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Transmission Cycle

of Infection
Infection Control Unit
Prepared by: Michael Cruz, RN, MAN

Objectives:

The participants will successfully:


Understand

the chain of infection as it applies to


infection prevention and control.

Identify

evidence-based measures to prevent and


control the transmission of infection to self and
others.

What do you know about

Infection
Why

control?

it is important in health care facilities?

A biological
agent that
causes
disease/infect
ion or illness
to its host.

Infection

Living
organism too
small to be
seen with
naked eye but
visible under a
microscope.

Pathogen

Microorganism

Terminologies

The invasion
and
multiplication
of
microorganism
s that are not
normally
present within
the body.

Infectious
Agent
Susceptible
Host

Reservoir

CHAIN OF INFECTION
Portal of
Entry

Portal of
Exit
Mode of
Transmission

Infectious
Agent
Susceptible
Host

Reservoir

CHAIN OF INFECTION
Portal of
Entry

Portal of
Exit
Mode of
Transmission

Infectious Agent
any disease causing microorganism (pathogen)
Bacteria

Fungi

Parasites

Protozoa

Viruses

Reservoir
habitat in which the infectious agent lives and multiplies

Human

Animal/Insects

Environmental
Sources

Portal of Exit
refers to the route by which the infectious microorganisms escape
the reservoir.

Respiratory Tract
Gastrointestinal Tract
Mucous Membrane
Skin

Mode of Transmission
is the method by which the causative agent moves from one host
to another travels

AirBorne

Droplet

Contact

Parentera
l

Vectors

Airborne Transmission

Small-particle residue
{<5micron} of evaporated
droplets containing
microorganisms

Suspended in the air for long


periods of time

Dispersed by air currents longer


than 3feet

Inhaled by a susceptible host


within the same room or over a
longer distance

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Rubeola

Chickenpox

TB

Measles

Varicella

Droplet Transmission

Occurs when respiratory


droplets generated via
coughing, sneezing or talking
contact susceptible mucosal
surfaces, such as the eyes, nose
or mouth

Large particle droplets (> 5


microns)

Not able to remain suspended


in the air thus they are usually
dispersed over short distances
(< 3 feet /1 meter)

Pertussis

Pneumonia

Influenza

Rubella

Diphtheria

Contact Transmission

Most common route of


transmission

Direct contact transmission


requires physical contact
between an infected person
and a susceptible person, and
the physical transfer of
microorganisms.

Indirect contact transmission


involves contact of a
susceptible host with a
contaminated intermediate
object

Diarrhea

Skin Infection

Wound Infection

MRSA

Parenteral Transmission

Means through the skin, as with


cuts or punctures. Parenteral
transmission of blood-borne
pathogens can occur through
o

needle stick injuries,

human bites,

cuts,

abrasions, or

any break in the skin.

HIV

Hepatitis
B&C

Vector borne Transmission

Transmission of a disease by
vector occurs when a host is
bitten by animals, insects and
rodents carrying the infectious
agent.

Dengue

Schistosomiasis

Rabies

Leptospirosis

Portal of Entry
route through which the pathogen enters its new host

Non intact
skin or
Parenteral

Respirator
y Tract

Gastrointestinal
Tract

Genitourinary
Mucous
Tact
Membrane
s

Susceptible Host
A person who gets an infection because he/she is unable to
successfully fight the infection

Stero
ids

Infan
t
Elder
ly
Low
Immu
nity

Infectious
Agent
Susceptible
Host

Reservoir

CHAIN OF INFECTION
Portal of
Entry

Portal of
Exit
Mode of
Transmission

How to break the chain of infection?


If one of the links in the chain of infection is broken,
then the spread of infection is stopped

Breaking the chain of infection

Causative Agent

Reservoirs

Portal of Exit

Accurate and
rapid
identification of
micro-organisms
Early recognition
of sign and
symptoms of
infection

Employee health
examinations and
screening
Environmental
sanitization
Disinfection/Steriliz
ation of medical
equipment and
instruments
Medical Asepsis
Proper Hygiene

Hand washing
Use of Personal
Protective
Equipment
Respiratory
Etiquette

Breaking the chain of infection


MOT

Portal of Entry

Susceptible Host

Hand washing
Rooms with air flow
control
Safe Food handling
Isolation/cohorting
Sterilization of
equipment and supplies
Medical and Surgical
Asepsis
Use of Personal
Protective Equipment
Proper disposal of
contaminated objects

Sterile technique or
Surgical Asepsis
Medical Asepsis or
Clean Technique
Proper Disposal of
needles or sharps

Treatment of
Disease
Recognition of
clients at risk
Immunization
Healthy Lifestyle
(Exercise, Smoking
Cessation, Avoid
Alcohol Intake,
Enough Rest and
Sleep etc.)
Proper Nutrition