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BUSINESS RESEARCH

METHODS
TOPIC

QUESTIONAIRES

PRESENTED BY:
SUNDAS SADIQ
FARWA BATOOL BANGASH
SHAISTA MAZHAR
SYEDA BASMAH KAZMI

Classification Data or Personal Information

Classification data, also known as personal


information or demographic questions, elicit
such information as
age,
educational
marital
income

level,

status, and

Questions Seeking Personal Information

Some researchers ask for personal data at the end rather


than the beginning of the questionnaire. Their reasoning may
be that by the time the respondent reaches the end of the
questionnaire he or she would have been convinced of the
legitimacy and genuineness of the questions framed by the
researcher.

Highly Sensitive Information

Questions seeking details of income, or other highly sensitive


information if at all deemed necessary are best placed at the very end
of the questionnaire. It would be a wise policy to ask for such
information by providing a range of response options, rather than
seeking exact figures.

CONTINUED

In organizational surveys, it is advisable to gather


certain demographic data such as age, sex,
educational level, job level, department, and
number of years in the organization, even if the
theoretical framework does not necessitate or
include these variables. Such data will help to
describe the sample characteristics in the report
written after data analysis.

CONTINUED

The questions asked must be appropriate for tapping


the variable. The language and wording used should be
such that it is meaningful to the employees. The form
and type of questions should be geared to minimize
respondent biases. The sequencing of the questions
should facilitate the smooth progress of the responses
from the start to the finish. The personal data should
be gathered with due regard to the sensitivity of the
respondents feelings, and with respect for privacy .

PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT
Measurement refers to the assessment,
estimation, observation, evaluation, appraisal
or judgment of an event.
Measurement in research (also considered a
dependent variable) is the process of assigning
numerals to objects to represent quantities of
characteristics according to certain rules
EXAMPLE:
TO SCIENTIFICALLY ANALYZE THE AFFECT OF AN
ORTHOSIS ON LOW BACK PAIN

THESE REFER TO THE


SCALES AND SCALING
TECHNIQUES USED IN
MEASURING
CONCEPTS, AS WELL
AS THE ASSESSMENT
OF RELIABILITY AND
VALIDITY OF THE
MEASURES USED,

WHEREVER POSSIBLE, THE


INTERVAL AND RATIO SCALES
SHOULD BE USED IN PREFERENCE
TO NOMINAL OR ORDINAL SCALES.
ONCE DATA IS OBTAINED, THE
GOODNESS OF DATA IS ASSESSED
THROUGH TESTS OF VALIDITY AND
RELIABILITY

Validity establishes how well a technique,


instrument, or process measures a particular
concept, and reliability indicates how stably
and consistently the instrument taps the
variable. Finally, the data have to be
obtained in a manner that makes for easy
categorization and coding,

GENERAL
APPEARANCE OR
GETUP OF THE
QUESTIONNAIRE
Not only is it important to
address issues of wording and
measurement in questionnaire design, but it is also
necessary to pay attention to
how the question- naire
looks. An attractive and neat
questionnaire with
appropriate introduction,
instructions, and well-arrayed
set of questions and
response alternatives will
make it easier for the
respondents to answer them

A Good Introduction:
A proper introduction that clearly
discloses the identity of the researcher
and conveys the purpose of the survey
is absolutely necessary.
It is also essential to establish some
rapport with the respondents and
motivate them to respond to the
questions in the questionnaire
wholeheartedly and enthusiastically

The introduction section should


end on a courteous note, thank- ing
the respondent for taking the time
to respond to the survey

EXAMPLE OF APPROPRIATE
INTRODUCTION:

EXAMPLE

Department of Management
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
CarbondaleIllinois 62901
Date
Dear Participant,
This questionnaire is designed to study aspects of life at
work. The information you provide will help us better
understand the quality of our work life. Because you are the
one who can give us a correct picture of how you
experience your work life, I request you to respond to the
questions frankly and honestly. Your response will be kept
strictly confidential. Only members of the research team will
have access to the information you give. In order to ensure
the utmost privacy, we have provided an identification
number for each participant. This number will be used by us
only for follow-up procedures. The numbers, names, or the
completed questionnaires will not be made available to
anyone other than the research team. A summary of the
results will be mailed to you after the data are analyzed.
Thank you very much for your time and cooperation. I greatly
appreciate your organizations and your help in furthering
this research endeavor.

Organizing questions, giving instruction

Should be short

Directions and wording should be simple and clear

Should be presented in a good order

Should be attractive, neatly printed and clearly


arranged

GOOD alignment

ORDER OF THE QUESTIONS:

Begin with simple and general questions

No sensitive and personal question at beginning

Move from general to specific in logical manner

Sensitive questions at the end

In questionnaires:

SECTION ONE: ABOUT YOURSELF


SECTION TWO: ABOUT WORK LIFE

Information on income and other sensitive data

Demographical

information can be sought at


the beginning of the questionnaire

Information

of a very private and personal


nature can be comes at the end of
questionnaire

It

will help reduce the respondent biasness

CONTINUED

Many people believe that income is a significant


factor in explaining the type of career decisions
individuals make, the following two questions are
very important for this research. Like all other
items in the questionnaire, the responses to these
two questions will be kept confidential

Open ended question at the end

The questionnaire could include an open ended question at the end.

Allow respondents to comment on any aspect they choose.

Questionnaire should end with an expression of thanks to respondents .


The last part should look as follows:

CONCLUDING THE QUESTIONNAIRE


Questionnaire

should end with a courteous note,


reminding the respondent to check that all the
items have been completed.

Example:
I

sincerely appreciate your time and


cooperation. Please check to make sure that you
have not skipped any question unintentionally,
Thank you.

Review of questionnaire design


Useful

when large number of people are to be reached in


different geographical regions.
Information is obtained easily and responses are easily coded.
Results are replicable.
Several ways to administering questionnaires
Can be personally administered to respondents.
Inserted in magazines, periodicals , or newspapers
Mailed to respondents, electronically distributed through
emails
Softwares are also available to frame the questions based on
subjects response.
Companies websites can be used for collecting data through
questionnaires.

Electronic questionnaire survey design

Particularly used for marketing research.

Enable the user to design sophisticated questionnaires

Computerize the data collection process

Check for logical errors

Analyze the data collected.

More reliable data are likely to result.

Produces high rate of response with increased


computer literacy.