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SECRETORY FUNCTION OF

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

Irawan Yusuf
Department of Physiology

INTRODUCTION
Throughout the gastrointestinal tract secretory
glands serve two primary function;
To produce digestive enzymes;
To provide mucus for lubrication and protection

Most digestive secretions are formed only in


response to the presence of food in the
gastrointestinal tract
The types of enzyme and its component are
varied according to the types of food present.

Daily Secretion of Gastrointestinal Fluid


Fluid

Daily volume (ml)

Saliva
Gastric secretion
Pancreatic secretion
Bile
Small intestinal secretion
Brunners gland secretion
Large intestinal secretion

1000
1500
1000
1000
1800
200
200

Total

6700

Guyton, AC; 2000

pH
6.0 7.0
1.0 3.5
8.0 8.3
7.8
7.5 8.0
8.0 8.9
7.5 8.0

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Functions of gastrointestinal secretions

Transport
Digestion
Protection
Absorption

The type of secretory glands

Mucus gland or mucus cells (Goblet cells)


Pits; invagination of surface lining epithelial
Tubular glands (stomach and upper duodenum)
Complex glands (Salivary glands, pancreas and liver)

Basic mechanism of secretion by glandular cells


Secretion of organic substances
Water and electrolyte secretion

Basic regulatory mechanism of glandular cells

Basic Mechanism of Secretion


Secretion of Organic Substances (proteins)
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

The nutrient material needed for formation of secretion must


diffuse or actively transported from the capillary into the
base of glandular cell
ATP from the mitochondria, along with appropriate
substrates, is then used for synthesis of the organic substances
The secretory materials are then transported to the Golgi
complex
In the Golgi complex the material are modified before
discharged into the cytoplasm in the form of secretory
vesicles, which are stored in the apical ends of the secretory
cells
These vesicles remain stored until nervous or hormonal
stimulation cause them to extrude their contents

Basic Mechanism of Secretion


Secretion of Water and Electrolyte
1.
2.
3.

4.

Nerve stimulation on basal portion of the cell membrane,


causing active transport of Cl- ions to the inside the cell
The resulting increase in electronegativity inside the cell the
causes positive ions also move to the interior of the cell
The excess of both these ions inside the cell creates an
osmotic force that pulls water to the interior, thereby
increasing the hydrostatic pressure inside the cell and
causing the cell to swell
The pressure in the cell then results in ruptures of secretory
border of the cell causes flushing of water, electrolyte, and
organic materials out of the glandular cell into the lumen of
the gland

Basic Regulatory Mechanism


of Glandular Cells

Effect of Local Contact

Effect of enteric nervous system

Tactile stimulation
Chemical irritation
Distention of the gut wall

Autonomic stimulation

The mechanical present of food causes the glands to


secrete moderate to large quantities of digestive juice

Parasympathetic increase the rate of secretion


Sympathetic can have dual effect; increase or decrease
the secretion depend on the rate of stimulation

Hormonal

Basic Regulatory Mechanism


of Glandular Cells
Hormones that regulate secretion
Gastrin

Secretin

Stimulates gastric acid/pepsinogen secretion


Stimulates pancreatic and bile secretion

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion and bile


secretion

Basic Regulatory Mechanism


of Glandular Cells
CELLULAR MECHANISMS
Second messengers
IP3, calcium, cAMP

Actions
alter activity of ion transporters
alter exocytosis rate of secretory vesicles
regulate insertion of intracellular
canaliculi

SALIVARY GLANDS AND


SALIVA
Saliva is secreted primarily by three pairs of glands:
1. Parotid, located near the angle of the jaw, are
largest glands and secrete a watery fluid
2. Submandibular, secrete a fluid that contains a
high concentration of proteins and so is
moderately viscous
3. Sublingual, produce viscous fluid

Characteristics of each of the salivary glands


in human
Gland

Histologic type

Parotid
Submandibular

Serous
Mixed

Sublingual

Mucous

Secretion1

% of total saliva2

Watery
Moderately
viscous
Viscous

20
70
5

Ganong, WF, 2003


1

Serous cells secrete ptyalin;mucous cells secrete mucin


2
The remaining 5% of salivary volume is produce by lingual and minor glands In the
oral cavity

Saliva Function
Protection the mouth by:

Cooling hot food


Diluting gastric acid or bile regurgitated into the mouth
Washing food away from the teeth
Antibacterial and antiviral effects (IgA and peroxidase)
Aids speech by facilitating movement of the lips and tongue

Digestion of glucose by amylase (ptyalin) and fat by


lingual lipase
Lubrication; for easier swallowing, moisten the
mouth

Composition of Saliva
Salivary gland secrete saliva about 1-1.5
L/day containing:
Electrolyte. In comparison with plasma, saliva is
hypotonic and contains higher concentrations of
K+ and HCO3- and lower concentration of Na+
and Cl Proteins. Several proteins are found, -amylase
(ptyalin), lingual lipase, peroxidase, IgA and
growth factors (NGF, EGF)
Mucin for food lubrication

Control of Salivary Secretion


Autonomic Nervous System
Parasympathetic cause secretion of watery fluid, high
electrolyte but low in protein
Increases secretion of amylase with large volumes of fluid

Sympathetic cause secretion of small volume of fluid


containing high mucin
Stimulates small volume of saliva rich in amylase,
bicarbonate and K+

