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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER: Dr. HARTONO, M.Pd
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

by
Zandi Ernomo (201510560211012)
Poppy Eki Arianti (201510560211013)
Achmad Masudi (201510560211005)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2015

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES
2. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
3. HISTORICAL STUDIES
4. CASE STUDY
5. CONTENT ANALYSIS
6. ETHNOGRAPHY
7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH
8. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
9. OTHER TYPES

BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES BASIC INTERPRETATIVE STUDIES 1.attempts to understand the meaning individuals that have attached to a certain phenomena they have experienced 3. goal . observation. generally based on a social constructivism perspective 2. coding. looking for recurring themes 5. and document review 4. data collection – interview. data analysis – transcribing. Example – investigate the experiences of high school senior travelling abroad as part of school program .

.GROUNDED THEORY 1. Researchers made memo records to explore ideas related to data and coded categories. axis encoding and selective coding (constant comparative method of analysis) 5. Goal . 6.generating theory research based on the empirical data 2. The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes and analyses data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them. Data analysis – open coding. in order to develop a theory as it emerges (Wikipedia) 4. Directed at the process associated with a considerable and meaningful topic that has a firm basis in reality 3. Identified core categories is then developed and formulated into a theory 7. Core categories should be identified while analyzing the data. Deciding sample – theoretical sampling.

CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS .

Theory validation 5.STEPS IN GROUNDED THEORY 1. Report writing . Theory development 4. Problem formulation 2. Data collection and analysis 3.

3. to make people aware of what happened in the past so that they may learn from past failures and successes. to predict something that will happen in the future. 2.HISTORICAL STUDIES The aims: 1. to test the hypothesis of the relationships or trends . 4. to learn how things have been done in the past.

Evaluation (external and internal criticism) 4. The selection of historical research subjects 2. Data collection 3. Writing the research report .STEPS IN HISTORICAL STUDIES 1.

an event. report. diaries. 2. or witnesses of. relics. building  Second category: the written and oral testimony provided by actual participants in.g history book. Primary Source is original and has close relation with the problem under study  First category: includes correspondence. articles. artifact.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. reviews of research) . Secondary Source is a source in which the data or information cannot be included as authentic (e.

Case Study .

.. activity... observations. The boundries of the case. a single person... usually time and/or space. Multiple sources of data.What is Case Study? Case.. program.. or several people Bounded system.. An event... documents.. case studies include almost every kinds of qualitative data (interviews. artifacts. etc ... problem.. process.

Case studies use many forms of data to have in-depth understanding of the case .

Intrinsic Case Study 2. Instrumental Case Study 3. Collective/ Multiple Case Study .There are 3 types of case studies 1.

Case Study Methods  Determine and define the research questions  Identify the case/cases and what type of case study will be used  Collect data in the field  Evaluate and analyze the data  Prepare the report .

Content or Document Analysis .

. Study of recorded human communications .....What is content analysis? Content Analysis.

 To discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications. or interest in. .  To describe prevailing practices.  To analyze types of errors in students’ writings.The purposes of content analysis  To identify bias. prejudice. certain topics.  To discover the relative importance of. or propaganda in textbook.

The steps in content analysis  State your research question(s).  Code the textual material in your sample .  Select your sample of text material. .  Intrepret and report your findings.  Define your unit of analysis and categories.  Read and review the material in your sample.

Ethnographic Studies .

.What is ethnography? Ethnography. language) of a distinct group within society ... behaviors.. Studies the culture (values..... beliefs.

Two Approaches to Ethnography  Realist Ethnography  Critical Ethnography .

 Collecting ethnograpic data.  Writing the ethnography .  Making a ethnographic record.  Analyzing ethnographic data.The Methodology  Selecting an ethnographic project.  Asking ethnographic questions.

it is to understand the perspective of the storyteller in the context of his or her life.  whether there is one or more narrative. rather.  Narrative analysis is categorized based on  who was the author.  A narrative can be any text or discourse.Narrative Research  Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives. Narrative studies use documents and other sources of personal information to illuminate a person’s life.  Narrative research is not an historical but. It is to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group. and the conceptual framework of the researcher.  the scope of the narrative (one or more episodes versus an entire life).  whose perspective is presented. .

This belief is characteristic of all qualitative studies  the element that distinguishes phenomenology from other qualitative approaches is:  the subjective experience is at the center of the inquiry. The central research question aims to determine the essence of the experience as “perceived by the participants. the assumption is that there are many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of the experience to each person is what constitutes reality.Phenomenological Research  A phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by the people who have participated in it.” Phenomenology moves from individual experience to a universal essence and always asks what is the nature or meaning of something.  Rooted in philosophy and psychology. It is different in that phenomenology makes a distinction between the appearance of something and its essence. .  What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of particular participants? That is the key question in phenomenology. Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection approach.

 Semiotics and discourse analysis  study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their meanings. and Semiotics and Discourse Analysis. Some researches that naturally used Portraiture. . Working Area  Portraiture  is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture.Other Types  Definition Other researches evolve from the general studies that examine for detailed field.  Critical research  seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions. and gender. class. Texts or signs and their structural relationships are the subject of study for semiotics and there is no neutral text. Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race. Critical Research. The following is the information on those that including other types of researches.