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CRITERIA

FOR
SUCCESSFUL
CEMENTING

CRITERIA FOR SUCCESSFUL


CEMENTING
Dowell Concept
Job Objective
Mud Removal
Temperature Prediction
Slurry Properties
Special Cement Systems
CemCADE Design
Job Execution
Job Evaluation

2
Initials

Dowell Concept
Design - Execute - Evaluate
Job
Planning
& Slurry
Design

Logs
Well/Job Data
Well Post-Job
History

3
Initials

Blending
Slurry Mixing
& Placement

Job Objective

Complete cement
sheath w/no mud

Isolation of productive zones.

Protection of water zones

Isolation of problem interval

Protection of casing

Casing support

or gas channel

Cement bonded
bonded to
to
Cement
formations
formations
Cement bonded to
casing
Oil or Gas pay Zone

4
Initials

Practices Affecting Primary Cementing

Poor
Centralization

Channeling:
Incompatible
preflush or

Wash out:

incomplete mud

Incorrect flow

removal

regime

5
Initials

Slurry Design Factors Affecting Primary


Cementing
High Free
Shrinkage

water

or Microannllus

Gas Intake

Gas Intake

Water Intake

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Initials

Mud Removal

Well Preparation
Mud removal effeciency during the

cementing operation

7
Initials

Mud Conditioning
Lower Density
by removing cuttings and sand

Reduce Viscosity
Reduce Gel Strength by:
Circulation
Addition of Dispersants
Pipe Movement

Stabilize Well
8
Initials

Casing Centralizers
Centralizer

9
Initials

Casing Centralization
R2
R1

Wn

% Stand-off = Wn x
100/ (R1-R2)

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Initials

Influence of Standoff on Mud Removal


100 % Stand-off ( Centered )

Velocity in Wn / Avg. Velocity

1.O

75 %
O.8
50 %
O.6
33 1/3 %

O.4

O.2

10

15

Rate of Flow ( bpm )

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Initials

20

40

60

80

Effects Of Standoff on Mud


Displacement

Mud

Cement

Decreasing Stand-off
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Initials

Casing Movement

Casing Stationary

ROTATION
Gelled Mud

Rotation Started
Flowing Cement

Re
s
po istin
si
ti v g d
ra
e
m gf
ud or
d i ce
sp
c
l a an
ci
b
ng ec
fo om
rc
e
e

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Initials

Mud almost
removed

Casing Movement
RECIPROCATION

Stand-off = 100 %

Mud
Stand-off == 20
20 %
%
Stand-off
Cement
Slurry

14
Initials

Stand-off = 20 %

Cement - Mud Contamination


Acceleration or Retardation
Reduction of Compressive Strength
Reduction of Hydraulic Bond
Increase of filtrate loss
Change of Rheological Properties
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Initials

Displacing

Wiper Plugs
Prevent

Mud

Top Plug

Contamination of Spacer
Contamination of Cement slurry Cement

Wipe Casing clean


Indicate end of Displacement
Bottom Plug

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Initials

Chemical Washes
Low Viscosity Fluids
Usually Water Based
Contain Surfactants and mud thinners

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Initials

Chemical Washes
What They Do / How They Work

Separate Mud and Cement


No incompatibility effect

Remove mud from annulus


Turbulence at low pump rate
Erode, dilute and disperse particles

Leave casing and formation water wet


Function of the Surfactant

Provide less hydrostatic pressure


Water or oil-based

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Initials

Spacers
Definition

Densified viscous fluid separating

mud and slurry


Function

Thorough removal of mud


Properties

Compatible with mud and cements


Mixtures less viscous than thicker fluid
No gel

Specified rheology
Low for Turbulent Flow
Adjustable for Effective Laminar Flow

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Initials

How Spacers Work


Turbulent Flow:

Erosion
Dilution
Flow all around the pipe
Contact Time

Effective Laminar Flow


Density Hierarchy
Friction Pressure Hierarchy
Flow all around the pipe - Minimum
Pressure Gradient
Differential Velocity criterion
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Initials

Spacers
Water Based Mud
MUDPUSH XT - Turbulent ( fresh )
MUDPUSH XS - Turbulent ( salt )
MUDPUSH XL - Effective Laminar ( fresh or salt )
MUDPUSH WHT - HT Effective Laminar ( fresh or
salt )

