RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER: Dr. HARTONO, M.Pd
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

by
Zandi Ernomo (201510560211012)
Poppy Eki Arianti (201510560211013)
Achmad Masudi (201510560211005)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2015

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES
2. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
3. HISTORICAL STUDIES
4. CASE STUDY
5. CONTENT ANALYSIS
6. ETHNOGRAPHY
7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH
8. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
9. OTHER TYPES

data analysis – transcribing. and document review 4. coding. generally based on a social constructivism perspective 2.attempts to understand the meaning individuals that have attached to a certain phenomena they have experienced 3. goal . looking for recurring themes 5. data collection – interview. observation.BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES BASIC INTERPRETATIVE STUDIES 1. Example – investigate the experiences of high school senior travelling abroad as part of school program .

. Core categories should be identified while analyzing the data. Deciding sample – theoretical sampling. Identified core categories is then developed and formulated into a theory 7. 6. The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes and analyses data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them. axis encoding and selective coding (constant comparative method of analysis) 5. Goal . Directed at the process associated with a considerable and meaningful topic that has a firm basis in reality 3.GROUNDED THEORY 1.generating theory research based on the empirical data 2. in order to develop a theory as it emerges (Wikipedia) 4. Researchers made memo records to explore ideas related to data and coded categories. Data analysis – open coding.

CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS .

Data collection and analysis 3. Problem formulation 2. Theory validation 5. Theory development 4.STEPS IN GROUNDED THEORY 1. Report writing .

HISTORICAL STUDIES The aims: 1. 2. to make people aware of what happened in the past so that they may learn from past failures and successes. to predict something that will happen in the future. 3. 4. to learn how things have been done in the past. to test the hypothesis of the relationships or trends .

STEPS IN HISTORICAL STUDIES 1. The selection of historical research subjects 2. Data collection 3. Writing the research report . Evaluation (external and internal criticism) 4.

articles. diaries. 2.g history book. artifact. reviews of research) . or witnesses of. building  Second category: the written and oral testimony provided by actual participants in. Secondary Source is a source in which the data or information cannot be included as authentic (e.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. relics. report. Primary Source is original and has close relation with the problem under study  First category: includes correspondence. an event.

Case Study .

Multiple sources of data..... activity. An event. or several people Bounded system. etc . problem. artifacts.. The boundries of the case. process. usually time and/or space. program.What is Case Study? Case. case studies include almost every kinds of qualitative data (interviews... documents....... a single person. observations...

Case studies use many forms of data to have in-depth understanding of the case .

Instrumental Case Study 3.There are 3 types of case studies 1. Collective/ Multiple Case Study . Intrinsic Case Study 2.

Case Study Methods  Determine and define the research questions  Identify the case/cases and what type of case study will be used  Collect data in the field  Evaluate and analyze the data  Prepare the report .

Content or Document Analysis .

.. Study of recorded human communications ..What is content analysis? Content Analysis...

.  To describe prevailing practices.The purposes of content analysis  To identify bias. prejudice. or propaganda in textbook. or interest in.  To discover the relative importance of.  To analyze types of errors in students’ writings. certain topics.  To discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications.

 Read and review the material in your sample.  Select your sample of text material.  Code the textual material in your sample .  Intrepret and report your findings. .The steps in content analysis  State your research question(s).  Define your unit of analysis and categories.

Ethnographic Studies .

What is ethnography? Ethnography.. Studies the culture (values. language) of a distinct group within society .... beliefs.. behaviors....

Two Approaches to Ethnography  Realist Ethnography  Critical Ethnography .

 Collecting ethnograpic data.  Analyzing ethnographic data.  Asking ethnographic questions.  Writing the ethnography .  Making a ethnographic record.The Methodology  Selecting an ethnographic project.

. it is to understand the perspective of the storyteller in the context of his or her life.  Narrative research is not an historical but. and the conceptual framework of the researcher. Narrative studies use documents and other sources of personal information to illuminate a person’s life.  Narrative analysis is categorized based on  who was the author. It is to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group.  whose perspective is presented.Narrative Research  Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives. rather.  whether there is one or more narrative.  A narrative can be any text or discourse.  the scope of the narrative (one or more episodes versus an entire life).

 Rooted in philosophy and psychology. Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection approach. . This belief is characteristic of all qualitative studies  the element that distinguishes phenomenology from other qualitative approaches is:  the subjective experience is at the center of the inquiry.” Phenomenology moves from individual experience to a universal essence and always asks what is the nature or meaning of something. The central research question aims to determine the essence of the experience as “perceived by the participants. the assumption is that there are many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of the experience to each person is what constitutes reality.  What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of particular participants? That is the key question in phenomenology. It is different in that phenomenology makes a distinction between the appearance of something and its essence.Phenomenological Research  A phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by the people who have participated in it.

and gender. Texts or signs and their structural relationships are the subject of study for semiotics and there is no neutral text.  Critical research  seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions. . and Semiotics and Discourse Analysis. class. Some researches that naturally used Portraiture. The following is the information on those that including other types of researches.Other Types  Definition Other researches evolve from the general studies that examine for detailed field. Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race. Working Area  Portraiture  is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture.  Semiotics and discourse analysis  study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their meanings. Critical Research.

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