.20

Rs.15

Rs.10

Fixed cost

Rs.40,000

Rs.90,000

sales (units)

Analyze the cost information.

[the difference in margin of safety can be traced to the fact that the
cost structures of 2 firms is entirely different. B Ltd has higher fixed
cost as compared to A ltd. and the former would suffer losses more
quickly than the latter in case of decrease in sales. This highlights
that margin of safety is an indicator of degree of risk of the co.. If the
firm has high risk as indicated by low margin of safety, foll steps must
be taken to improve the position:

(1) Increasing the overall sales level; (2) reduction in fixed cost or
conversion of FC into VC; (3) reducing the BE Level by increasing
contribution].

illustration
3:
The BOD of F Ltd. , manufacturing three products A, B, and C

relevant info is as follows:
A
B
C
Standard cost p.u:
Direct material (Rs.)
Variable o/hs (Rs.)
Direct labor:
Dept:
X
Y
Z
Data from current budget:
Production per year
Selling price p. unit (Rs.)
Fixed o/hs per year
Rs.2,00,000
Forecast of max. possible
sale for the yr

Rate per
hr
Re.0.50
1.00
0.50

10
3

30
2

20
5

Hours
28
5
16

Hours
16
6
8

Hours
30
10
30

A
10,00
0
50

B
5,000
68

C
6,000
90

7,000

9,000

12,00
0

However the type of labor required by Dept.Y is in short supply

and it is not possible to increase the manpower of the dept.
beyond its present level.

Prepare a statement of the most profitable mixture of the

products to be made and sold. The statement should show:

1.

2.

The profits which could be expected if the most profitable

mixture was produced.

illustration
4:
A co. presents the foll cost estimates for 3 prospective plants

X, Y and Z.

Plant X

Plant Y Plant Z

Annual fixed cost (Rs.)

60,000

1,08,000 1,20,000

2.50

2.20

Annual capacity (units)

75,000

1,20,000 1,50,000

2.10

1.

Calculate the % BE sales to annual capacity.

2.

If sales are steady at 1,00,000 units per year and the unit
selling price is Rs.4 per unit, what will be the profits earned
with each of the plants? Assume that Plant X can be worked
double shift with an additional expense of 10% in fixed cost
and 5% in variable costs of all units.

illustration 5:

ABC Ltd. manufactures and sells four products- I, II, III, IV. The
sales mix in value comprises 331/3 %, 412/3 %, 16 2/3% and 8
1/3% resp. out of the total sales of Rs.60,000

Operating costs are 60%, 68%, 80% and 40% resp. of the
selling price.

Fixed costs are Rs.14,700 per month.

The firm proposes to change the sales mix for the next month
to 25%, 40%, 30% and 5% resp.

Calculate:

1.

Break even point for the products on an overall basis for the
current month.

2.

Break even point for the products on an overall basis for the
next month assuming that the sales mix is changed.

illustration
6:
M Ltd. manufacturers three products P, Q,R. the unit selling

prices of these products are Rs.100, Rs.80 and Rs.50 resp. The
corresponding unit variable costs are Rs.50, Rs.40 and Rs.20.
The propositions (quantity wise) in which these products are
manufactured and sold are 20%, 30% and 50% resp. the total
fixed costs are Rs.14,80,000.
Given the above information, work out the overall break even
quantity and product wise break up of such quantity.