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Rectangular Waveguides

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol
INEL 6216

University of Puerto Rico


Mayagez

Waveguide components

Rectangular waveguide

Waveguide bends

Waveguide to coax adapter

E-tee

Figures from: www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/waveguide.cfm

More waveguides

http://www.tallguide.com/Waveguidelinearity.html

Uses

To reduce attenuation loss

Can operate only above certain


frequencies

High frequencies
High power

Acts as a High-pass filter

Normally circular or rectangular

We will assume lossless rectangular

Rectangular WG

Need to find the fields


components of the
em wave inside the
waveguide

Ez Hz Ex Hx Ey Hy

Well find that


waveguides dont
support TEM waves

http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/D.Jefferies/wguide.html

Rectangular Waveguides:
Fields inside
Using phasors & assuming waveguide
filled with
lossless dielectric material and
walls of perfect conductor,
the wave inside should obey
2 E k 2 E 0
2 H k 2 H 0
where

k 2 2 c

Then applying on the z-component


Ez k Ez 0
2

2 Ez 2 Ez 2 Ez
2

k Ez 0
2
2
2
x
y
z
Solving by method of Separation of Variables :
E z ( x, y, z ) X ( x)Y ( y ) Z ( z )
from where we obtain :
X '' Y '' Z ''

k 2
X
Y
Z

Fields inside the waveguide


''

''

''

X
Y
Z
2

k
X
Y
Z
k x2 k y2 2 k 2

h 2 2 k 2 k x2 k y2

which results in the expressions :


X k X 0

X(x) c1 cos k x x c2 sin k x x

Y k Y 0

Y(y) c3 cos k y y c4 sin k y y

Z '' 2 Z 0

Z ( z ) c5ez c6 e z

''

''

2
x

2
y

Substituting
E z ( x, y, z ) X ( x)Y ( y ) Z ( z )

X(x) c1 cos k x x c2 sin k x x


Y(y) c3 cos k y y c4 sin k y y
Z ( z ) c5ez c6 e z

E z c1 cos k x x c2 sin k x x c3 cos k y y c4 sin k y y c5ez c6 e z


If only looking at the wave traveling in z - direction :

E z A1 cos k x x A2 sin k x x A3 cos k y y A4 sin k y y e z

Similarly for the magnetic field,

H z B1 cos k x x B2 sin k x x B3 cos k y y B4 sin k y y e z

Other components
From Faraday and Ampere Laws we can find the remaining
four components:

E z j H z
2
2
h x
h
y
E z j H z
Ey 2
2
h y
h
x
j E z H z
Hx 2
2
h y h x
j E z H z
Hy 2
2
h x h y
where
Ex

h 2 2 k 2 k x2 k y2

*So once we know


Ez and Hz, we can
find all the other
fields.

Modes of propagation
From these equations we can conclude:
TEM (Ez=Hz=0) cant propagate.

TE (Ez=0) transverse electric

TM (Hz=0) transverse magnetic, Ez exists

In TE mode, the electric lines of flux are


perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide

In TM mode, the magnetic lines of flux are


perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide.

HE hybrid modes in which all components


exists

TM Mode

E z A1 cos k x x A2 sin k x x A3 cos k y y A4 sin k y y e z


Boundary
E z 0 at y 0 ,b
conditions: E z 0 at x 0,a
From these, we conclude:
X(x) is in the form of sin kxx,
where kx=m/a, m=1,2,3,
Y(y) is in the form of sin kyy,
where ky=n/b, n=1,2,3,
So the solution for Ez(x,y,z) is

E z A2 A4 sin k x x sin k y y e jz
Figure from: www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~microwave/programs/magnetic/rect/info.htm

TM Mode

Substituting
m
a

E z Eo sin

n j z
x sin
y e

where
2

m
n
2
h

a
b

k
2

TMmn

m
E z Eo sin
a
Hz 0

n j z
x sin
y e

Other components are

E z
Ex 2
h x
E z
Ey 2
h y
j E z
Hx 2
h y
j E z
Hy 2
h x

m
mx
ny z
Ex 2
Eo cos
sin
e
h a
a
b
n
mx
ny z
Ey 2
Eo sin
cos
e
h b
a
b
j n
mx
ny z
Hx 2
Eo sin
cos
e
h b
a
b
j m
mx
ny z
Hy 2
Eo cos
sin
e
h a
a
b