Salivary reflexes. Thought, aroma, or taste cause


salivary reflexes

GASTRIC SECRETION
Gastric acid secretions aid in the breakdown of
food into small particles
Continue the process of digestion begun by
salivary enzymes
About 2 L/day of gastric secretion are produced

Gastric Secretory Cells


Gastric secretory cells are located on the surface of
the stomach and in glands that are buried within
the mucosa consits of:
Oxyntic glands are located in the fundus and corpus.
They contain three types of secretory cells:
The parietal (oxyntic) cells, secrete HCl and intrinsic factor
Peptic (chief) cells secrete pepsinogen, the precursor of
pepsin
Mucous cell secrete mucus

Pyloric glands are located in antrum and pyloric. They


contain G cells and some mucous cell. G cells produce
gastrin hormone

Secretion of the Stomach

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)


Pepsinogen
Intrinsic Factor
Mucus
Glycoprotein products which primary
function as lubricant, but can also have many
other regionally specialized function

HCl Secretion
Mechanism HCl secretion
HCl is secreted into the parietal cells canaliculi by three
step process:
The active transport process is begun by the transport of K + and
Cl- into the canaliculi
H+ is then exchanged for K+ by a H+-K+ ATPase
Water enters the canaliculi down the osmotic gradient created
by movement of HCl-

The H+ entering the canaliculi is supplied by the


dissociation of H2CO3 into H+ and HCO3 The active transport process involved in the generation
of HCl- secretion require a large amount of ATP
The pH of acid secretion as low as 0.8

Control of HCl Secretion


Stimulation of HCl secretion
Acetylcholine (Ach)
Histamine; histamine can stimulate HCl
secretion directly or can potentiate the
secretion produced by ACh or gastrin
Gastrin

Inhibition of HCl secretion


Somatostatin

Phases of Gastric Secretion


Cephalic
vagal cholinergic stimulation of HCl secretion
directly
indirectly via gastrin

Gastric
gastrin, local distension, vagal input increase gastric
acid secretion

Intestinal
increased acid in duodenum stimulates secretin
release which feeds back to inhibit gastrin release and
inhibit gastric acid secretion

PEPSINOGEN SECRETION
Function of pepsinogen. Pepsin the active form
of pepsinogen is proteolytic enzyme that begins
the process of protein digestion
Regulation of pepsinogen secretion.
Cephalic state, vagal nerve stimulate secretion of
pepsinogen
Gastric phase, low pH stimulate secretion
Intestinal phase, secretin stimulate pepsinogen
release

MUCOSAL BARRIER
The gastric mucosal barrier protects the gastric
lining cells from damage
The main component of mucus is a thick
viscous alkaline mucous layer secreted by the
mucous cells
Mildly injury results in increased mucus
secretion and surface desquamation
More serious injury denudes the mucosal
surface, forming an ulcer, and produce bleeding

INTRINSIC FACTOR
Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein secreted
by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa,
mostly in fundus
Intrinsic factor is required for the
absorption of vitamin B12
Intrinsic factor forms a complex with vitamin
B12
The complex is carried to the terminal ileum,
where the vitamin is absorbed

PANCREATIC SECRETION
Pancreas contains endocrine and exocrine cells
The exocrine cells have an internal structure similar to
that of salivary glands
The exocrine cells produce four types of digestive
enzyme:
Protease (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase)
Amylase
Lipases (lipase, cholesterol esterase, phospholipase)
Nucleases
Each day pancreas produce 1200-1500 ml of pancreatic
juice containing high concentration of HCO3-

Anatomy and Histology of Pancreas

Pancreatic Secretory Cells

Pancreatic exocrine cells are arranged


in grape-like clusters called acini.
The exocrine cells themselves are packed
with
membrane-bound
secretory
granules which contain digestive
enzymes that are exocytosed into the
lumen of the acinus.
From there these secretions flow into
larger and larger, intralobular ducts,
which eventually coalesce into the main
pancreatic duct which drains directly
into the duodenum.

Composition of Pancreatic Secretion


Pancreatic juice is composed of two secretory
products critical to proper digestion:
Digestive enzymes, secreted by acinar cells
Bicarbonate (HCO3-), secreted from epithelial cells

Digestive enzymes digesting all three major


types of nutrients
HCO3- play important role in neutralizing the
acid chyme from the stomach

Composition of Human Pancreatic Juice


Cations

Anions

Digestive Enzymes

Na+
K+
Ca2+
Mg2+

HCO3Trypsin
ClChymotrypsins
SO42Lipase
HPO42- -amylase
Carboxypeptidase A and B
Ribonuclease
Elastase
Phospholipase A2
Cholesteryl ester hydroxylase

Control of Pancreatic Secretion


Hormonal Control
Secretin (from increased HCl in duodenum)
stimulates fluid and electrolyte secretion

CCK (from increased fatty acids, peptides,


amino acids)
stimulates release of enzymes

Nervous System
Parasympathetic input
initiates secretion during cephalic and gastric phases

Phase of Pancreatic Secretion


Cephalic phase
Vagal stimulation
Stimulates enzyme secretion

Non-cholinergic
HCO3- secretion

Gastric phase
Distension of the antrum and corpus
Secretion of low volume of enzymes and HCO 3-

Food breakdown (primarily amino acids)


Secretion of pancreatic secretion

Intestinal phase
Cholecystokinin
Secretin