Oil Based Mud


MUDPUSH XTO - Turbulent ( fresh )
MUDPUSH XSO - Turbulent ( salt )
MUDPUSH XLO - Effective Laminar ( fresh or salt )
MUDPUSH XEO - HT Turbulent ( oil/water emulsion )

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Initials

Cement Slurry Properties


Conventional Cement system:
Cement Slurry density
Cement Slurry Rheology
Free water
Thickening Time
Compressive Strength
Fluid Loss Control

Special Cement System:


GASBLOK Technique
SALTBOND
Others

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Initials

Cement Slurry Rheology


Friction Pressure
Flow Regime
Laminar ( sliding motion - zero flow on walls )

Turburlent ( swirling motion )

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Initials

Effects of Free Water


Channelling
Incomplete Fill-up

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Initials

Temperature Prediction
Two Basic influences on downhole

performance of cement
Temperature
Pressure

Temperature has the biggest influence

and affects

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Initials

Thickening time
Transition time
Compressive Strength
Fluid loss
Rheology
Free water

Downhole Circulated Temperature


Probe
Where to run:
Wiper Trip
Casing circulation

How to load:
Drop into DP
Load in treating iron
Launching loop

Recovery:
In basket over shakers
Usually a maximum of 50% recovered

36
Initials

Maximum Circulating Temperature and


Depth
Circulation

Cementing

WOC

Maximum Temperature
Depth of Maximum Temperature

API BHCT ( 237 F )

Time ( hr:min ), Sub-Units: Open Hole

CemCADE also predicts


Temperature vs time at a given depth
Temperature of a fluid element ( e.g. 1st sack ) during and
after placement
Temperature vs depth at a given time

37
Initials

Fluid Loss control


Fluid Loss
mL / 30 min
Cement
Class

D60
%

S1
%

98 F

136 F

98 F

136 F

0
0.8
0.8

0
0
2

1000+
100
300

1000+
350
-

1:35
3:10
2:20

1:00
2:00
1:40

1.0
1.0
1.3

0
2
0

75
150
35

130
50

4:00+
3:00
6:00+

3:00
2:05
4:00

1.3

50

75

4:00

3:00

0
1.0
1.0

0
0
2

1000+
150
215

1000+
100
250

3:20
5:00
1:35

2:00
3:00
1:05

1.3
1.3

0
2

100
125

150
170

5:00+
1:40

4:10
0:55

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Initials

Thickening Time
( hr: min )

Why use Fluid Loss Control


Maintain constant water-to-solid ratio
Constant Density
Desired Yield
Thickening Time
Compressive strength
Rheology
Constant Properties

Avoid annular bridging or excessive

pump pressure
Reduce formation damage
41
Initials

CemCADE Job Design


Better zonal isolation

Optimum mud Romoval


Flow Regime
Pump rate
Mud removal effeciency vs stand-off

Slurry design

Well security and control

No loss circulation
No fluid influx
No casing collapse
Anticipated surface pressure

Job evaluation
PRISM
CBL Adviser

43
Initials

Job Execution
IS
EXECUTION
AS
DESIGNED
Real Time Job Monitoring
PRISM
44
Initials

On-site Data Acquisition


PRISM

Pressure, Density, Flow rate sensors


Portable acquisition computer
Standard remote display
Colour ink-jet printer

Quality of treatment execution through:


Permanent graphical record of treatment in
real time
Accurate, reliable data acquisition
regardless of environmental conditions
Immediate post-job treatment reports

Treatment Effeciency through:


Post-job analysis of data which

45
Initials

(1) ensures pressures and rates were as designed and


(2) helps to improve future designs

Post Job Evaluation


Job Design (CemCADE) vs Job Execution

(PRISM)
CBL Adviser
Cement Bond and Variable Density Logs (CBL-

VDL)
Cement Evaluation Log
Dry Test with DST Tools
Pressure Test ( Shoe Bond Test )

47
Initials

Summary
Define Cementing Objectives
Use Computer Aided Design
Improve Mud Displacement

Condition mud prior to cementing


Use centralizers
Rotate and / or Reciprocate
Avoid adverse mud cement reations
Control displacement rate and sapcer and slurry
rheology

Optimize cement slurry design


Execute Job as per Design
Perform full Post-job Evaluation

48
Initials