TM modes
The m and n represent the mode of propagation
and indicates the number of variations of the
field in the x and y directions
Note that for the TM mode, if n or m is zero, all
fields are zero.
See applet by Paul Falstad
http://www.falstad.com/embox/guide.html

TM Cutoff

2
x

k y2 k 2
2

The cutoff frequency occurs when


2
m
n
2
When c

Evanescent:

1
or f c
2

m
n
2



a
b

b
2

m
n

a
b

then j 0
2

m
n
When 2

a
b

Propagation:

and 0

Means no propagation, everything is attenuated


2

m
n
When

a
b

j and 0

This is the case we are interested since is when the wave is allowed to

attenuation

Cutoff

Propagation
of mode mn

fc,mn

The cutoff frequency is the frequency


below which attenuation occurs and above
which propagation takes place. (High Pass)
2

f c mn

u' m
n



2 a
b

The phase constant becomes


2

m
n
2

a
b

fc

' 1
f

Phase velocity and impedance

The phase velocity is defined as

up
'

2 u p

And the intrinsic impedance of the mode


is
TM

Ey
fc
Ex

' 1
Hy
Hx
f

Summary of TM modes
Wave in the dielectric
medium

Inside the waveguide


f
' 1 c
f

' / u '

' /
u ' / ' f 1 /

' u ' / f

TM

f
' 1 c
f
up

f
' 1 c
f

'
1

fc
f

Related example of how fields look:


Parallel plate waveguide - TM modes

Ez

mx e j t z
A sin

Ez

m=1

m=2
m=3

a x

a x

TE Mode

H z B1 cos k x x B2 sin k x x B3 cos k y y B4 sin k y y e z


Boundary
E x 0 at y 0 ,b
conditions: E y 0 at x 0 ,a
From these, we conclude:
X(x) is in the form of cos kxx,
where kx=m/a, m=0,1,2,3,
Y(y) is in the form of cos kyy,
where ky=n/b, n=0,1,2,3,
So the solution for Ez(x,y,z) is

H z B1 B3 cos k x x cos k y y e jz

Figure from: www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~microwave/programs/magnetic/rect/info.htm

TE Mode

Substituting
mx
n jz
H z H o cos
cos
y e

a
b
where again
2

m
n
h2

a
b

Note that n and m cannot be both zero


because the fields will all be zero.

TEmn

m
n jz
H z H o cos
x cos
y e
a
b
Ez 0

Other components are

j H z
Ex 2
h
y
j H z
Ey 2
h
x
H z
Hx 2
h x
H z
Hy 2
h y

j n
mx
ny z
Ex 2
H o cos
sin
e
h b
a
b
j m
mx
ny z
Ey 2
H o sin
cos
e
h a
a
b
j
Hx 2
h

m
mx
ny z

H o sin
cos
e
a
a
b
j n
mx
ny z
Hy 2
H o cos
sin
e
h b
a
b

attenuation

Cutoff

Propagation
of mode mn

fc,mn

The cutoff frequency is the same


expression as for the TM mode
2

f c mn

u' m
n



2 a
b

But the lowest attainable frequencies are


lowest because here n or m can be zero.

Dominant Mode

The dominant mode is the mode with


lowest cutoff frequency.
Its always TE10
The order of the next modes change
depending on the dimensions of the
guide.

Summary of TE modes
Wave in the dielectric
medium
' / u '

' /
u ' / ' f 1 /

' u ' / f

Inside the waveguide


f
' 1 c
f

TE

up

'
2

f
1 c
f

f
' 1 c
f

'
1

fc
f

Variation of wave impedance

Wave impedance varies with


frequency and mode

TE

TM
fc,mn

Example:
Consider a length of air-filled copper X-band waveguide, with
dimensions a=2.286cm, b=1.016cm operating at 10GHz.
Find the cutoff frequencies of all possible propagating
modes.
Solution:
From the formula for the cut-off frequency

f c mn

u' m
n


2 a
b

Example
An air-filled 5-by 2-cm waveguide has
E z 20 sin 40x sin 50y e jz V/m

at 15GHz
What mode is being propagated?
Find
Determine Ey/Ex

Group velocity, ug

Is the velocity at which


the energy travels.
fc
1
ug
u' 1
/
f

rad/s m
rad/m s

It is always less than u

u p u g u '

http://www.tpub.com/content/et/14092/css/14092_71.htm

Ey

j
mx z
H
sin

e
o
h2 a
a

Group Velocity

As frequency is increased,
the group velocity increases.

