RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER: Dr. HARTONO, M.Pd
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

by
Zandi Ernomo (201510560211012)
Poppy Eki Arianti (201510560211013)
Achmad Masudi (201510560211005)

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
2015

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES
2. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
3. HISTORICAL STUDIES
4. CASE STUDY
5. CONTENT ANALYSIS
6. ETHNOGRAPHY
7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH
8. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
9. OTHER TYPES

generally based on a social constructivism perspective 2. data collection – interview. coding. Example – investigate the experiences of high school senior travelling abroad as part of school program . observation. data analysis – transcribing. goal .BASIC QUALITATIVE STUDIES BASIC INTERPRETATIVE STUDIES 1.attempts to understand the meaning individuals that have attached to a certain phenomena they have experienced 3. looking for recurring themes 5. and document review 4.

Identified core categories is then developed and formulated into a theory 7. axis encoding and selective coding (constant comparative method of analysis) 5. The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes and analyses data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them. Data analysis – open coding. Deciding sample – theoretical sampling.GROUNDED THEORY 1. .generating theory research based on the empirical data 2. Goal . Directed at the process associated with a considerable and meaningful topic that has a firm basis in reality 3. Core categories should be identified while analyzing the data. in order to develop a theory as it emerges (Wikipedia) 4. Researchers made memo records to explore ideas related to data and coded categories. 6.

CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS .

STEPS IN GROUNDED THEORY 1. Problem formulation 2. Theory development 4. Report writing . Data collection and analysis 3. Theory validation 5.

3. 4. to make people aware of what happened in the past so that they may learn from past failures and successes. 2. to learn how things have been done in the past.HISTORICAL STUDIES The aims: 1. to test the hypothesis of the relationships or trends . to predict something that will happen in the future.

Data collection 3. Writing the research report . The selection of historical research subjects 2.STEPS IN HISTORICAL STUDIES 1. Evaluation (external and internal criticism) 4.

report.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. building  Second category: the written and oral testimony provided by actual participants in. articles. relics. or witnesses of. an event. Primary Source is original and has close relation with the problem under study  First category: includes correspondence. 2.g history book. reviews of research) . artifact. diaries. Secondary Source is a source in which the data or information cannot be included as authentic (e.

Case Study .

observations.... documents.....What is Case Study? Case... usually time and/or space. program. process. An event. The boundries of the case.. a single person. etc ... artifacts. Multiple sources of data... problem. case studies include almost every kinds of qualitative data (interviews. or several people Bounded system. activity..

Case studies use many forms of data to have in-depth understanding of the case .

Instrumental Case Study 3.There are 3 types of case studies 1. Collective/ Multiple Case Study . Intrinsic Case Study 2.

Case Study Methods  Determine and define the research questions  Identify the case/cases and what type of case study will be used  Collect data in the field  Evaluate and analyze the data  Prepare the report .

Content or Document Analysis .

What is content analysis? Content Analysis.. Study of recorded human communications .....

 To discover the relative importance of. or propaganda in textbook.  To analyze types of errors in students’ writings. . prejudice. or interest in.The purposes of content analysis  To identify bias.  To discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications. certain topics.  To describe prevailing practices.

.  Define your unit of analysis and categories.  Read and review the material in your sample.  Intrepret and report your findings.  Select your sample of text material.  Code the textual material in your sample .The steps in content analysis  State your research question(s).

Ethnographic Studies .

language) of a distinct group within society ...... behaviors.. Studies the culture (values.. beliefs.What is ethnography? Ethnography..

Two Approaches to Ethnography  Realist Ethnography  Critical Ethnography .

 Analyzing ethnographic data.  Making a ethnographic record.  Writing the ethnography .  Collecting ethnograpic data.The Methodology  Selecting an ethnographic project.  Asking ethnographic questions.

 whose perspective is presented. Narrative studies use documents and other sources of personal information to illuminate a person’s life.  Narrative analysis is categorized based on  who was the author. rather. it is to understand the perspective of the storyteller in the context of his or her life.Narrative Research  Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives. . It is to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group.  whether there is one or more narrative.  Narrative research is not an historical but.  the scope of the narrative (one or more episodes versus an entire life). and the conceptual framework of the researcher.  A narrative can be any text or discourse.

Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection approach.  What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of particular participants? That is the key question in phenomenology.  Rooted in philosophy and psychology. The central research question aims to determine the essence of the experience as “perceived by the participants. the assumption is that there are many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of the experience to each person is what constitutes reality.” Phenomenology moves from individual experience to a universal essence and always asks what is the nature or meaning of something. This belief is characteristic of all qualitative studies  the element that distinguishes phenomenology from other qualitative approaches is:  the subjective experience is at the center of the inquiry. It is different in that phenomenology makes a distinction between the appearance of something and its essence.Phenomenological Research  A phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by the people who have participated in it. .

The following is the information on those that including other types of researches. and Semiotics and Discourse Analysis. Working Area  Portraiture  is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture. . Some researches that naturally used Portraiture.  Semiotics and discourse analysis  study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their meanings. Texts or signs and their structural relationships are the subject of study for semiotics and there is no neutral text. and gender. class.Other Types  Definition Other researches evolve from the general studies that examine for detailed field.  Critical research  seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions. Critical Research. Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race.

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