RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER: Dr. HARTONO, M.Pd
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

by
Zandi Ernomo (201510560211012)
Poppy Eki Arianti (201510560211013)
Achmad Masudi (201510560211005)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2015

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES
2. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
3. HISTORICAL STUDIES
4. CASE STUDY
5. CONTENT ANALYSIS
6. ETHNOGRAPHY
7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH
8. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
9. OTHER TYPES

data analysis – transcribing. generally based on a social constructivism perspective 2. coding. and document review 4. looking for recurring themes 5. observation. Example – investigate the experiences of high school senior travelling abroad as part of school program . goal . data collection – interview.BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES BASIC INTERPRETATIVE STUDIES 1.attempts to understand the meaning individuals that have attached to a certain phenomena they have experienced 3.

Directed at the process associated with a considerable and meaningful topic that has a firm basis in reality 3. axis encoding and selective coding (constant comparative method of analysis) 5. . Core categories should be identified while analyzing the data. Data analysis – open coding. Deciding sample – theoretical sampling. Goal . 6.generating theory research based on the empirical data 2. The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes and analyses data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them. Researchers made memo records to explore ideas related to data and coded categories. Identified core categories is then developed and formulated into a theory 7. in order to develop a theory as it emerges (Wikipedia) 4.GROUNDED THEORY 1.

CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS .

Theory validation 5. Problem formulation 2. Data collection and analysis 3. Theory development 4.STEPS IN GROUNDED THEORY 1. Report writing .

to make people aware of what happened in the past so that they may learn from past failures and successes. to learn how things have been done in the past.HISTORICAL STUDIES The aims: 1. 2. to predict something that will happen in the future. 4. to test the hypothesis of the relationships or trends . 3.

The selection of historical research subjects 2. Writing the research report .STEPS IN HISTORICAL STUDIES 1. Evaluation (external and internal criticism) 4. Data collection 3.

an event. reviews of research) .g history book. Secondary Source is a source in which the data or information cannot be included as authentic (e. artifact. Primary Source is original and has close relation with the problem under study  First category: includes correspondence. or witnesses of. building  Second category: the written and oral testimony provided by actual participants in. diaries.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. report. 2. articles. relics.

Case Study .

. An event. or several people Bounded system...What is Case Study? Case. Multiple sources of data. a single person. observations.. documents... usually time and/or space. etc .... activity... artifacts.... problem. The boundries of the case.. process. program. case studies include almost every kinds of qualitative data (interviews.

Case studies use many forms of data to have in-depth understanding of the case .

Intrinsic Case Study 2.There are 3 types of case studies 1. Instrumental Case Study 3. Collective/ Multiple Case Study .

Case Study Methods  Determine and define the research questions  Identify the case/cases and what type of case study will be used  Collect data in the field  Evaluate and analyze the data  Prepare the report .

Content or Document Analysis .

.. Study of recorded human communications ...What is content analysis? Content Analysis..

prejudice.  To discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications. or propaganda in textbook.  To analyze types of errors in students’ writings. .  To describe prevailing practices.  To discover the relative importance of. certain topics.The purposes of content analysis  To identify bias. or interest in.

 Select your sample of text material.  Intrepret and report your findings. .  Define your unit of analysis and categories.  Code the textual material in your sample .  Read and review the material in your sample.The steps in content analysis  State your research question(s).

Ethnographic Studies .

beliefs.... language) of a distinct group within society . behaviors.What is ethnography? Ethnography..... Studies the culture (values..

Two Approaches to Ethnography  Realist Ethnography  Critical Ethnography .

 Asking ethnographic questions.  Writing the ethnography .  Making a ethnographic record.  Collecting ethnograpic data.The Methodology  Selecting an ethnographic project.  Analyzing ethnographic data.

 whether there is one or more narrative. Narrative studies use documents and other sources of personal information to illuminate a person’s life. and the conceptual framework of the researcher.Narrative Research  Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives.  A narrative can be any text or discourse. rather.  Narrative analysis is categorized based on  who was the author.  the scope of the narrative (one or more episodes versus an entire life). it is to understand the perspective of the storyteller in the context of his or her life.  whose perspective is presented. It is to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group.  Narrative research is not an historical but. .

Phenomenological Research  A phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by the people who have participated in it. the assumption is that there are many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of the experience to each person is what constitutes reality. It is different in that phenomenology makes a distinction between the appearance of something and its essence. Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection approach. This belief is characteristic of all qualitative studies  the element that distinguishes phenomenology from other qualitative approaches is:  the subjective experience is at the center of the inquiry. .  What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of particular participants? That is the key question in phenomenology. The central research question aims to determine the essence of the experience as “perceived by the participants.  Rooted in philosophy and psychology.” Phenomenology moves from individual experience to a universal essence and always asks what is the nature or meaning of something.

 Semiotics and discourse analysis  study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their meanings. The following is the information on those that including other types of researches. class. Critical Research.Other Types  Definition Other researches evolve from the general studies that examine for detailed field. Some researches that naturally used Portraiture.  Critical research  seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions. Working Area  Portraiture  is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture. . and Semiotics and Discourse Analysis. and gender. Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race. Texts or signs and their structural relationships are the subject of study for semiotics and there is no neutral text.