Power transmission

The average Poynting vector for the waveguide


fields is
1
1
*
*
*
Pave

Re E H
2

Ex E y
2

Re E x H y E y H x

[W/m2]

where = TE or TM depending on the mode

Pave Pave dS

x 0 y 0

Ex E y
2

dy dx

[W]

Attenuation in Lossy
waveguide

When dielectric inside guide is lossy, and walls


are not perfect conductors, power is lost as it
travels along guide.

Pave Po e 2z

dPave
PL
2Pave
dz

The loss power is

Where c+d are the attenuation due to ohmic


(conduction) and dielectric losses
Usually c >> d

Attenuation for TE10

Dielectric attenuation, Np/m


d

Dielectric
conductivity!

'
f
2 1 c
f

Conductor attenuation, Np/m


c

2 Rs
f
b ' 1 c ,10
f

0.5 b f c ,10

a f

Waveguide Cavities

Cavities, or resonators, are


used for storing energy
Used in klystron tubes,
band-pass filters and
frequency meters
Its equivalent to a RLC
circuit at high frequency
Their shape is that of a
cavity, either cylindrical or
cubical.

Cavity TM Mode to z
Solving by Separation of Variables :
E z ( x, y, z ) X ( x)Y ( y ) Z ( z )
from where we obtain :
X(x) c1 cos k x x c2 sin k x x
Y(y) c3 cos k y y c4 sin k y y
Z ( z ) c5 cos k z z c6 sin k z z

where k 2 k x2 k y2 k z

TMmnp Boundary Conditions


From these, we conclude:
kx=m/a
ky=n/b
kz=p/c
where c is the dimension in z-axis
mx
ny
pz
sin
sin

a
b
c

E z Eo sin
where
k2

m
n
p

a
b
c

E z 0 at y 0 ,b
E z 0 at x 0 ,a
E y E x 0, at z 0 ,c

Resonant frequency

The resonant frequency is the same


for TM or TE modes, except that the
lowest-order TM is TM111 and the
lowest-order in TE is TE101.
2

u' m
n
p
fr

2 a
b
c

Cavity TE Mode to z
Solving by Separation of Variables :
H z ( x, y, z ) X ( x)Y ( y ) Z ( z )
from where we obtain :
X(x) c1 cos k x x c2 sin k x x
Y(y) c3 cos k y y c4 sin k y y
Z ( z ) c5 cos k z z c6 sin k z z

where k k k k z
2

2
x

2
y

TEmnp Boundary Conditions


From these, we conclude:
kx=m/a
ky=n/b
kz=p/c
where c is the dimension in z-axis
mx
ny
py
H z H o cos
cos
sin

a
b
c

H z 0 at z 0 ,c
E y 0 at x 0 ,a
E x 0, at y 0 ,b

Quality Factor, Q

The cavity has walls with finite


conductivity and is therefore losing
stored energy.
The quality factor, Q, characterized the
loss and also the bandwidth of the
cavity resonator.
Dielectric cavities are used for
resonators, amplifiers and oscillators at
microwave frequencies.

A dielectric resonator antenna


with a cap for measuring the
radiation efficiency

Univ. of Mississippi

Quality Factor, Q

Is defined as
Time avera ge energy stored
Q 2
loss energy per cycle of oscillation
W
2
PL

For the dominant mode TE101


QTE101

c 2 abc

2b a 3 c 3 ac a 2 c 2

where

1
f101 o c

Example
For a cavity of dimensions; 3cm x 2cm x 7cm filled with
air and made of copper (c=5.8 x 107)
Find the resonant frequency and the quality factor
2
2
2
for the dominant mode.
3 1010 1
1
0
f r110
9GHz
2
3
2
7
Answer:

3 1010 1
0
1
fr

2
3
2
7

QTE101

1
(5.44 109 ) o c

5.44GHz

1.6 10 6

72 3 2 7

568,378
3
3
2
2
2 2 3 7 3 7 3 7