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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER: Dr. HARTONO, M.Pd
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

by
Zandi Ernomo (201510560211012)
Poppy Eki Arianti (201510560211013)
Achmad Masudi (201510560211005)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2015

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES
2. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
3. HISTORICAL STUDIES
4. CASE STUDY
5. CONTENT ANALYSIS
6. ETHNOGRAPHY
7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH
8. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
9. OTHER TYPES

observation. looking for recurring themes 5.attempts to understand the meaning individuals that have attached to a certain phenomena they have experienced 3. goal . coding.BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES BASIC INTERPRETATIVE STUDIES 1. generally based on a social constructivism perspective 2. data analysis – transcribing. and document review 4. data collection – interview. Example – investigate the experiences of high school senior travelling abroad as part of school program .

. Identified core categories is then developed and formulated into a theory 7.generating theory research based on the empirical data 2. The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes and analyses data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them. Directed at the process associated with a considerable and meaningful topic that has a firm basis in reality 3. in order to develop a theory as it emerges (Wikipedia) 4. Goal . Data analysis – open coding.GROUNDED THEORY 1. Core categories should be identified while analyzing the data. axis encoding and selective coding (constant comparative method of analysis) 5. Deciding sample – theoretical sampling. Researchers made memo records to explore ideas related to data and coded categories. 6.

CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS .

Data collection and analysis 3. Problem formulation 2. Report writing . Theory validation 5. Theory development 4.STEPS IN GROUNDED THEORY 1.

3.HISTORICAL STUDIES The aims: 1. to learn how things have been done in the past. to make people aware of what happened in the past so that they may learn from past failures and successes. to predict something that will happen in the future. to test the hypothesis of the relationships or trends . 2. 4.

Writing the research report .STEPS IN HISTORICAL STUDIES 1. Evaluation (external and internal criticism) 4. Data collection 3. The selection of historical research subjects 2.

an event. 2. Secondary Source is a source in which the data or information cannot be included as authentic (e. diaries.g history book. Primary Source is original and has close relation with the problem under study  First category: includes correspondence. artifact. building  Second category: the written and oral testimony provided by actual participants in. relics. or witnesses of. report. articles.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. reviews of research) .

Case Study .

Multiple sources of data. artifacts... activity.. usually time and/or space. observations.. The boundries of the case. documents.... case studies include almost every kinds of qualitative data (interviews.. process...What is Case Study? Case... or several people Bounded system.. problem. etc . An event.. a single person.. program.

Case studies use many forms of data to have in-depth understanding of the case .

Collective/ Multiple Case Study . Instrumental Case Study 3.There are 3 types of case studies 1. Intrinsic Case Study 2.

Case Study Methods  Determine and define the research questions  Identify the case/cases and what type of case study will be used  Collect data in the field  Evaluate and analyze the data  Prepare the report .

Content or Document Analysis .

.What is content analysis? Content Analysis.... Study of recorded human communications ..

 To discover the relative importance of.The purposes of content analysis  To identify bias. or propaganda in textbook. prejudice.  To analyze types of errors in students’ writings. .  To discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications. or interest in. certain topics.  To describe prevailing practices.

 Define your unit of analysis and categories.  Read and review the material in your sample.  Select your sample of text material. .  Code the textual material in your sample .  Intrepret and report your findings.The steps in content analysis  State your research question(s).

Ethnographic Studies .

... behaviors.What is ethnography? Ethnography.. beliefs.. language) of a distinct group within society ... Studies the culture (values..

Two Approaches to Ethnography  Realist Ethnography  Critical Ethnography .

The Methodology  Selecting an ethnographic project.  Asking ethnographic questions.  Making a ethnographic record.  Collecting ethnograpic data.  Analyzing ethnographic data.  Writing the ethnography .

Narrative studies use documents and other sources of personal information to illuminate a person’s life.  whose perspective is presented. . it is to understand the perspective of the storyteller in the context of his or her life. rather.  whether there is one or more narrative.  Narrative research is not an historical but.Narrative Research  Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives. and the conceptual framework of the researcher. It is to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group.  A narrative can be any text or discourse.  the scope of the narrative (one or more episodes versus an entire life).  Narrative analysis is categorized based on  who was the author.

Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection approach. It is different in that phenomenology makes a distinction between the appearance of something and its essence. The central research question aims to determine the essence of the experience as “perceived by the participants.  Rooted in philosophy and psychology.Phenomenological Research  A phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by the people who have participated in it.  What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of particular participants? That is the key question in phenomenology. .” Phenomenology moves from individual experience to a universal essence and always asks what is the nature or meaning of something. This belief is characteristic of all qualitative studies  the element that distinguishes phenomenology from other qualitative approaches is:  the subjective experience is at the center of the inquiry. the assumption is that there are many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of the experience to each person is what constitutes reality.

Some researches that naturally used Portraiture. and Semiotics and Discourse Analysis. Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race.  Critical research  seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions. The following is the information on those that including other types of researches. Working Area  Portraiture  is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture.Other Types  Definition Other researches evolve from the general studies that examine for detailed field. Critical Research. and gender. Texts or signs and their structural relationships are the subject of study for semiotics and there is no neutral text.  Semiotics and discourse analysis  study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their meanings. . class.