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Submitted By- Deepak

Roll no.-1306851901
Chemical engg.-5th sem.

What is Condensation?

Condensation are specific convection

process which are associated with change of

The Condensation sets in, whenever a

saturation vapour comes in contact with a
surface whose temperature is lower than the
saturation temperature corresponding to the
vapour pressure.

As the vapour condenses, latent heat is

liberated and the vapour phase get changes
into a liquid phase at constant temperature.

Condensation in Daily

Applications in Industries
Cooling of nuclear reactors and rocket
Steam power plants (condensers).
Refrigerating and air-conditioning systems.
Melting of metal in furnaces.
Refineries and sugar mills.
Process heating and cooling and so on..

Some features of Condensation

As a consequence of phase change in these
processes, the heat transfer to or from the fluid
can occur without influencing the fluid
The Heat Transfer coefficient and rates, due
to latent heat associated with phase change,
are generally much higher compared with the
normal convection processes.

High rate of Heat Transfer is achieved with

small temperature difference.

Types of Condensation
There are generally two types of
Film Condensation
Dropwise Condensation.

Film Condensation
If the condensate tends to wet the surface and
thereby forms a liquid film, then the
condensation processes is known as Film
Here the heat transfer from the vapour to the
cooling surface takes place through the film
formed on the surface.

Dropwise Condensation
In Dropwise Condensation, the vapour
condenses into small liquid droplets of various
sizes which fall down the surface in random
The drops form in cracks and pits on the
surface, grow in size, break away from the
surface, knock off other droplets and eventually
run off the surface, without forming a film
under the influence of gravity.

Effect of non-condensable
If a non-condensable gases are present, for
example- air in the condensing vapours in a
condenser because of leakage it hinders the
process of heat transfer .
The non-condensable gases collects in the
viscinity of condensate surface ,and the
condensing vapour must have to diffuse
through the gas film.

Presence of air about 1% by volume can

reduce the heat transfer coefficient by 60% of its
value for no air.

Laminar Film
Condensation on a
Vertical Plate

The film of liquid formed under the action of
The condensate flow is laminar and the fluid
properties are constant.
The liquid film is good thermal contact with
cooling surface.
The Heat Transfer across the condensate layer is
by pure conduction and temperature distribution
is linear.

The condensing vapour is entirely clean and

free from gases, air and non-condensing


References and Bibliography

Heat and Mass Transfer
by R. K. Rajput
Unit Operation-2
by K. A. Gavhane