Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER: Dr. HARTONO, M.Pd


TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

by
Zandi Ernomo (201510560211012)
Poppy Eki Arianti (201510560211013)
Achmad Masudi (201510560211005)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2015

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES
2. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
3. HISTORICAL STUDIES
4. CASE STUDY
5. CONTENT ANALYSIS
6. ETHNOGRAPHY
7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH
8. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
9. OTHER TYPES

BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES


BASIC INTERPRETATIVE STUDIES
1. generally based on a social constructivism perspective
2. goal - attempts to understand the meaning individuals
that have attached to a certain phenomena they have
experienced
3. data collection interview, observation, and document
review
4. data analysis transcribing, coding, looking for
recurring themes
5. Example investigate the experiences of high school
senior travelling abroad as part of school program

GROUNDED THEORY
1. Goal - generating theory research based on the empirical data
2. Directed at the process associated with a considerable and meaningful
topic that has a firm basis in reality
3. Deciding sample theoretical sampling,
The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes
and analyses data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them, in order to
develop a theory as it emerges (Wikipedia)

4. Data analysis open coding, axis encoding and selective coding


(constant comparative method of analysis)
5. Core categories should be identified while analyzing the data.
6. Identified core categories is then developed and formulated into a theory
7. Researchers made memo records to explore ideas related to data and
coded categories.

CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD


OF ANALYSIS

STEPS IN GROUNDED
THEORY
1. Problem formulation
2. Data collection and analysis
3. Theory development
4. Theory validation
5. Report writing

HISTORICAL STUDIES
The aims:
1. to make people aware of what happened in the
past so that they may learn from past failures
and successes;
2. to learn how things have been done in the past;
3. to predict something that will happen in the
future;
4. to test the hypothesis of the relationships or
trends

STEPS IN HISTORICAL
STUDIES
1. The selection of historical research
subjects
2. Data collection
3. Evaluation (external and internal
criticism)
4. Writing the research report

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY


SOURCES
1.

Primary Source is original and has close relation with the


problem under study
First category: includes correspondence, diaries, report,
relics, artifact, building
Second category: the written and oral testimony provided
by actual participants in, or witnesses of, an
event,

2.

Secondary Source is a source in which the data or


information cannot be included as authentic (e.g history
book, articles, reviews of research)

Case Study

What is Case Study?


Case.......
An event, problem, process, activity,
program, a single person, or several people
Bounded system.......
The boundries of the case, usually time
and/or space.
Multiple sources of data....
case studies include almost every kinds of
qualitative data (interviews, observations,
documents, artifacts, etc

Case studies use many forms of data to


have in-depth understanding of the case

There are 3 types of case studies

1. Intrinsic Case Study


2. Instrumental Case Study
3. Collective/ Multiple Case
Study

Case Study Methods


Determine and define the research
questions
Identify the case/cases and what type of
case study will be used
Collect data in the field
Evaluate and analyze the data
Prepare the report

Content or Document Analysis

What is content analysis?


Content Analysis......
Study of recorded human communications

The purposes of content analysis


To identify bias, prejudice, or propaganda in
textbook.
To analyze types of errors in students writings.
To describe prevailing practices.
To discover the level of difficulty of material in
textbooks or other publications.
To discover the relative importance of, or interest in,
certain topics.

The steps in content analysis


State your research question(s).
Select your sample of text material.
Read and review the material in your sample.
Define your unit of analysis and categories.
Code the textual material in your sample .
Intrepret and report your findings.

Ethnographic Studies

What is ethnography?
Ethnography.........
Studies the culture (values, beliefs,
behaviors, language) of a distinct
group within society

Two Approaches to Ethnography

Realist Ethnography
Critical Ethnography

The Methodology
Selecting an ethnographic project.
Asking ethnographic questions.
Collecting ethnograpic data.
Making a ethnographic record.
Analyzing ethnographic data.
Writing the ethnography

Narrative Research
Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and
focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives.
It is to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group.
A narrative can be any text or discourse. Narrative studies use documents
and other sources of personal information to illuminate a persons life.
Narrative research is not an historical but, rather, it is to understand the
perspective of the storyteller in the context of his or her life.
Narrative analysis is categorized based on
who was the author,
whose perspective is presented,
whether there is one or more narrative,
the scope of the narrative (one or more episodes versus an entire life),
and the conceptual framework of the researcher.

Phenomenological Research

A phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an


experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by
the people who have participated in it.

What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of


particular participants? That is the key question in phenomenology.

Rooted in philosophy and psychology, the assumption is that there are


many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of
the experience to each person is what constitutes reality. This belief is
characteristic of all qualitative studies

the element that distinguishes phenomenology from other qualitative


approaches is:

the subjective experience is at the center of the inquiry. It is different in


that phenomenology makes a distinction between the appearance of
something and its essence. The central research question aims to
determine the essence of the experience as perceived by the
participants. Phenomenology moves from individual experience to a
universal essence and always asks what is the nature or meaning of
something. Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection
approach.

Other Types

Definition

Other researches evolve from the general studies that examine for detailed field.
Some researches that naturally used Portraiture, Critical Research, and Semiotics
and Discourse Analysis. The following is the information on those that including
other types of researches.
Working Area
Portraiture

is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt
to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture.

Critical research

seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions.


Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race, class, and
gender.

Semiotics and discourse analysis

study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their
meanings. Texts or signs and their structural relationships are the subject of
study for semiotics and there is no neutral text.